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Director  of  the  National  Portrait  Gallery 



Formerly  Keeper  of  the  Prints  and  Drawings  in  the  British  Museum 
sometime  Secretary  of  the  Society 

Reissued  with  Supplementary  Chapter,  Additional 
List  qftJMembets,  <iyc. 


MACMILLAN   AND  CO.,   Limited 



All  rights  reserved 


/9I  + 




Antiquity  of  the  Society — State  of  England  at  its  foundation 
— Date  of  foundation — Date  of  first  records — Character 
of  original  members — Young  Englishmen  on  the  Grand 
Tour — Choice  of  name — Earliest  meetings — Members 
in  1736'  —  Dashwood  —  Middlesex  —  Harcourt  —  The 
brothers  Gray — W.  Ponsonby — R.  Grenville — Howe, 
Archer,  Denny,  Strode,  Sewallis  Shirley — Boone,  Liddell, 
Fauquier,Harris,Dingley,Smithson — Hanbury  Williams, 
Mitchell,  Villiers — Smyth,  Hay,  Spence,  &c. — Sandwich 
— Bedford,  Brand,  Holdernesse — Other  members  before 
175:0 1-21 


Practices  and  regulations  of  the  Society — Places,  dates,  and 
hours  of  meeting — The  President :  his  toga  and  curule 
chair — The  Secretary  and  Treasurer — The  High  Steward 
— The  Arch-Master  and  his  insignia — The  Regalia : 
Bacchus's  Tomb,  the  Ballot-Box,  Seal,  and  Inkstand — 
Dining  practices  :  forfeits  and  fines — Convivial  excesses 
— Toasts — Election  practices :  qualification,  admission, 
abdication — Committees  and  quorums       .         .         .     11-4.1 


Miscellaneous  activities  ot  the  Society :  the  Westminster 
Bridge  Lottery — Foundation  of  General  Fund  :  building 
schemes — The  Cavendish  Square  site — Its  abandonment 
and  the  financial  result — Promotion  of  the  Italian  opera 
— Middlesex  and  Vanneschi — Schemes  for  an  Academy 
of  Arts — Mr.  Dingley's  plan — Communications  with 
Hayman's  Committee  of  Painters — The  Society's  plan — 

a  3 


#  Contents 


Collapse  of  negotiations — Foundation  of  the  Royal 
Academy:  its  relations  with  the  Dilettanti — Proposal 
to  form  a  gallery  of  casts  from  the  antique — Revival  of 
the  building  scheme — Suggested  sites :  the  Green  Park 
—  The  Star  and  Garter  —  Camelford  House  —  Final 
abandonment  of  building  scheme — Increasing  riches  of 
the  Society — Face-money :  Rule  Ann.  Soc.  Undec. — 
Other  sources  of  income — Incidental  records      .         .     4.1-67 


The  Dilettanti  and  Classical  Archaeology — Earlier  history 
of  the  study  — The  Earl  of  Arundel— The  Arundel 
Marbles — Other  collectors — Explorations  in  situ :  Nointel 
and  Carrey — Spon  and  Wheler;  Chishull — British 
artists  in  Rome ;  Brettingham  and  Gavin  Hamilton — 
Stuart  and  Revett — Sir  James  Gray  and  the  Dilettanti — 
Election  of  Stuart  and  Revett — Their  expedition  to 
Athens — Dawkins  and  Wood — Le  Roy  and  Dalton — 
The  Dilettanti  and  The  Antiquities  of  Athens — Success 
of  the  volume — The  Society  sends  an  expedition  to 
Asia  Minor — Chandler,  Revett,  and  Pars — Instruc- 
tions to  the  expedition — Work  in  the  Troad  and  Ionia 
— Approval  of  the  Society — Work  in  Attica  and  the 
Morea— Return  and  reception  of  the  explorers — The 
Ionian  Antiquities :  choice  of  materials — Preparation 
and  publication  of  the  volume — Presentation  copies — 
Chandler's  Inscriptions  and  Travels — Proposed  con- 
tinuation of  Ionian  Antiquities — The  drawings  of  Revett 
and  Pars :  various  claimants  for  their  use — Diffi- 
culties between  Stuart  and  Revett — Appointment  of 
a  committee — Death  of  Stuart :  posthumous  publication 
of  The  Antiquities  of  Athens^  vols,  ii,  iii,  and  iv — 
Publication  of  Ionian  Antiquities^  vol.  ii — Custody  of 
the  Society's  marbles — Marbles  and  drawings  presented 
to  the  British  Museum 6%-io6 


Personal  changes  in  the  Society — New  members — Deaths 
of  Founders  —  New  spirit  among  their  successors  — 
J.  C.  Crowle — Sir  Joseph  Banks — Charles  Greville — 
Sir  William  Hamilton  —  Sir  Richard  Worslcy,  Mr. 
Peachey,  and  Sir  George  Beaumont — Charles  Townley 

Contents  ™ 


— Richard  Payne  Knight — Sir  Henry  Englefield — 
Hamilton  and  the  ritual  of  Isernia — D'Hancarville — 
The  Priapeia — Reception  of  the  volume — Retrospect : 
work  of  the  Dilettanti  in  Italy — Work  in  Greece  and 
Asia  Minor — Further  enterprises :  new  Publication 
Committee — Specimens   of   Antient   Sculpture — Mode    of 

{mblication — Proposed  second  volume — Opportunities 
ost  meanwhile— Sir  William  Hamilton's  notes  and 
drawings — Letter  from  Lord  Elgin — The  Parthenon 
Marbles  since  Carrey — Thomas  Harrison — Action  taken 
by  Lord  Elgin — Lord  Elgin  and  the  Dilettanti — Influence 
of  Payne  Knight  in  discrediting  the  Marbles — Champions 
on  the  other  side :  West,  Fuseli,  Haydon — Progress  of 
the  controversy — Crown  Prince  of  Bavaria,  Visconti, 
Canova — The  Select  Committee — Final  result        .     107-136 


Internal  changes — The  Ballot — Abolition  of  Forfeitures — 
Removals :  Parslow's  :  the  Thatched  House — Researches 
in  Greece  and  the  Levant — Zeal  of  new  members — Colt 
Hoare,  Long,  Ainslie,  Hawkins — Morritt  of  Rokeby — 
Hope  of  Deepdene — Lord  Morpeth,  Lord  Northwick, 
Earl  of  Aberdeen — Wilkins,  Leake,  Gell — New  Ionian 
Committee — Its  report  on  Gell's  proposed  expedition — 
Instructions  to  the  expedition — Researches  at  Eleusis — 
Work  at  Samos,  Miletus,  Magnesia,  &c. — Work  at 
Rhamnus,  Thoricus,  and  Sunium — The  Aegina  Marbles 
— Risks  from  pirates  and  privateers — Return  of  mission 
— John  Peter  Gandy — Resolutions  as  to  publication — 
Congratulations  to  members  of  mission — Details  of 
scheme — Sir  Henry  Englefield's  appeal — Its  results — 
The  Unedited  Antiquities  of  Attica — New  edition  of 
Ionian  Antiquities — Further  activities :  second  volume 
of  the  Specimens — Difficulties  and  delays — Mode  of 
meeting  expenses — Deaths  of  Englefield  and  Payne 
Knight — Sir  T.  Lawrence  as  Secretary — A  German 
scholar's  tribute — Distinguished  members       .        .     157-171 


Secretaryship  of  W.R.Hamilton — Reparation  to  Lord  Elgin — 
Correspondents  abroad  :  the  Hon.  W.  R.  Spencer — 
Sir  W.  Gell — Mr.  Edward   Dawkins — The   Chevalier 

viii  Contents 


Brondsted — The  Bronzes  of  Siris — Subscription  for  their 
purchase — Proposed  continuation  of  Ionian  Antiquities 
— Application  from  Mr.  Penrose — Mr.  Penrose  supported 
by  the  Society — Investigations  of  Athenian  Architecture 
— Latter  years  of  Hamilton's  secretaryship — Members 
elected  under  his  regime :  Shee,  Mountstuart  Elphin- 
stone,    Hobhouse,   &c —  Eastlake,    Ryan,    Munro    of 

Novar,  &c Mr.  Penrose,  Monckton  Milnes,  Watkiss 

Lloyd,  Panizzi,  Cockerell,  &c. — C.  T.  Newton :  his  cor- 
respondence from  Syra  and  Mitylene — The  Mausoleum 
of  Halicarnassus — Proposal  from  the  Arundel  Society — 
Dedications  of  Cockerell's  volumes         .         .         .     171-191 


Removals :  new  Thatched  House  Tavern  •  Willis's  Rooms 
— State  of  the  Society — Sir  C.  T.  Newton,  Sir  F. 
Leighton,  &c. — Art  collectors  and  amateurs ;  country 
gentry,  &c. ;  Bar  and  Bench — Pollock,  Venables,  Bowen 
— Learning  5  the  Civil  Service ;  Foreign  Diplomacy — 
New  antiquarian  enterprise  :  Mr.  Pullan  and  the  Temple 
of  Teos — The  Smintheum — Temple  of  Priene — Ionian 
Antiquities,  vol.  iv — Time  and  mode  of  publication — 
Penrose's  Athenian  Architecture^  new  edition — Appeals 
from  various  quarters :  Temple  of  Ephesus ,  British 
School  at  Athens — Changes  and  removals  since  1888 — 
New  members — Discussions  and  resolutions — Retrospect: 
changed  conditions  of  archaeological  study — Decline 
of  classical  enthusiasm  in  England — The  Archaeological 
Institute  of  Rome ;  various  foreign  schools  at  Athens 
— Revival  of  the  study  in  England,  but  in  another 
shape — Part  taken,  or  to  be  taken,  by  the  Dilettanti — 
Conclusion 192-11  j 


Portraits  of  members :  George  Knapton — Institution  of 
face-money — Knapton's  resignation — J.  Stuart  as  Painter 
to  the  Society — Stuart  superseded  in  favour  of  Reynolds 
— The  two  great  portrait-groups — Nathaniel  Dance — 
Various  resolutions  as  to  portraits — Death  of  Reynolds ; 
Lawrence  chosen  successor — Motion  as  to  portrait  of 
Sir  J.  Banks — The  Reynolds  groups :  steps  for  their 
preservation — The    groups    engraved    in    mezzotint — 

Contents  ™ 


Portrait  of  Payne  Knight — Lawrence  on  the  question  ot 
fresh  portrait-groups — Portraits  and  face-money:  various 
orders — Portraits  of  Lord  Dundas  and  Benjamin  West 
— Lawrence  succeeded  by  Shee — Portrait  of  Morritt — 
Inquiries  into  state  of  pictures — Shee  succeeded  by 
Eastlake — Proposed  series  of  engravings — Applications 
for  loan  of  pictures :  Manchester,  South  Kensington, 
National  Gallery,  &c. — Eastlake  succeeded  by  Leighton 
— Portraits  of  Lord  Broughton  and  Sir  Edward  Ryan — 
Successive  Painters  to  the  Society :  Sir  F.  W.  Burton 
and  Sir  Edward  Poynter — Further  loans  of  pictures — 
Last  portraits:  Mr.  Watkiss  Lloyd,  Lord  Leighton, 
Mr.  Sidney  Colvin zi  6-137 



Personal  changes  in  the  Society — Death  of  Mr.  E.  H.  Pember — 
Portrait  of  Mr.  Pember — Appointment  of  Mr.  George 
Macmillan  as  Joint  Secretary — Portrait  of  Mr.  W.  R. 
Hamilton — Revision  of  the  Society's  Rules — The 
Society's  contributions  to  archaeological  research — 
Drawings  and  plates  in  the  Society's  archives — Special 
Exhibition — The  Antiquities  of  Ionia :  Professor  Lethaby's 
discovery  .......     i39*-i47* 

Appendix:   The  Society's  contributions  to  Art,  1734.-1908 

Approximate  amount  of  moneys  expended  .     x4.8*-i?4.* 


List  of  Members  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti      .  139-314. 

Supplementary  List  of  Members,  1 898-19 1 3    .        .  3i5*~3io* 

Index  to  the  Supplementary  Chapter    .        .        .  3ii*-32i* 

INDEX W-336 


Photogravures  from  original  portraits  in  the  possession 
of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 


Sir  Joshua  Reynolds,  P.R.  A.  (after  Reynolds) 

Col.  G.  Gray  (after  Knapton) 

The  Hon.  Sewallis  Shirley  (after  Knapton)  . 

The  Earl  of  Holdernesse  (after  Knapton) 

Sir  James  Gray,  Bart,  (after  Knapton)  . 

The  Earl  of  Bessborough  (after  Knapton)     . 

The  Earl  of  Sandwich  (after  Knapton) . 

William  Fauquier,  Esq.  (after  Knapton) 

Richard  Payne  Knight,  Esq.  (after  Lawrence) 

J.  B.  S.  Morritt,  Esq.  (after  Shee) 

Sir  Henry  Englefield,  Bart,  (after  Lawrence) 

Sir  Edward  Ryan,  K.C.B.  (after  Leighton)  . 

Sir  William  Hamilton  and  others  (after  Reynolds) 

The  Hon.  Charles  Greville  and  others  (after  Reynolds) 

Edward  H.  Pember,  Esq.  (after  Poynter) 

.  Frontispiece 

To  face 

















aids)      „ 




Phototypes  from  the  Regalia  belonging  to  the  Society 

'  Bacchus's  Tomb • To  face       32 

Ivory  relief  of  Perseus  and  Andromeda,  after  the 

antique :  from  the  back  of  Bacchus's  Tomb    .  „ 

The  Ballot- Box 





Antiquity  of  the  Society — State  of  England  at  its  foundation 
— Date  of  foundation — Date  of  first  records — Char- 
acter of  original  members — Toung  Englishmen  on  the 
Grand  Tour — Choice  of  name — Earliest  meetings — 
Members  in  17  3  6 — Dashwood — Middlesex — Har- 
court — The  brothers  Gray — W.  Ponsonby — 7^.  Gren- 
ville — Howe,  Archer,  Denny,  Strode,  Sewallis  Shirley — 
Boone,  Liddell,  Fauquier,  Harris,  Dingley,  Smithson — 
Hanbury  Williams,  Mitchell,  Villiers — Smyth,  Hay, 
Spence,  &c. — Sandwich — Bedford,  Brand,  Holdernesse 
— Other  members  before  17 so. 

THE  history  to  be  narrated  in  the  following  Antiquity 
chapters  is  that  of  a  small  private  society  of  °f^e 
gentlemen  which  for  more  than  a  century  and  Soctety- 
a  half  has  exercised  an  active  influence  in  matters 
connected  with   public  taste  and    the  fine  arts  in 
this  country,  and  whose  enterprise  in  the  special  field 
of  classical  excavation  and  research  has  earned  the 
grateful  recognition  of  scholars  and  the  cultivated 

x     History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

public  throughout  Europe.  There  may  be  persons, 
outside  the  limited  circle  of  its  members,  who  will 
feel  some  surprise  on  learning  that  such  a  society 
exists  j  that  it  was  founded  in  the  early  years 
of  the  reign  of  George  II ;  and  has  maintained 
its  existence  with  an  unbroken  record  up  to  the 
present  day.  This  fact  is  the  more  remarkable, 
since,  although  the  Royal  Society  and  the  Society  of 
Antiquaries  are  actually  older  in  point  of  date,  the 
Society  of  Dilettanti  was  not  formed,  as  these  were, 
with  any  definite  intention  of  promoting  the  cause  of 
either  science  or  art,  but  simply,  in  the  first  instance, 
for  the  purposes  of  social  and  convivial  intercourse. 
state  of  The  foundation  of  the  Society   almost  coincides 

England  at  with  what  may  be  termed  the  birth  of  modern 
ttsfounda-  England.  The  accession  of  George  II,  in  itself  an 
unromantic  and  apparently  unimportant  incident  in 
the  history  of  England,  nevertheless  forms  one  of  the 
landmarks  in  that  history.  The  final  establishment 
on  the  throne  of  the  Hanoverian  branch  of  the 
Guelphs  marks  the  close  of  the  long  struggle  which 
had  reached  its  climax  in  the  Revolution  of  i<*8  8. 
It  denotes  the  complete  extinction  of  any  popular 
sympathy  with  the  Jacobite  cause,  as  was  shown 
by  the  behaviour  of  the  populace  during  the  events 
of  1745-.  A  new  era  had  commenced  in  England, 
an  era  of  progress,  consolidation,  and  reform,  equally 
marked  in  matters  political,  social,  and  commercial, 
in  questions  civil  or  religious,  and  in  education, 
science,  and  art.  The  long  ascendency  of  Sir  Robert 
Walpole,  as  first  minister  of  the  Crown,  taught  the 
country  for  the  first  time  to  look  to  the  prime  minister 
as  the  real  governing  power,  while  the  vigorous 
opposition  excited  by  his  administration  opened  its 
eyes  to  the  advantages  of  the  party  system.     It  was 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti     3 

early  in  the  eighteenth  century  that  the  army  and 
navy  became  permanent  institutions  and  part  of 
the  national  fabric  of  government.  This  without 
doubt  contributed  largely  to  the  extraordinary 
extension  of  British  commercial  enterprise  which 
ensued,  leading  through  the  agency  of  the  East 
India  Company  to  the  establishment  of  the  British 
Empire  in  India,  and  in  later  days  to  the  founda- 
tion of  Greater  Britain  in  Australasia,  South  Africa, 
and  in  various  parts  of  the  New  World.  As  com- 
mercial fortunes  increased,  the  merchants  of  the 
East  India,  Turkey,  South  Sea,  and  other  companies 
became  powers  in  the  State,  and  began  to  encroach 
on  the  social  privileges  of  the  feudal  and  territorial 
aristocracy.  With  the  settled  stability  of  the  throne 
and  the  national  institutions,  the  country  grew 
wealthy  and  prospered.  The  foundation  of  the 
Bank  of  England  is  one  of  the  great  events  in  the 
history  of  finance.  During  this  period  there  began 
to  arise  those  great  manufacturing  enterprises  which 
gained  for  Great  Britain  the  commercial  hegemony 
of  the  world.  In  religion,  the  settled  supremacy  of 
the  Protestant  faith  enabled  the  Church  to  come  to 
terms  with  the  Nonconformists,  whereby  the  latter 
gained  a  position  of  independence  and  a  distinct 
voice  in  the  affairs  of  State.  The  foundation  of 
parochial  schools  for  the  first  time  opened  the  doors 
of  education  to  the  masses  of  the  people.  The  press 
became  an  important  and  active  factor  in  public  life, 
both  as  a  literary  resource  and  as  a  political  engine. 
Science  and  research  were  fostered  by  the  Royal 
Society  and  the  Society  of  Antiquaries.  The 
acquisition  by  the  nation  of  the  collections  of  Sir 
Hans  Sloane,  following  on  that  of  the  Cottonian  and 
the  Harleian  MSS.,  resulted  in  the  foundation  of  the 

B    2 

4    History  of  the  Society  of  'Dilettanti 

British  Museum.  A  desire  was  promoted  for  the  es- 
tablishment of  a  truly  national  school  of  art,  leading 
to  the  St.  Martin's  Lane  Academy  and  William 
Hogarth,  and  later  to  the  foundation  of  the  Royal 
Academy  in  the  glorious  age  of  Gainsborough  and 
Sir  Joshua  Reynolds.  The  pursuit  of  knowledge 
and  culture  became  not  only  popular  but  fashionable, 
and  a  tour  round  foreign  courts  and  capitals  was 
considered  an  indispensable  qualification  for  young 
men  of  birth  and  wealth.  These  grand  tours  became 
the  source  of  the  formation  of  those  great  private 
collections  for  which  England  long  remained  so 
justly  renowned. 
Bate  of  In  the  midst  of  such  an  age  as  this  it  happened, 

foundation.    to  qUOte  the  words  of  the  preface  of  the  Ionian 
Antiquities  (1769),  that 

'In  the  year  1734  some  gentlemen  who  had  travelled  in  Italy, 
desirous  of  encouraging  at  home  a  taste  for  those  objects  which 
had  contributed  so  much  to  their  entertainment  abroad,  formed 
themselves  into  a  society  under  the  name  of  the  Dilettanti,  and 
agreed  upon  such  resolutions  as  they  thought  necessary  to  keep  up 
the  spirit  of  the  scheme/ 

It  is  a  matter  of  regret,  and  one,  it  is  to  be  feared, 
past  remedy,  that,  at  the  time  of  the  foundation 
of  this  Society,  the  original  members  had  so  little 
idea  of  the  important  part  which  it  was  destined 
to  play  that  it  was  not  thought  necessary  to  keep 
regular  minutes  of  their  meetings.  Founded  essen- 
tially as  a  dining  society,  its  future,  so  long  as  the 
strength  of  the  bond  which  held  its  members  together 
remained  untested  and  unknown,  was  very  imperfectly 
foreseen.  When,  however,  after  a  year  or  two,  it 
became  evident  that  not  mere  conviviality  (or,  as  its 
enemies  uncompromisingly  alleged,  hard  drinking), 
but  the  love  of  art,  with  the  ambition  of  fostering 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti     $ 

the  same  sentiment  in  others,  was  destined  to  be  the 
genuine  ruling  principle  of  the  Society,  its  members 
seem  to  have  awakened  to  the  fact  that  they  might 
become  a  leading  power  in  social  life. 

Through  their  negligence  at  the  outset  the  actual  Date  of 
date  of  the  foundation  of  the  Society  remains  un-  first 
certain.  At  a  meeting  held  at  the  Bedford  Head  records- 
Tavern  on  March  d,  1 7  3  tf ,  it  was  decided  to  keep 
a  regular  minute-book,  the  records  of  meetings 
having  been  previously  merely  jotted  down  on  loose 
papers.  The  first  entries  in  the  red  morocco  minute- 
books  of  the  Society  are  dated  April  ?  and  May  2, 
173  6 — Anno  Soc.  Ter.  in  the  Latin  style  adopted  (and 
still  kept  up)  for  this  purpose.  When  a  separate  book 
was  commenced  on  December  13,  1744,  for  the 
minutes  of  the  committee  meetings,  its  date  of  com- 
mencement is  Ann.  Soc.  Duodec.  From  these  entries  it 
may  be  assumed  that  the  first  meeting  of  the  Society 
was  held  in  December,  probably  on  December  5  or 
12,  i732- 

The  majority  of  the  original  members  were  young  character 
noblemen  or  men  of  wealth  and  position   between  °f  original 
twenty  and  thirty  years  of  age,  who  had  just  come  mem  ers' 
home    from  their  travels  on  the   Continent  (tours 
usually  made  under  the  charge  of  some  governor  of 
more  mature  age  from  the  Universities  or  the  Church), 
and  who  were  eager  on  their   return   not  only  to 
compare   notes    of  their    experiences   and   acquisi- 
tions, but  also  to  be  regarded  as  arbiters  of  taste 
and  culture  in  their  native  country.     It  can  easily 
be  imagined  that  the  convivial  meetings  of  a  society 
thus  constituted  were  characterized,  in  that  age,  by 
a  vivacity  which  would  be  hardly  in  tune  with  the 
soberer  ideas  prevailing  at  the  close  of  the  nineteenth 

6     History  of  the  Society  of  "Dilettanti 

Toung  The  young  English  aristocrat  was  a  conspicuous 

Englishmen  figure  'in  tne  chief  centres  of  society  on  the  Con- 
°Grand  Tour.  tinent-  He  was  as  much  criticized  abroad  for  what 
seemed  in  foreign  eyes  his  insular  eccentricities,  as 
he  was  on  his  return  for  his  affectation  of  foreign 
habits  of  speech  and  behaviour.  We  get  frequent 
glimpses  of  him  from  memoirs  and  letters  of  the 
time.  Lady  Mary  Wortley  Montagu,  writing  to 
her  daughter  about  the  winter  which  she  passed  in 
Rome  in  1740-41,  says : 

c  There  was  an  unusual  concourse  of  English,  many  of  them  with 
great  estates  and  their  own  masters :  as  they  had  no  admittance 
to  the  Roman  ladies  nor  understood  the  language,  they  had  noway 
of  passing  their  evenings  but  in  my  apartment,  where  I  had  always 
a  full  drawing-room.  Their  governors  encouraged  their  assiduities 
as  much  as  they  could,  finding  I  gave  them  lessons  of  economy  and 
good  conduct;  and  my  authority  was  so  great,  it  was  a  common 
threat  among  them,  "  Til  tell  Lady  Mary  what  you  say."  I  was 
judge  of  all  their  disputes,  and  my  decisions  always  submitted  to. 
While  I  staid,  there  was  neither  gaming,  drinking,  quarrelling  or 

In  spite  of  Lady  Mary's  complacent  opinion  of 
her  own  influence,  it  is  to  be  feared  that  the  four 
practices  mentioned  in  her  last  sentence  were  sadly 
prevalent  among  these  young  men,  and  that  in  many 
cases  it  was  the  governor,  rather  than  the  pupil,  who 
profited  most  by  the  expedition.  In  any  case,  it  was 
from  among  these  young  travellers  that  the  Society 
of  Dilettanti  was  recruited. 
choke  of  In  tne  absence  of  original  records,  there  is  nothing 

name.  '  beyond  the  obvious  fitness  of  the  name  to  explain 
why  the  original  members  called  their  Society  the 
Dilettanti.  The  Italian  word  c dilettante'  appro- 
priately describes  the  character  of  these  young  men. 
The  French  word  'amateur'  had  not  yet  been  adopted 
into  the  vernacular,  the  word c  virtuoso '  had  already 
acquired  a  professional  sound.    There  was  in  fact 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    7 

already  in  existence  a  Society  of  Virtuosi  founded  in 
1689,  and  composed  of c  Gentlemen,  Painters,  Sculp- 
tors, Architects,  etc.,  Lovers  or  Professors  of  Art.' 
This  society  held  an  annual  feast  on  St.  Luke's  Day, 
and  on  more  than  one  occasion  attempted  to  im- 
mortalize its  existence  by  portrait-groups.  A  refer- 
ence to  the  name  chosen  by  the  Dilettanti  for  their 
own  Society  is  made  in  the  preface,  already  quoted, 
to  the  first  volume  of  their  great  work  on  Ionian 
Antiquities  [176  9) — 

c  It  would  be  disingenuous  to  insinuate  that  a  serious  Plan  for  the 
Promotion  of  Arts  was  the  only  Motive  for  forming  this  Society. 
Friendly  and  Social  Intercourse  was,  undoubtedly,  the  first  great 
Object  in  view-  but  while,  in  this  respect,  no  Set  of  Men  ever 
kept  up  more  religiously  to  their  original  Institution,  it  is  hoped 
this  Work  will  show  that  they  have  not,  for  that  Reason,  aban- 
doned the  cause  of  Virtu,  in  which  they  are  also  engaged,  or 
forfeited  their  Pretensions  to  that  Character  which  is  implied  in 
the  Name  they  have  assumed/ 

Taking  December,  1732,  as  the  probable  date  Earliest 
of  the  first  meeting  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti,  meetings. 
there  is  some  ground  for  supposing  that  it,  and 
perhaps  a  few  subsequent  meetings,  may  have  been 
held  in  Italy.  Private  papers  show  that  some  of 
the  earliest  members  were  certainly  on  the  Continent 
during  some  part  of  the  winter  of  1732-3,  and 
it  may  well  have  been  that  at  some  common 
central  meeting-place  for  young  travellers,  such  as 
Rome  or  Venice  (the  latter  has  been  assumed),  the 
idea  was  first  mooted  of  such  a  reunion  in  London. 

It  is  difficult  to  ascertain  for  certain  who  were  Members 
the  true  original  founders  of  the  Society,  inasmuch  *■  I73<^- 
as  no  list  has  been  preserved  of  earlier  date  than  May, 
173d.     The  number  of  members  at  that  date  was 
forty-six,  mostly  young  men  of  rank  and  fashion 
from  twenty-five  to  thirty  years  of  age,  and  many  of 

8     History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

them  destined  to  play  important  parts  as  statesmen, 
courtiers,  soldiers,  diplomatists,  divines,  or  merchant 
princes.  Of  the  first  category  were  Simon  (after- 
wards Earl)  Harcourt,  Richard  Grenville  (afterwards 
Earl  Temple),  Sir  Francis  Dashwood  (afterwards 
Lord  le  Despencer),  and  William  Ponsonby  (after- 
wards Earl  of  Bessborough) ;  of  the  second,  Charles 
Earl  of  Middlesex  (afterwards  Duke  of  Dorset),  Lord 
Robert  Montagu  (afterwards  Duke  of  Manchester), 
Thomas  Lord  Archer,  Sewallis  Shirley,  and  Daniel 
Boone ;  of  the  third,  George  Gray,  William  Degge, 
William  Denny,  and  William  Strode  ;  of  the  fourth, 
Andrew  Mitchell,  Sir  James  Gray,  Thomas  Villiers 
(afterwards  Lord  Hyde  and  Earl  of  Clarendon),  and 
Sir  Charles  Hanbury  Williams  \  of  the  fifth,  Arthur 
Smyth  (afterwards  Archbishop  of  Dublin),  Robert 
Hay  (afterwards  Archbishop  of  York),  and  the  poet- 
author,  Joseph  Spence ;  and  of  the  last,  William 
Fauquier,  Robert  Dingley,  Robert  Bristow,  and  Peter 
Delme'.  To  these  were  added  young  baronets  like 
Sir  Lionel  Pilkington,  Sir  Robert  Long,  Sir  Brown- 
low  Sherard,  Sir  Henry  Liddell,  and  Sir  Hugh 
Smithson ;  young  peers  like  Viscount  Gal  way, 
Viscount  Boyne,  and  gentlemen  of  position  such 
as  Simon  Luttrell,  Thomas  Anson,  James  Noel, 
Thomas  Grimston,  John  Howe,  Henry  Harris,  Sir 
Thomas  Whitmore,  and  Charles  Feilding.  Another 
original  member  was  George  Knapton,  the  painter, 
who  held  the  important  office  of  <  Painter  to  the 
Society.'  The  minute-books  of  the  Society  afford 
sufficient  evidence  as  to  who  among  these  noblemen 
and  gentlemen  took  the  most  prominent  part  in  its 
foundation  and  were  most  active  in  promoting  its 
interests.  It  is  easy  to  distinguish  as  ruling  spirits 
Dashwood,  Middlesex,  Harcourt,  James  and  George 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti     9 

Gray,   Howe,   Boone,  Harris,   Fauquier,  Ponsonby, 
and  Liddell. 

The  man  who,  if  not  the  actual  projector  and  Dashwood. 
founder  of  the  Society,  was  certainly  its  leading 
member  in  1736,  Sir  Francis  Dashwood,  has  earned 
an  ill  name  in  history  for  profanity  and  profligacy. 
He  was  born  in  1708,  and  spent  the  early  years  of 
his  manhood  in  foreign  travel,  during  which  he 
acquired  a  European  reputation  for  his  pranks 
and  adventures.  Bred  in  the  school  of  Bolingbroke 
and  Voltaire,  he  practised  a  contempt  for  piety 
and  religion,  which  led  him  to  the  furthest  ex- 
treme in  the  opposite  direction.  He  roamed  from 
court  to  court  in  search  of  notoriety.  In  Russia 
he  masqueraded  as  Charles  XII,  and  in  that  un- 
suitable character  aspired  to  be  the  lover  of  the 
Tsarina  Anne.  In  Italy  his  outrages  on  religion 
and  morality  led  to  his  expulsion  from  the  dominions 
of  the  Church.  On  his  return  to  England  he 
scandalized  his  contemporaries,  and  obtained  withal 
a  sinister  immortality,  by  his  performances  as  high- 
priest  of  the  blasphemous  and  indecent  orgies  at 
Medmenham  Abbey.  In  spite  of  this  reputation 
he  was  a  by  no  means  incapable  or  uninteresting 
member  of  the  House  of  Commons.  For  some 
years  he  held  a  position  in  the  household  of  Frederick, 
Prince  of  Wales,  and  was  therefore  in  continuous 
hostility  to  the  Walpole  administration.  When 
the  Earl  of  Bute  became  first  minister,  he  made  his 
most  fatal  mistake  in  making  Dashwood  Chancellor 
of  the  Exchequer.  In  that  capacity  Dashwood 
brought  in  the  ill-starred  excise  bill  on  cider,  which 
was  the  main  cause  of  the  collapse  of  the  Bute 
ministry.  Compensated  with  the  barony  of  Le 
Despencer,  to  which    he   was  co-heir   through  his 

io  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

mother,  he  retired  to  his  house  at  West  Wycombe 
in  Buckinghamshire,  married  a  rich  widow,  built 
a  church  as  a  set-off  to  his  Medmenham  escapades, 
patronized  artists,  dabbled  in  classical  architecture, 
and  finally  died,  old  and  neglected,  in  December, 
1 78 1.  With  all  his  faults,  let  it  be  remembered 
that  in  the  House  of  Commons  he  had  manfully 
endeavoured  to  prevent  the  political  murder  of 
Admiral  Byng;  that  in  the  Lords,  when  the  great 
Earl  of  Chatham  fell  swooning  to  the  ground, 
Lord  le  Despencer  was  almost  the  only  peer  to 
step  forward  with  words  of  sympathy  and  hope ; 
and  that  as  Sir  Francis  Dashwood  he  had  been  the 
principal  founder  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti,  for 
fifty  years  attended  its  dinners  and  committees, 
and  supported  both  by  counsel  and  money,  even 
when  he  did  not  originate,  all  its  most  successful 
schemes  and  enterprises. 
Middlesex.  Charles  Sackville,  Earl  of  Middlesex,  eldest  son 
of  the  Duke  of  Dorset,  was  born  in  1711,  and  so 
was  barely  of  age  at  the  time  of  the  foundation 
of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti.  In  1730  he  made 
a  long  tour  in  France  and  Italy  under  the  tutorship 
of  the  Rev.  Joseph  Spence,  the  author  of  Poly metis  ,• 
who  in  his  letters  speaks  highly  of  his  young  com- 
panion's natural  abilities.  Middlesex  was  from  the 
first  associated  with  the  following  of  Frederick, 
Prince  of  Wales,  being  for  many  years  master-of-the- 
horse  in  the  prince's  household,  while  his  wife  was 
lady-in-waiting  and  principal  '  confidante '  to  the 
princess.  He  is  best  known  for  his  connexion  with 
the  history  of  opera  in  England.  On  this  pursuit  he 
squandered  immense  sums.  He  eventually  succeeded 
his  father  as  second  Duke  of  Dorset,  and  died  on 
January  y,  1769.     Horace  Walpole  says  of  him— 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    n 

c  His  figure  was  handsome,  had  all  the  reserve  of  his  family,  and 
all  the  dignity  of  his  ancestors.  He  was  a  poet  too  because  they 
had  been  poets.  As  little  as  he  came  near  them  in  this  talent, 
it  was  what  he  most  resembled  them  in,  and  in  what  he  best 
supported  their  honour.  His  passion  was  the  direction  of  operas, 
in  which  he  had  not  only  wasted  immense  sums,  but  had  stood 
lawsuits  in  Westminster  Hall  with  some  of  those  poor  devils  for 
their  salaries.  The  Duke  of  Dorset  had  often  paid  his  debts,  but 
never  could  work  on  his  affections,  and  he  had  at  last  carried  his 
disobedience  so  far,  in  complaisance  to  and  in  imitation  of  the 
prince,  as  to  oppose  his  father  in  his  own  boroughs.' 

Simon  Harcourt,  born  in  1714,  succeeded  his  Harcourt. 
father  as  second  Viscount  Harcourt  in  1720.  He 
travelled  for  four  years  on  the  Continent,  from 
1730  to  1734.  Unlike  the  two  members  already- 
mentioned,  Harcourt  was  attached  to  the  household 
of  George  II,  whom  he  attended  at  the  battle  of 
Dettingen.  He  held  the  important  post  of  governor 
to  George  III  when  Prince  of  Wales,  though  his 
influence  was  counteracted  after  the  king's  accession 
by  that  of  the  Earl  of  Bute.  He  was  sent  to 
Germany  to  marry  by  proxy  Princess  Charlotte 
of  Mecklenburg-Strelitz,  and  escort  her  to  Eng- 
land. Subsequently  he  became  lord-chamberlain 
of  the  household,  ambassador  to  France,  and  lord- 
lieutenant  of  Ireland.  He  was  a  consistent  patron 
of  the  arts,  and  died  in  1777  through  accidentally 
falling  into  a  well  in  his  garden  at  Nuneham 
Courtenay.  Horace  Walpole  sneers  at  Harcourt 
as  c  civil  and  sheepish,  and  only  able  to  teach  the 
prince  what  he  himself  knew,  namely,  hunting  and 

Two  others  of  the  most   prominent  among   the  The  brothers 
original  founders  of  the  Dilettanti  were  the  brothers  Gray- 
James   and  George  Gray.     They  were  sons  of  Sir 
James  Gray,  who  was  created  a  baronet  of  Scotland 
in  1707   by   Queen   Anne.     According  to  Horace 

ix   History  of  the  Society  of  "Dilettanti 

Walpole,  who  seldom  had  a  good  word  for  the 
Dilettanti  set,  their  'father  was  first  a  box-keeper 
and  then  footman  to  James  the  Second.'  In  1744 
Sir  James  Gray  accompanied  the  Earl  of  Holdernesse 
on  his  embassy  to  the  Republic  of  Venice,  and  re- 
mained there  as  British  Resident  until  1773.  Lady 
Mary  Wortley  Montagu,  writing  in  175-8,  says  that 
'Sir  James  Gray  was,  as  I  am  told,  universally 
esteemed  during  his  residence  here ;  but  alas  !  he 
is  gone  to  Naples.'  Gray  was  appointed  envoy 
extraordinary  to  Naples  and  the  Two  Sicilies  in  175- 4, 
and  resided  there  many  years.  He  took  a  prominent 
part  in  the  discoveries  at  Herculaneum,  and  in  the 
whole  progress  of  classical  research  and  excavation. 
He  was  in  1761  appointed  envoy  to  the  Court  of 
Spain,  and  created  a  Knight  of  the  Bath,  but  the 
outbreak  of  war  prevented  his  taking  up  his  residence 
at  Madrid  till  1766.  He  was  created  a  Privy 
Councillor  in  November,  1769,  and  died  in  London 
unmarried  in  January,  1773.  Although  absent  from 
England  for  most  of  the  years  of  his  membership 
of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti,  Gray  was  one  of  the 
most  useful  and  active  of  its  members.  His  position 
at  Venice  and  Naples  brought  him  into  contact  with 
many  of  the  young  men  whose  travels  and  tastes 
qualified  them  for  membership,  and  the  Society 
looked  to  him  to  supply  candidates  for  admission. 
His  younger  brother  George  Gray  served  with 
distinction  in  the  army,  and  eventually  attained  the 
rank  of  major-general  and  became  colonel  of  the 
37th  Foot.  He  was  deeply  interested  in,  and 
unfailingly  assisted,  all  schemes  of  classical  and  anti- 
quarian research.  He  was  to  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 
in  England  what  his  brother  Sir  James  Gray  was  to 
it  abroad.    He  had  some  distinction  as  an  amateur 

j&a/Uim..  A 


History  of  the  Society  of  'Dilettanti   13 

artist,  and  is  said  to  have  designed  Lord  Spencer's 
house  in  the  Green  Park.  He  was  Secretary  and 
Treasurer  of  the  Society  for  thirty-three  years,  from 
1738  to  1771.  On  the  death  of  his  brother  he 
succeeded  to  the  baronetcy,  but  only  survived  him 
a  few  weeks,  dying  in  London  in  February,  1773. 

William  Ponsonby,  born  in  1704,  was  eldest  son  of  w.Vonsonby. 
Brabazon  Ponsonby,  second  Viscount  Duncannon  and 
afterwards  first  Earl  of  Bessborough.  He  travelled 
a  great  deal  on  the  Continent  and  in  the  East  until 
1739,  and  on  his  return  took  his  place  as  a  leader 
of  taste  and  fashion,  and  in  public  life  served  as 
a  Lord  of  the  Treasury  and  as  Postmaster-General. 
He  became  Viscount  Duncannon  in  1739  on  his 
father's  elevation  to  the  earldom,  and  succeeded 
his  father  as  earl  in  17/8.  As  a  collector  of 
objects  of  art  and  antiquity  he  was  one  of  the 
earliest  and  the  most  active  in  the  country.  He 
died  in  1793. 

Richard  Grenville  was  a  prominent  member  of  R.  Gren- 
the  family  clique  of  Pitts  and  Grenvilles  who  ruled  vtlle- 
England  for  so  long  a  time.  The  brother-in-law 
of  the  great  Earl  of  Chatham,  he  filled  numerous 
important  posts  in  the  government,  and  his  life 
belongs  to  the  history  of  his  country.  Born  in 
171 1,  he  was  but  little  over  twenty-one  years  of 
age  at  the  time  of  the  foundation  of  the  Society,  in 
which  at  first  he  seems  to  have  played  a  leading 
part.  c  Squire  Gawky,'  as  his  contemporaries  nick- 
named him,  became  Earl  Temple  on  the  death  of 
his  mother  in  17^2,  and  died  in  1779. 

Among  the  most  active  of  the  early  members  of  "TjSj 
the  Society  of  Dilettanti  were  John  Howe  of  Han-  r>e„„y  ' 
slope   in  Buckinghamshire  (born   in   1707,  died  in  strode, 
1769),  and  Thomas  Archer,  who  was  created  a  peer  JjJJJjJ' 

14   History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

in  1747  and  died  in  176%.  Archer  lived  at  Umber- 
slade,  near  Stratford-upon-Avon,  and  in  London  was 
conspicuous  as  a  great  dispenser  of  hospitality. 
William  Denny,  a  noted  man  of  fashion,  was  appointed 
to  the  governorship  of  Pennsylvania  in  175-5,  a  post 
which  was  intended,  no  doubt,  to  be  a  lucrative  sine- 
cure, but  turned  out  otherwise.  Serious  hostility  was 
shown  to  him  as  governor,  and  he  was  superseded  in 
175-9.  General  William  Strode  was  known  as  a 
faithful  friend  and  ally  of  the  Duke  of  Cumberland, 
and  the  donor  of  the  unfortunate  statue  of  the  duke 
which  stood  for  a  long  time  in  Cavendish  Square. 
Sewallis  Shirley,  a  younger  son  of  Earl  Ferrers,  born 
in  1709,  was  notorious  among  the  reckless  and 
profligate  young  men  of  fashion  of  his  day  ;  among 
other  notorious  affairs  of  gallantry,  he  had  relations 
with  the  celebrated  Lady  Vane  (the  'Lady  of 
Quality '  whose  adventures  are  recorded  by  Smollett 
in  Peregrine  Pickle\  and  later  with  Margaret  Rolle,  the 
rich  widowed  Countess  of  Orford,  Horace  Walpole's 
sister-in-law,  to  whose  pranks  and  gallantries  many 
allusions  will  be  found  in  her  brother-in-law's  letters 
and  memoirs.  Shirley,  whose  connexion  with  the 
latter  lady  was  for  a  time  blessed  by  marriage,  was 
none  the  less  a  member  of  Parliament  and  comp- 
troller of  the  household  to  Queen  Charlotte,  and 
died  in  176  f  without  having  outlived  his  reputation. 
Boone,  Daniel  Boone,  son  of  Charles  Boone,  governor  of 

tiddell,       Bombay,  was  a  wealthy  member  of  the  East  India 
HarriT9      Company.     He   married   a   rich  heiress,  became   a 
Dinghy,       member  of  Parliament  and  clerk  of  the  household 
Smith  son.      to  the  Princess  of  Wales,  and  was  moreover  a  con- 
fidential friend  of  Frederick,  Prince  of  Wales,  and 
therefore  of  the  party  opposed  to  the  administration 
of  Sir  Robert  Walpole.     Sir  Henry  Liddell,  Baronet, 


History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti   is 

afterwards  created  Baron  Ravensworth,  is  perhaps 
best  known  as  the  father  of  Horace  Walpole's 
friend,  the  Countess  of  Upper  Ossory,  whilom 
Duchess  of  Grafton.  William  Fauquier  was  a 
director  of  the  South  Sea  Company,  and  eventually 
became  registrar  and  secretary  of  the  Order  of  the 
Bath  ;  he  was  very  active  in  promoting  the  work 
of  the  Dilettanti  Society,  of  which  he  was  Secretary 
from  1 77 1  to  1774,  an(i  died  in  1788.  Henry 
Harris  acted  as  High  Steward  of  the  Society  from 
1 7  3  6  onwards ;  he  was  a  protege  of  Sir  Thomas 
Winnington,  who  was  for  a  time  Chancellor  of  the 
Exchequer,  and  obtained  from  him  a  profitable  post 
as  Commissioner  of  Wine  Licences.  Harris  is  best 
known  outside  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  as  a  friend 
and  correspondent  of  Sir  Charles  Hanbury  Williams ; 
he  died  in  1773.  Robert  Dingley  was  a  London 
merchant,  an  amateur  architect  and  artist,  and  a 
collector  of  works  of  art ;  he  was  put  forward  at 
one  time  to  fight  Wilkes  in  the  Middlesex  election, 
but  has  some  real  claim  to  distinction  as  one  of  the 
founders  of  the  Magdalen  Hospital  in  London  ;  he 
died  at  Lamb  Abbey,  Chiselhurst,  in  178 1.  Sir 
Hugh  Smithson  gained  high  social  promotion  for 
himself  and  his  descendants  through  his  marriage 
with  the  heiress  of  the  duchy  of  Northumberland 
and  his  subsequent  elevation  to  the  dukedom. 
He  was  regarded  also  as  one  of  the  handsomest  men 
of  his  day.  Perhaps  a  stronger  claim  to  historical 
recognition  lies  in  the  fact  that  he  was  the  father 
of  an  illegitimate  son,  who  went  to  America  and 
became  the  founder  of  the  celebrated  Smithsonian 
Institution  at  Boston,  U.S.A.1 

1  Sir  Hugh  Smithson,  Mr.  Howe,  Mr.  Bellingham  Boyle,  and 
Viscount  Midleton,  members  of  the  Dilettanti,  appear  as  members 

1 6  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 






The  diplomatists  who  appear  as  original  members 
of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  were  all  distinguished 
in  their  careers,  though  their  residence  abroad  natur- 
ally disabled  them  from  taking  any  part  in  the 
regular  proceedings  of  the  Society.  Sir  Charles 
Hanbury  Williams,  the  famous  wit  and  satirist,  spent 
nearly  all  his  life  abroad  as  envoy  to  Dresden, 
Berlin,  or  St.  Petersburg.  His  letters,  however,  show 
that  he  never  lost  his  interest  in  the  Society. 
Mention  has  already  been  made  of  the  services 
rendered  to  that  body  by  Sir  James  Gray.  Sir  Andrew 
Mitchell  achieved  real  distinction  as  envoy  to  the 
Court  of  Prussia,  inasmuch  as  he  was  one  of  the 
£qw  people  who  gained  the  confidence  of  that 
eccentric  monarch,  Frederick  II.  Thomas  Villiers, 
second  son  of  the  Earl  of  Jersey,  had  a  long  and 
remarkable  career  in  diplomacy,  and  was  created 
successively  Baron  Hyde  and  Earl  of  Clarendon ; 
he  died  in  1 7  8  tf ,  having  bequeathed  to  his  descen- 
dants a  hereditary  aptitude  for  the  transaction  of 
foreign  affairs. 

The  two  members  who  became  distinguished  as 
prelates  of  the  Church  naturally  took  but  little 
part  in  the  convivial  meetings  of  the  Society. 
Arthur  Smyth,  son  of  the  Bishop  of  Limerick, 
travelled  for  some  time  abroad  after  leaving  Oxford, 
for  a  time  in  the  company  of  the  Earl  of  Middlesex ; 
he  became  successively  Dean  of  Raphoe  and  of 
Derry,  Bishop  of  Clonfert,  of  Down,  and  of  Meath, 
and  eventually  Archbishop  of  Dublin  and  Primate 
of  Ireland,  and  died  in  1771.     Robert  Hay,  second 

of  a  small  dining  society,  called  'The  Harry  the  Fifth'  or  'The 
Gang,'  presided  over  by  Frederick,  Prince  of  Wales,  of  which 
there  is  a  portrait-group,  painted  by  C.  Philips,  in  the  corridor  at 
Windsor  Castle. 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    17 

son  of  the  Earl  of  Kinnoul,  similarly  went  through 
a  course  of  travel  on  leaving  Oxford,  and  became 
successively  Bishop  of  St.  Asaph  and  of  Salisbury, 
and  eventually  Archbishop  of  York,  dying  in  1776. 
Joseph  Spence,  another  of  the  original  members, 
owed  his  election  to  the  circumstance  that  he  had 
travelled  as  governor  to  the  Earl  of  Middlesex,  and 
later  also  to  the  Earl  of  Lincoln.  He  was  Pro- 
fessor of  Poetry  and  afterwards  Regius  Professor 
of  Modern  History  in  Oxford,  a  friend  and  corre- 
spondent of  Pope,  and  is  well  known  as  the  author 
of  Polymetis  and  the  Anecdotes.  He  died  at  Byfleet  in 
Surrey,  in  August,  1768.  These  were  among  the  more 
remarkable  of  the  earliest  members  of  the  Society 
of  Dilettanti.  Others,  such  as  Colonel  Degge,  Sir 
Brownlow  Sherard,  Viscount  Boyne,  Viscount  Galway, 
Mr.  E.  Clarke,  Sir  L.  Pilkington,  appear  in  the 
minute-books  as  active  members,  but  their  share  in 
the  proceedings  is  less  defined.  The  names  mentioned 
will  show  that,  although  the  early  meetings  may 
have  been  convivial  and  perhaps  uproarious,  the 
members  were  for  the  most  part  men  of  education 
and  distinction,  and  included  several  who  were  of 
real  importance  in  the  history  of  the  country. 

To  the  above  must  be  added  a  few  names  of  members  Sandwich. 
who  took  an  active  and  leading  part  in  the  early 
proceedings  of  the  Society,  although  they  were  not 
elected  until  after  1736,  the  date  of  the  earliest 
extant  list.  These  were  the  Earl  of  Sandwich,  the 
Duke  of  Bedford,  Mr.  Thomas  Brand,  and  the  Earl 
of  Holdernesse.  John  Montagu,  fourth  Earl  of 
Sandwich,  has  been  beyond  doubt  one  of  the  best- 
abused  men  of  his  century.  He  was  born  in  171 8, 
and  succeeded  to  the  peerage  at  the  age  of  eleven. 
After  a  course  of  education  at  Eton  and  Trinity 

18    History  of  the  Society  of  "Dilettanti 

College,  Cambridge,  he  went  in  1738  for  a  tour  in 
the  Mediterranean  and  the  Greek  Archipelago  under 
the  tutorship  of  the  Rev.  J.  Cooke,  who  in  1799, 
after  Sandwich's  death,  published  an  account  of  the 
journey.  It  was  during  this  voyage  that  Sandwich 
acquired  that  interest  in  art  and  antiquities  which 
made  him  afterwards  so  useful  and  energetic  a 
member  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti.  His  public 
life  as  a  statesman  forms  one  of  the  chapters  of  the 
naval  history  of  Great  Britain.  He  was  the  British 
plenipotentiary  at  the  peace  of  Aix-la-Chapelle  in 
1748.  He  encouraged  and  supported  the  expedi- 
tions of  Captain  Cook,  and  the  name  of  the 
Sandwich  Islands,  given  to  the  Hawaiian  group  in 
the  Pacific  Archipelago,  has  immortalized  his  memory 
in  those  seas.  The  familiar  article  of  diet  known 
by  his  name  is  said  to  owe  it  to  the  hurried  meals 
he  was  in  the  habit  of  snatching  amidst  the  incessant 
cares  of  his  post  at  the  Admiralty.  The  fame,  or 
rather  the  ill-fame,  of  Sandwich  rests  upon  the 
scandal  caused  by  his  conduct  in  private  life,  on 
which  posterity  has  loved  to  dwell  to  the  exclusion 
of  any  redeeming  qualities.  Associated  with  Dash- 
wood  and  Wilkes  in  the  infamous  orgies  at 
Medmenham,  Sandwich  gained  an  unenviable  reputa- 
tion and  the  nickname  of  i  Jemmy  Twitcher '  by  his 
attack  on  Wilkes  in  the  House  of  Lords.  The 
murder  of  his  mistress,  Miss  Ray,  by  the  Rev.  J. 
Hackman,  brought  fresh  odium  on  his  head,  though 
Sandwich's  own  behaviour  to  the  lady  seems  to 
have  been  without  discredit.  The  powerful  and 
scurrilous  invectives  of  Churchill  remain  to  com- 
memorate the  odium  which  his  conduct  brought 
upon  him.  But  Sandwich  was  a  man  who  cared 
little    for   the   opinion   of  others.      As   a    patron 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    19 

of  art,  music,  athletics,  cricket,  tennis,  field  sports, 
theatricals,  racing,  and  gambling,  and  as  a  man 
of  wit  and  pleasant  conversation,  he  occupies  a 
peculiar  position  in  the  history  of  his  time.  His 
capacity  for  work  of  all  sorts  was  incredible. 
Posterity  has  judged  him  entirely  by  his  vices. 
But  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  cannot  fail  to  remember 
that  it  was  to  him  and  Dashwood — men  stamped  by 
their  enemies  as 

£  Too  infamous  to  have  a  friend, 
Too  bad  for  bad  men  to  commend' — 

that  it  owes  the  inception  and  success  of  the 
principal  schemes  on  which  its  reputation  is  based. 

Sandwich  was  an  intimate  friend  of  John  Russell,  Bedford, 
fourth  Duke  of  Bedford,  and  exercised  a  great  SjjJ 
influence  over  the  duke.  Bedford,  born  in  171  o, 
succeeded  his  brother  as  duke  in  1732,  and  was 
a  leading  politician  all  his  life.  The  Bedford  party 
was  a  power  in  the  State.  He  served  also  as  lord- 
lieutenant  of  Ireland  and  ambassador  to  France. 
Horace  Walpole,  who  had  a  private  quarrel  with 
Bedford,  describes  him  as  'a  man  of  inflexible 
honesty  and  goodwill  to  his  country ;  his  foible 
being  speaking  on  every  subject  and  imagining  he 
understood  it.'  He  was  a  little  man  with  an  im- 
petuous but  refined  manner,  and  very  popular — the 
very  reverse  of  Sandwich,  whose  manners  were 
extravagant  and  rough.  Thomas  Brand,  of  the 
Hoo  in  Hertfordshire,  was  a  member  of  the  Bedford 
party  in  Parliament.  He  formed  an  important 
collection  of  classical  antiquities.  Robert  Darcy, 
Earl  of  Holdernesse,  born  in  171 8,  did  not  join 
the  Society  till  May,  17  \u  when  he  was  ambassador 
to  the  Signiory  of  Venice.  He  had  been  a  lord 
of  the  bedchamber  to  George  II,  and  attended  the 

c  ?. 

xo   History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

king  at  the  battle  of  Dettingen.  After  serving 
for  some  years  in  diplomacy  he  became  a  Secretary 
of  State,  and  subsequently  held  important  posts  in 
the  household,  acting  as  governor  to  the  Prince  of 
Wales  from  1771  to  1776.  He  had  a  house  at  Sion 
Hill,  Isleworth,  where  he  entertained  much  society. 
Horace  Walpole  says  of  him  that  his  c  talents  were 
not  above  mediocrity,  but  that  he  was  taciturn  and 
dexterous  enough,  and  most  punctual  in  the  execution 
of  his  orders  ' ;  also,  that c  his  passion  for  directing 
operas  and  masquerades  was  rather  thought  a  con- 
tradiction to  his  gravity  than  below  his  understand- 
ing, which  was  so  very  moderate  that  no  relations  of 
his  own  exploits  would,  not  a  little  since  before,  have 
been  sooner  credited  than  his  being  a  Secretary  of 
State.'  Holdernesse  married  a  Dutch  lady,  and  died 
in  1778. 
other  Among  other  and  apparently  less  active  members 

members  wno  joined  the  Society  before  17^0,  are  not  a  few 
eforei-jjo.  ^Qgg  names  rank  high  in  the  political  and  social 
history  of  the  country.  Such  were  Thomas  Coke, 
the  great  collector,  created  Earl  of  Leicester  in  1744  ; 
Evelyn  Pierrepoint,  Duke  of  Kingston,  who  is  less 
remembered  on  his  own  account  than  on  that  of  his 
wife,  the  beautiful  and  bigamous  Elizabeth  Chud- 
leigh  j  William,  second  Earl  Cowper,  F.R.S. ;  Charles 
Wyndham,  afterwards  second  Earl  of  Egremont ; 
Lewis  and  Thomas  Watson,  afterwards  respectively 
second  and  third  Earls  of  Rockingham ;  William 
Wildman,  second  Viscount  Barrington,  afterwards 
Secretary  of  War  and  Chancellor  of  the  Exchequer  ; 
George  Montagu,  Lord  Sunbury,  well  known  later  as 
Earl  of  Halifax  and  Lord  Lieutenant  of  Ireland ;  Nor- 
borne  Berkeley,  who  successfully  claimed  the  ancient 
barony  of  Botetourt,  and  later  obtained  the  governor- 

wife  ■  /Vrurf?, 


History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    21 

ship  of  Virginia,  where  he  hoped  to  realize  a  fortune, 
but  found  instead  a  childless  grave ;  Welbore  Ellis, 
afterwards  Lord  Mendip,  a  prominent  and  active 
politician ;  William,  Marquess  of  Hartington,  after- 
wards Duke  of  Devonshire  and  Prime  Minister  ; 
Henry  Bilson  Legge,  afterwards  Chancellor  of  the 
Exchequer ;  the  notorious  political  turn-coat  and 
place-hunter,  Bubb  Dodington,  who  was  also  some- 
thing of  a  Maecenas  and  patron  of  art  and  poetry ; 
and  lastly,  Dick  Edgcumbe,  well  known  as  a  wit, 
versifier  and  draughtsman,  who  was  solemnly 
appointed  '  Bard '  to  the  Society,  and  who  derives 
a  real  title  to  the  gratitude  of  friends  of  art  from 
the  fact  that  he  was  one  of  the  first  to  recognize 
the  powers  of  Reynolds.  Scotland  sent  Kenneth 
Mackenzie,  de  jure  Earl  of  Seaforth  ;  Mr.  John 
Ross  Mackyej  and  the  amiable  and  ill-fated  Lord 
Deskfoord,  heir  to  the  earldom  of  Eindlater  and 
Seafield.  Of  the  last-named  Horace  Walpole  writes 
to  Harry  Conway  in  1 740 :  c  Harry,  you  saw  Lord 
Deskfoord  at  Geneva;  don't  you  like  him?  He 
is  a  mighty  sensible  man.  Tnere  are  few  young 
people  have  so  good  understandings.  He  is  mighty 
grave,  and  so  are  you  ;  but  you  can  both  be  pleasant 
when  you  have  a  mind?  But  poor  Lord  Deskfoord's 
gravity  and  good  understandings  had  no  better  end 
than  melancholy  and  suicide.  The  fact  that  military 
and  naval  eminence  began  at  the  same  time  to  be 
represented  at  the  Society's  board  by  the  presence 
of  heroes  such  as  Granby,  Anson,  and  Rodney, 
may  be  taken  as  farther  illustrating  the  variety  of 
the  social  elements  from  which  the  Dilettanti  were 
from  early  days,  and  have  ever  since  continued  to 
be.,  recruited. 


and  regula- 
tions of  the 

dates,  and 
hours  of 

Practices  and  regulations  of  the  Society — Places,  dates,  and 
hours  of  meeting — The  President :  his  toga  and  curule 
chair — The  Secretary  and  Treasurer — The  High 
Steward — The  Arch-Master  and  his  insignia — The 
Regalia:  Bacchus s  Tomb,  the  Ballot-Box,  Seal,  and 
Inkstand — Dining  practices:  forfeits  and  fines — 
Convivial  excesses  —  Toasts  —  Election  practices : 
qualification,  admission,  abdication — Committees  and 

SO  much  as  is  known  concerning  the  origin 
of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  having  been  set 
forth  in  the  preceding  chapter,  and  brief 
notes  having  been  added  as  to  the  character  and 
individuality  of  some  among  the  most  conspicuous 
of  its  early  members,  the  next  step  is  to  give  such 
account  of  the  constitution,  practices,  rules,  and 
regulations  of  the  Society  as  can  be  gathered  from 
the  official  minutes  kept  during  the  first  half-century 
of  its  existence.  The  text  of  these  minutes  has 
a  character  and  quaintness  of  its  own,  which  makes 
it  seem  desirable  to  quote  them  in  most  instances 

The  first  meeting  of  the  Society  of  which  a  regular 
record  is  kept  appears  to  have  taken  place  at  the 
Bedford  Head  Tavern  in  Covent  Garden  on  March  tf , 
1 7  3  <*,  for  it  was  then  ord  red 

cThat  the  Ld  Boyne,  Mr.  How,  Sr.  James  Gray,  Sr  Francis 
Dashwood,  Mr.  Gray,  Mr.  Degge,  Sr  Hugh  Smithson,  Mr.  Archer, 
Sr  Brownlow  Sherrard,  Mr.  Whitmore,  Mr.  Denny,  or   any  five 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    xg 

members  of  the  Society,  do  meet  at  the  Bedford  Head  on  Sunday 
next  to  enter  the  Minutes  now  in  loose  Papers  regularly  in  a  Book 
(T.  Archer,  President)/ 

It  was  from  this  date  that  the  present  series  of 
red  morocco  minute-books  was  commenced. 

The  meeting-place  seems  to  have  been  by  no 
means  fixed,  for  on  February  4,  1 7  3  9,  it  was  ordered 

c  That  the  Society  meet  no  longer  at  the  Bedford  Head/ 

6  Resolved  that  the  next  meeting  be  at  the  Fountain  in  the 

A  further  change  was  made  on  March  6y  i74f> 
when  it  was 

'Resolv'd  that  the  Society  do  adjourn  their  next  meeting  in 
April  to  the  Star  and  Garter  in  Pall  Mall/ 

In  February,  1 74§,  it  was  ordered 

'That  the  sd  Committee  do  meet  on  Saturday  the  18th  at  the 
King's  Arms  in  Pall-Mali '  • 

and  on  May  1,  175-7,  it  was  again  ordered 

'That  the  Society  do  meet  in  December  next  at  the  Star  and 
Garter  in  Pall  Mall/ 


c  That  the  Regalia  of  the  Society  be  removed  from  the  King's 
Arms,  Westminster/ 

In  February,  176 3,  it  was  ordered 

c  That  the  next  meeting  of  the  Society  be  at  Mr.  Almack's  in 
King  Street/ 

The  first  rule  of  the  Society  is  as  follows : — 

That  the  members  of  the  Dilettanti  meet  the  first  Sunday  in 
the  month  beginning  the  first  Sunday  in  December  and  ending  the 
first  Sunday  in  May/ 

The  meetings  of  the  Society  were  thus  fixed  to 
take   place   on  the   first  Sunday    in   every   month 

X4  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

from  December  to  May,  but  in  December,  17^7, 
the  January  meeting  was  postponed  to  the  second 
Sunday  in  that  month ;  and  on  May  20, 1 78 1,  it  was 

c  That  it  appears  by  experience  to  be  for  the  advantage  of  the 
Society  that  the  meetings  be  held  twice  in  a  month  instead  of  once, 
that  therefore  the  regulation  for  so  doing  be  continued  for  the 
ensuing  year/ 

But  this  was  rescinded  on  March  6,  1784,  when  the 
Society  reverted  to c  their  original  institution.'  The 
season  during  which  the  meetings  were  held  was  after- 
wards changed :  February  to  July  being  appointed 
instead  of  December  to  May:  and  this  is  the 
arrangement  which  holds  at  the  present  day.  At 
the  date  of  the  foundation  of  the  Society  and 
for  many  years  afterwards,  the  hour  for  dining  was 
considerably  earlier  than  at  present.  Among  the 
early  resolutions  of  the  Society  are  these  of 
February  4,  1739: 

'Ordered  that  the  money  for  the  Dinners  be  collected  at  the 
first  meeting  of  every  year. 

c  Resolved  that  no  business  be  transacted  till  after  dinner/ 

On  April  j,  1 741,  in  consequence  of  a  resolution, 

'That  Mr.  Gage  haveing  left  the-  soci.  without  leave  of  the 
President  and  contrary  to  a  known  and  ancient  custom  be  censured, 
it  not  being  seven  a  clock,' 

it  was  ordered 

c  That  it  be  a  standing  Rule  of  this  Society  That  the  President  do 
call  for  the  Bill  at  seven  a  clock  (if  business  will  permit)  and  that  he 
do  positively  without  fail  call  for  it  at  eight '  j 

and  further  ordered 

c  That  no  one  be  so  disrespectfull  as  to  go  away  before  the  bill 
is  called  for,  without  leave  publickly  asked  from  and  obtained 
of  the  President/ 

In  April,  1767,  a  fine  of  one  guinea  was  inflicted 
for  a  breach  of  the  latter  order. 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti   z$ 

The  President  was  chosen  in  rotation  from  the  The 
number  of  members  present,  the  rule  being  at  first      President: 

c  That  every  Member  be  oblig'd  to  officiate  as  President  accord-  and  curule 
ing  to  his  Order  on  the  List  of  Names  contained  in  the  Book/         chair, 


c  That  the  Member  whose  turn  it  is  to  officiate  as  President  not 
being  present,  the  next  upon  the  List  then  present  is  to  officiate 
for  that  Meeting  (provided  he  has  been  Six  Meetings  in  the  Society) 
and  the  absent  Member  or  Members  who  mist  their  turns  be  oblig'd 
to  officiate  according  to  their  Order  upon  the  List  the  next  time 
they  appear  at  the  Society.' 

At  first  the  office  was  compulsory,  but  on  Decem- 
ber 4,  1742,  it  was  resolved 

'  That  any  member  shall  have  power  to  Decline  the  office  of 
President  upon  the  Penalty  of  one  Guinea  and  his  name  be  mark'd 
as  if  he  had  actually  officiated  that  time/ 

By  a  minute  of  May  6y  1739,  it  was  resolved 

c  That  it  is  necessary  that  there  be  an  Alteration  in  the  dress 
of  the  President ' ; 

and  on  February  1,  1747, 

c  That  a  Roman  dress  is  thought  necessary  for  the  President 
of  the  Society/ 

This  having  been  discussed  in  committee,  the  Society 
on  March  1,  174?, 

c  Agreed  with  the  Committee  as  to  model  of  the  Roman  dress, 
disagreed  with  them  as  to  the  Colour  being  crimson.  Resolved  that 
it  should  be  of  Scarlet,' 

and  further  resolved 

c  That  the  President  puts  on  the  Roman  dress  when  the  Books 
are  open'd,' 


'  That  the  President  Quits  the  Roman  dress  when  he  leaves  the 
Chair  and  not  before.' 

z6  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

This  scarlet  toga,  in  whose  folds  the  President 
even  at  the  present  day  sits  enveloped,  seems  to  have 
been  from  the  first  an  irksome  addition  to  the  office. 
As  early  as  December  d,  1741,  a  motion  was  made 

c  That  Sr  J.  Gray  for  the  high  Misdemeanour  committed  during 
his  second  Presidentship  in  neglecting  the  insignia  of  the  Office 
be  now  publickly  reprimanded  by  the  President  and  advised  to  take 
care  of  his  behaviour  for  the  future,  and  he  was  reprimanded 

The  arrangement  of  the  folds  of  the  President's 
toga  was  a  subject  of  care  and  the  duty  of  the 
Painter  to  the  Society,  for  in  March,  1778, 

e  The  Painter  of  the  Society  [Sir  Joshua  Reynolds]  was  repre- 
manded  for  not  sending  the  Toga  to  the  Committee  nor  coming 
Himself  as  desired  by  the  Society ' ; 

and  in  March,  1 7  8  o,  a  motion  was  made 

'That  Mr.  Steward  be  desired  to  undertake  to  have  the  folds 
of  the  Toga  newly  arrang'd  which  have  been  derang'd  by  the  ill 
Taste  of  the  Painter  with  whom  it  had  been  intrusted/ 

A  still  direr  tragedy  connected  with  the  history 
of  the  toga  is  recorded  in  the  Society's  minute- 
books  as  follows : 

'April  18,  1790.  The  Toga  not  being  Found  in  the  House  the 
Duke  of  Norfolk  was  desird  by  the  Society  to  Lend  his  Robes  for 
the  Use  of  the  President,  which  his  Grace  having  been  pleasd 
to  assent  the  Robes  were  accordingly  brought  and  the  President 
arrangd  therein/ 

'  Resolvd  that  secreting  the  Toga  belonging  to  the  Society  is 
a  high  crime  of  misdemeenor.  That  all  such  as  shall  be  convicted 
of  being  concernd  in  secreting  the  said  Toga  shall  be  considerd 
as  guilty  of  high  crimes  and  misdemeenors.  That  a  committee  be 
appointed  to  enquire  into  the  mode  in  which  the  Toga  of  this 
Society  has  been  secreted  and  to  draw  up  Articles  of  impeachment 
against  all  such  delinquents  as  shall  be  suspected  of  being  principals 
or  accessories  in  secreting  the  same.  That  the  said  Committee  do 
meet  at  this  house  on  the  second  of  May  next,  and  that  the  Duke 
of  Norfolk  E.M.,  the  Earl  of  Sandwich  and  R.  P.  Knight  Esqre.  do 
attend  in  their  places,  and  that  the  Sec.  do  order  Stone  the  Taylor 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  17 

who  is  suspected  of  having  the  Toga  in  his  Posession  to  attend 
at  the  Bar.' 

cJune  6,  1790.  Mr.  Stone  attended  with  the  new  Toga  and 
tried  it  upon  the  chairman,  orderd  that  the  new  Toga  be  referrd 
back  to  R.  P.  Knight  Esq.* 

From  these  entries  a  great  crime  may  be  suspected, 
namely,  that  the  two  noble  peers  and  the  gentleman 
mentioned  were  guilty  of  making  away  with  the 
old  toga  and  causing  it  to  disappear.  By  a  minute 
of  March  4,  173^,  it  was  ordered 

( That  a  Chaire  be  made  for  the  use  and  Dignity  of  the 

This  chair  is   elsewhere  alluded   to  as   the  'Sella 

Curulis.'     The  following  bills  in  connexion  with  it 

are  still  preserved  by  the  Society : — 

Sir  Brownlow  Sherrard,  Bart. 

1739.  Debt  to  Elk  a  Haddock. 

May  ye  5.  To  a  mahogany  compass  seat  elboe  chair, 
covering  do.  with  crimson  velvet  and 
a  mahogy  pedestal  to  do.  with  castors     .     ^4  10  o 

Received  the  full  contents  of  this  bill. 

Per  Elka  Haddock. 

Sir  Brownlow  Sherrard 

Bought  of  John  Atkinson  and  Co. 
4§  yds.  richest  crimson  Genoa  velvet,  z6s.         .        £5  1 3  9 

The  duties  of  Secretary  and  Treasurer  had  neces-  The 
sarily  to  be  discharged  for   the   Society  from  the  secretary 
beginning.     In  the  history  of  the  Dilettanti  these  JJjL*wr 
offices  have  sometimes  been  united  in  the  hands  of  one 
member,  and  sometimes  held  separately.    The  office 
of  Treasurer  (or  Steward)  was  discharged  at  first  by 
Mr.  Henry  Harris ;  that  of  Secretary  from  1738  to 
1 771  by  Colonel  George  Gray.     On  February  7, 
1 741,  it  was  resolved 

x8   History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

c  That  there  be  a  proper  dress  for  the  Secretary  of  the  Society  for 
the  time  being/ 

and  on  March  7  following, 

1  That  the  dress  of  the  Secretary  be  according  to  the  dress  of 
Machiavelli  the  celebrated  Florentine  Secretary,' 


c  That  Sr  F.  Dashwood  and  S*  J.  Gray  do  prepare  the  said  dress 
against  the  next  meeting  of  the  Society/ 

The  High         On  March  7,  174^5  after  the  establishment  of  the 
steward.       General  Fund,  it  was  resolved 

c  That  an  officer  be  appointed  with  title  of  High  Steward  to 
inspect  the  Oeconomy  of  the  Society  at  their  several  meetings  and  to 
collect  the  contributions  of  the  members  towards  increasing  the 
general  fund,  and  that  in  his  absence  he  be  empowered  to  appoint 
a  deputy  by  letter/ 

c  Ordered  that  Mr.  Harris  be  desired  to  except  the  office  of  high 
steward  which  he  accepted  of/ 

At  the  same  time  it  was  resolved 

c  That  a  dress  is  thought  necessary  for  the  High  Steward  & 
that  the  said  dress  be  referred  to  the  consideration  of  the 

It  does  not  appear  that  this  dress  was  ever  decided 
upon,  though  on  April  4,  1 742,  it  was  ordered 

c  That  a  short  staff  or  Baton  of  Command  be  part  of  the  High 
Steward's  mark  of  office/ 

c  That  Mr.  High  Steward  Harris  and  Sr  F.  Dashwood  do  pre- 
pare a  proper  baton  of  office  for  High  Steward/ 

And  on  February  j-,  174-2,  it  was  resolved 

c  That  it  is  the  opinion  of  this  Society  that  a  small  Bacchus 
bestriding  a  Tun  with  a  silver  chain  be  wore  by  the  Very  High 

It  had  been  ordered  on  May  1,  1743, 

e  That  Mr.  High  Steward  Harris  has  for  future  the  Denomination 
of  Very  High  Steward/ 

The  office  of  <  Very  High '  seems   to  have  lapsed 
for  a  time,  for  on  February  1,  1778,  it  was  ordered 

c  That  the  Office  of  Very  High  be  Revived  and  that  Mr.  Banks 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    29 

be  requested  to  accept  the  same.     He  accordingly  accepted  it  to 
the  full  extent  of  the  original  Institution  of  Ann.  Non.  Soc./ 

a  dress  being  also  suggested  again   to  denote   the 

On  May  2,  1742,  it  was  ordered 

c  That  for  the  more  decent  Introduction  of  new  members  & 
for  other  ceremonious  purposes  it  is  very  necessary  there  shou'd  be 
appointed  an  Arch-Master  of  the  Ceremonies/ 

and  it  was  moved 

*  That  the  Right  Honle.  the  Earl  of  Sandwich  shou'd  be 
appointed  Arch  master  of  the  Ceremonies,  and  He  was  accordingly 
appointed  and  accepted  of  the  said  office/ 

On  March  tf,  i74f,  it  was  ordered 

'That  the  Committee  appointed  for  Thursday  the  ioth  March 
do  take  into  consideration  the  manner  of  apparelling  the  Arch- 
Master  of  the  Society '  j 

and  on  February  ? ,  1 74X  it  was  resolved 

'That  a  long  Crimson  Taffeta  Robe  full  pleated  with  a  rich 
Hungarian  cap  and  a  long  Spanish  Toledo  be  the  properest  dress 
to  dignify  the  Arch-Master.' 

The  following  bill  is  preserved  among  the  archives 
of  the  Society  : — 

Mr.  Knapton. 

Bt.  of  Ridley  Tanner. 

i  Feb.    ao  yards  and  \  crimson  sarsnet,  at  %s.  4^. 
4  yards  and  \  gold  figuered  orris,  at  5*. 
4  yards  scarlet  cloth  for  the  belt 
To  a  crimson  tassell  etc.    . 
Making  the  dress 
A  scarlet  cloth  hussar's  cap 
1  March.  A  sword,  gilding  etc., 

4  yards  crimson  sarsnet,  at  is.  4^. 
2  silk  tasseels,  cord,  and  binding 
Altering  the  cap,  fur,  etc., 
Altering  the  dress 















The  Arch- 
Master  and 
his  insignia. 

£9     o  11 

30    History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

Received  the  above  on  March  and,  1 74I-,  in  full  for  the  above 
bill  £y  6.  o.  Geo.  Knapton. 

Buckle,  5s. 

This  seems  to  have  excited  the  irrepressible  levity 
of  Sandwich,  for  at  the  same  time  it  was  ordered 

c  That  the  Ld  Sandwich  the  present  Arch  Master  be  suspended 
from  his  office  for  his  misbehaviour  to  and  contempt  of  the  Society,' 


c  That  Sr  Fra8  Dashwood  be  requested  by  the  Presid*  to  accept 
the  office  of  Arch  Master,  which  he  did/ 

The  Arch-master's  dress  was  entrusted  to  Knapton, 
the  Painter,  and  to  Dashwood ;  and  on  May  1, 1748, 
it  was  resolved 

c  That  Mr.  Savage  be  requested  to  accept  of  the  Function  of 
Arch  Master  of  the  Ceremonies  for  the  year  Ensuing,  and  he 
accepted  it  accordingly/ 

c  That  the  Arch  Master  of  the  Ceremonies  has  Liberty  to  go  to 
any  Creditable  Masquerade  in  the  Robes  of  his  Office/ 

Lord  Sandwich  seems  to  have  repented  of  his 
misbehaviour,  for  on  February  y,  17^4,  it  was 

6  That  the  thanks  of  the  Society  be  returnd  to  Ld  Sandwich 
for  his  magnificent  benevolence  in  presenting  to  the  Society 
a  Baudrier  embossd  and  embroiderd  with  Gold  for  the  Decoration 
of  the  Person  of  the  Archmaster/ 

The  office  was  at  first  elective,  but  on  May  <*,  17J0, 
it  was  ordered 

c  That  the  President  shall  be  empower'd  to  name  an  Arch 
Master  at  every  meeting  who  upon  refusal  to  serve  shall  forfeit  one 
Guinea,  but  that  the  President  shall  not  name  the  same  Person 
a  second  time  till  each  member  present  has  served  or  forfeited '  5 

and  again  on  March  3,  17^,  it  was  ordered 

£  That  the  office  of  Arch-Master  of  the  Ceremonies  be  executed 
by  Rotation,  and  that  any  member  shall  be  excused  serving  upon 
the  forfeiture  of  half  a  Guinea '  j 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    31 

and  eventually  in  December,  17 6 6y 

cThat  the  youngest  member  present  (provided  he  has  been  six 
meetings  of  the  Society)  do  act  as  Arch-Master  or  forfeit  half-a- 
guinea  to  the  General  Fund,  and  that  then  the  next  youngest 
member  do  act,  liable  to  the  same  forfeiture  on  non-compliance/ 

A  few  words  are  necessary  concerning  the  so-called  The 
4  regalia  '  of  the  Society.     As  has  been  stated  before,  ^ega!'ai 
a  minute-book  was  not  kept  until  March  tf,  1736,  Tomb  the 
when  the  still  existing  series  of  red  morocco  volumes  Bal/ot-Box, 
was  commenced.     It  was  not  until  April  1,  1744,  Seahand 
that  a  separate  vellum-bound   book  was   provided    n  s  an 
for  entering  the  minutes  of  the  Committees  of  the 
Society,  which  met  for  the  transaction  of  business 
on  other  days  than  those  appointed  for  the  dinners. 
On  March  tf,  1736,  when  the  regular  minute-books 
were  first  ordered,  it  was  also  ordered 

c  That  a  Box  be  made  for  the  use  of  the  Society/ 

c  That  the  said  box  and  the  ornaments  thereof  be  left  to  the 
direction  of  Sr  James  Gray,  which  at  the  request  of  the  Society  he 
consented  to.' 

On  May  1,  1737,  it  was  ordered 

'That  fifteen  guineas  be  paid  to  Mr.  Adye  for  carving  and 
ornamenting  the  Box,  which  was  done  accordingly  out  of  the  forfeit 

Mr.  Thomas  Adye  was  then  appointed  <  Scultore 
to  this  Society,'  and  it  was  also  ordered 

c  That  a  Committee  be  appointed  to  meet  on  Sunday  the  1 5th 
of  May  to  transfer  Books,  papers,  and  money  from  the  old  Box 
to  Bacchus's  Tomb/ 

A  balloting-box  was  ordered  on  the  same  occasion, 
Mr.  Knapton  to  provide  the  design  and  Mr.  Adye 
to  execute  it.     On  May  7,  1738,  it  is  recorded  that 

c  It  is  the  opinion  of  this  Society  that  the  Tomb  of  Bacchus  and 
the  Balloting- Box  ought  to  be  engraved  on  copperplates ' ; 

gx   History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

but  this  laudable  desire  does  not  appear  to  have  been 
carried  out.     On  the  same  day  it  was  ordered 

c  That  the  Lid  of  Bacchus's  Tomb  be  ornamented  and  that  the 
Ornaments  thereof  be  left  to  the  Tast  and  direction  of  Mr.  Knapton 
and  that  the  Tomb  be  left  with  him  for  that  purpose ' ; 


'  That  cases  be  made  for  the  Tomb  and  Balloting-Box  and  that 
the  direction  of  the  same  be  left  to  Mr.  Knapton/ 

The  following  bill  has  been  preserved  : — 

x7?5>*  Jan*  7*    The  Honble.  Society  of  Dely-tentos. 

Dr.  to  Thos.  Adey. 

For  carving  the  top  of  Bacchus'  Tomb,  with 

sculpture  and  ornaments  of  fouldige .         .      £11110 
For  a  case  for  the  Balloting  Box  .        .        .  1   11  6 

£ia  12  6  (sic) 

Feb.  8.  Reed,  the  Contents. 

Per.  Thos.  Adey. 

On  April  1,  1739, xt  was  resolved 

c  That  the  thanks  of  this  Society  be  returned  to  Mr.  Ponsonby 
for  his  great  Generosity  in  presenting  the  Society  with  Ballotting 
Balls  and  Bag/ 

The  ornament  for  the  top  of  Bacchus's  Tomb,  as 
the  box  for  containing  the  books  of  the  Society  was 
henceforth  called,  was  not  executed  till  some  time 
after,  for  on  April  1,  1744,  it  is  recorded  that 

c  Pursuant  to  an  order  of  the  Society  of  April  Ann  :  Soc  :  Sex  : 
That  an  Ornament  is  necessary  for  the  Top  of  Bacchus's  Tomb, 
Resolved  that  it  is  the  opinion  of  the  Society  that  a  Bacchus  is 
a  proper  ornament  for  the  same  and  that  the  Sculptor  of  the  Society 
be  directed  to  execute/ 

The  inspection  of  this  was  delegated  to  Sir  John 
Rawdon,  Mr.  Knapton,  and  Mr.  Fauquier,  ana  on 
February  3,  i74|,  there  is  recorded: 

'  Paid  to  Mr.  Adye  Ten  guineas  (out  of  the  forfeit  money)  for 


History  of  the  Society  of  'Dilettanti    33 

having  gott  executed  the  Bacchus  for  the  top  of  the  Tomb  in  Ivory 
to  the  satisfaction  of  the  Society/ 

A  further  adornment  was  subsequently  deemed 
necessary,  for  on  December  7,  1767,  it  was  proposed 
and  agreed, 

c  That  as  Bacchus's  backside  appeared  bare,  there  should  be  some 
covering  provided  for  it/ 

Mr.  Revett  was  therefore  requested  to  prepare 
a  design,  which  was  approved  by  the  Society  in 
February,  1768,  when  it  was  resolved 

£That  Mr.  Revett  be  desired  to  procure  a  model  of  the  sd 
design  executed  by  Mr.  Moser  and  to  be  produced  to  the  Society 
when  finished/ 

It  does  not  seem  as  if  this  was  ever  carried  out, 
for  in  April,  1780,  it  is  recorded  that 

c  Sr  John  Tayler  having  Presented  to  the  Society  by  the  Hands 
of  the  Sec.  a  Bas  Relivo  in  Ivory  of  Perseus  and  Andromeda, 
orderd  that  the  Thanks  of  the  Soc.  be  given  to  Sr  John  Tayler 
for  his  generous  benefaction.  A  motion  was  made  that  Sr  John 
Tayler's  benefaction  seeming  to  be  nine  inches  long  be  proper  to  be 
applied  to  Bacchus's  back — / 

This  application  was  entrusted  to  Mr.  Stuart  under 
pain  of  a  forfeit,  but  on  amendment  the  name  of 
Mr.  (afterwards  Sir  Joseph)  Banks  was  substituted. 
On  May  4,  1740,  it  was  resolved 

'That  it  is  necessary  a  publick  Seal  be  made  for  the  use  of  the 

and  a  committee  was  appointed  to  consider  a  proper 
form  and  device  for  the  said  seal.    On  March  7, 1 74.1, 

cThe  Question  being  put  to  agree  with  the  Committee  in 
a  resolution  that  the  Device  of  the  Great  Seal  of  the  Society  be 
a  Consular  Figure  in  the  chair  with  the  Fasces  and  the  inscription 
Auctoritate  Reipublicae  it  passed  in  the  Negative,' 

and  it  was  ordered 

c  That  the  figures  of  Minerva  and  Apollo  be  the  Device  of  the 
Great  Seal  of  the  Society/ 

34  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

On  May  2,  1742,  it  is  recorded 

cThat  it  is  the  opinion  of  the  committee  that  the  drawing 
of  Apollo  and  Minerva  produced  by  Sir  Francis  Dashwood  bee  the 
proper  Device  for  the  great  seal  of  the  Society / 

and  it  was  ordered 

c  That  the  Motto  for  the  said  seal  be  either  Virtus  Dilectantium 
or  Cum  Judicio  Elegantia  or  Inter  Utrumque  tene  or  Seria  Ludo/ 


'  That  Seria  Ludo  be  the  Motto/ 

The  device  of  Sir  Francis  Dashwood  appears,  how- 
ever, to  have  been  abandoned  in  favour  of  another, 
for  a  seal,  well  known  to  the  Society  afterwards  as 
the  '  Medusa,'  was  ordered  and  purchased  in  March, 
174J,  although  no  record  appears  in  the  minutes. 
The  following  bill,  however,  has  been  preserved  : — 

Delivered  to  Mr.  Napton,  from  Jacob  Dahomel,  Jeweller. 
March  23,  174.I : 

A  large  seal  of  a  Medusa's  head  in  silver  guilt 
in  the  shape  of  a  Mercurs  cape  and  a  caducea 
for  the  handle  of  the  seal :  the  cutting  of 
the  stone  and  Jewellers'  work  and  silver  comes 
to  two  guineas  and  a  half        ....      £z  12     6 

The  carving  or  chacer  work  comes  to  a  guinea 

and  a  half £1   i\     6 

The  guilding  and  the  chagrin  casse      .         .  £1     1     o 

£l    ?    0 

Received  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  the  contents  in  full. 
6th  Jan.  Geo.  Knapton. 

A  silver  standish  or  inkstand  was  procured  for 
the  Society  in  April,  1742,  by  Mr.  William  Bristow 
at  a  cost  of  twenty  guineas,  repaid  him  in  the 
following  March.  This  inkstand  was  presented  to 
Sir  Henry  Englefield,  Bart.,  on  February  18,  1822, 
when  he  resigned  the  office  of  Secretary. 
Dining         The  dinners  were  paid  for  by  a  collection  among 



Let  into  the  back  of  "  Bacchus' s  Tomb 

History  of  the  Society  of  'Dilettanti    35- 

the  members  present,  the  price  being  fixed  at  first  at 
5*/.  per  head.  The  sum  then  collected  went  to  pay 
the  cost  of  the  dinner  next  ensuing.  If  this  sum 
proved  insufficient  for  the  purpose,  the  deficit  was 
supplied  from  the  general  fund.  A  forfeit  of  1  os.  6d. 
was  inflicted  for  non-attendance  of  members  '  if  in 
the  kingdom  and  neglecting  to  send  an  excuse.' 
Forfeits  were  also  inflicted  for  the  breach  of  the 
following  regulations,  as  recorded  in  the  minutes : — 

c  April  1767.  Ordered  that  any  member  who  quits  the  Room 
before  the  Bill  is  paid  without  first  obtaining  leave  from  the 
President  do  pay  the  sum  of  £i   i.  o.  to  the  General  Fund.' 

'April  1770.  Resolved  that  any  Member  drinking  to  another 
during  the  Time  of  Dinner  and  the  Member  so  drank  to  accepting 
the  Compliment  each  of  them  to  pay  half-a-crown  to  ye  General 

Under  this  regulation  in  March,  1779, 

f  Mr  Langlois  being  convicted  of  hob  or  nobbing  with  Sr  Richd 
Worsley  was  find  ....  o:  a  :  6.  Sr  Richd  not  having  acknowledgd 
the  receipt  of  the  said  comp*  was  allowed  to  be  innocent  and 
of  course  not  fineable.5 

'Feb.  i,  1778.  Ordered  that  every  Member  who  shall  produce 
upon  the  Table  a  Dish  of  Tea  or  Coffee  do  pay  to  the  Gen.  Fund 
of  this  Society  one  guinea  for  every  such  Dish/ 

On  May  2,  1779, 

c  Mr  Greville  having  producd  a  dish  of  Coffee  upon  the  Table 
incurrd  the  Penalty  of  one  guinea  but  refused  to  pay  it/ 

On  December  tf,  1778,  it  is  also  recorded  that 

c  Ld  Sandwich  and  Mr.  Banks  having  calld  this  respectable 
Society  by  the  disrespectful  name  of  Club  were  find  a  bumper  each 
which  they  drank  with  all  proper  humility.    Lord  Mulgrave  do.  do/ 

c  Ld  Sandwich  having  again  calld  the  Society  by  the  dis- 
respectful name  of  Club  was  again  find  a  bumper  and  again 
respectfully  submitted/ 

Afterwards  a  fine  of  one  guinea  (reduced  at  a  later 
date  to  half  a  crown)  was  inflicted  for  this  crime. 
The  following  fine  was  ordered  in  January,  1780,  viz. : 

*  That  any  Member  who  shall  make  a  motion  in  the  Society 

d  a 

3  6    History  of  the  Society  of  'Dilettanti 

which  motion  is  not  seconded  by  some  other  Member  then  present 
do  pay  the  sum  of  half-a-guinea  into  the  Gen.  Fund.' 

Convivial  The  second  of  the  ordinances  above  quoted  was 
excesses.  0f  some  importance.  Hard  drinking  was  very  much 
in  fashion  at  the  time,  and  much  drunkenness  was 
caused  by  the  habit  of  friends  toasting  each  other, 
often  in  bumpers,  the  compliment  being  one  which 
it  was  considered  an  insult  to  decline.  The  reproach 
of  convivial  excess  is  one  which  the  early  members 
of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  neither  could  nor  would 
have  chosen  to  disclaim.  Their  reputation  for  it 
is  shown  by  Horace  Walpole's  sneer  in  a  letter 
to  Sir  Horace  Mann  on  April  14,  1743,  where  he 
says  of  the  Dilettanti  that  <■  the  nominal  qualification 
is  having  been  in  Italy,  and  the  real  one,  being 
drunk :  the  two  chiefs  are  Lord  Middlesex  and 
Sir  Francis  Dashwood,  who  were  seldom  sober  the 
whole  time  they  were  in  Italy.'  Walpole's  delicate 
constitution  made  it  impossible  to  indulge  in  these 
excesses  ;  arid  in  later  years  he  became  a  martyr 
to  gout  without,  as  it  seems,  having  done  anything  to 
deserve  it.  That  the  drunkenness  of  the  time  some- 
times led  to  an  open  scandal  is  shown  by  the  story 
of  the  Calves'  Head  Club.  On  January  30,  1734, 
a  party  of  young  men,  seven  of  whom  (Harcourt, 
Middlesex,  Boyne,  Sewallis  Shirley,  Strode,  Denny, 
and  Sir  James  Gray)  were  members  of  the  Dilettanti, 
met  to  celebrate  the  birthday  of  one  of  the  company 
present  by  a  dinner  at  the  White  Eagle  Tavern 
in  Suffolk  Street.  The  disorder  caused  by  their 
drunken  revels  attracted  a  crowd,  who  were  led  to 
believe  that  the  dinner  was  held  to  commemorate 
the  execution  of  Charles  I  on  that  day,  and  that 
a  calf's  head  had  been  served  at  table  by  way 
of  ridicule.     A  bonfire  was  lit,  and  on  the  diners 


History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    37 

appearing  at  the  windows  they  were  stoned  by  the 
mob,  in  spite  of  their  protestations  of  fidelity  to 
the  Government  and  the  king.  It  ended  in  a  riot, 
stirred  up  by  a  Catholic  priest,  which  the  newspapers 
converted  into  an  event  of  historical  importance. 
At  the  committee  meetings  of  the  Dilettanti  Society, 
which  were  held  under  circumstances  of  less  ceremony 
than  the  ordinary  meetings,  a  high  pitch  of  con- 
viviality seems  to  have  prevailed,  for  on  February  1 8, 
1 74^,  it  is  recorded  that 

*  The  Committee  growing  a  little  noisy  and  drunk  and  seeming 
to  recollect  that  they  are  not  quite  sure  whether  the  Report  of  the 
Committee  signed  by  Chairman  and  Toast-master  Holdernesse 
may  not  be  so  intelligible  to  the  Society  as  the  meaning  of  the 
Committee  have  intended,  etc.,  etc/ 

That  the  hard  drinking  of  the  time  was  not  de- 
leterious to  life  seems  proved  by  the  fact  that  of  the 
original  members  of  the  Society  all,  with  but  two 
or  three  exceptions,  lived  to  be  well  into  the  second 
half-century  of  life.  The  resolution  of  April,  1770, 
against  health-drinking  was  repealed  by  a  minute  of 
February  13,  1791. 

c  The  Resolution  of  April  Ann.  Soc.  Trig.  Sept.  declaring  "  that 
every  member  who  drinks  to  another  or  accepts  the  Comp*  of  being 
drank  to  during  Dinner  shall  forfeit  half  a  Crown  "  was  taken  into 
consideration  &  after  due  deliberation  being  had  it  appearing 
that  little  or  no  income  had  arisen  from  the  infraction  of  this  Rule 
it  was  unanimously  resolvd  that  it  be  rescinded  &  that  in  Future 
members  be  at  Liberty  to  drink  to  each  other,  &  thank  each  other 
for  the  compliment  without  incurring  any  Penalty/ 

The  general  toasts  originally  proposed  and  adopted  roasts. 
by  the  Society  were  Viva  la  Virtu,  Grecian  Taste  and 
Roman  Spirit,  and  Absent  Members.  To  these  was 
added  by  a  minute  of  March  7,  174^,  Esto  praeclara3 
esto  perpetua.  On  March  29,  1789,  it  was  resolved 
to  add  the  toast  of  The  King  to  precede  all  others. 
This  addition  was,  no  doubt,  due  to  the  outburst  of 

practices : 


38    History  of  the  Society  of  "Dilettanti 

loyalty  which  took  place  when  the  king  resumed  his 
authority,  after  his  recovery  from  his  first  attack  of 
insanity,on  March  1  o  of  the  same  year.  A  toast  hardly 
tending  to  edification  was  enjoined  on  the  committee 
meetings  by  a  resolution  of  March  19,  1786. 

New  members  were  proposed  and  seconded  to  the 
dinners  and  elected  by  ballot.     The  regulation  was 

c  That  no  Person  can  be  proposed  to  be  admitted  of  this  Society 
but  by  a  Member  who  has  been  personally  acquainted  with  him  or 
her  in  Italy  and  at  their  request/ 


c  that  no  Person  propos'd  can  be  admitted  but  by  the  Consent  of 
more  than  three  fourths  of  the  Company  present  by  Ballot.' 

The  first  resolution  was  quaintly  modified  in  March, 
1 747,  by  a  resolution 

'That  it  is  the  opinion  of  the  Society  that  Avignon  is  in  Italy,' 

'  That  no  other  town  in  France  is  in  Italy/ 

Avignon  was  a  great  centre  for  English  travellers, 
the  Duke  of  Ormonde  having  established  a  colony 
of  Jacobite  exiles  there.  The  member  in  question 
seems  to  have  been  the  Honourable  Captain  Edg- 
cumbe,  proposed  by  the  Duke  of  Bedford,  who, 
1  having  passed  the  Gutt  or  Streights?  was  duly 
elected.  On  January  rf,  1747,  **  was  moved  by 
Lord  Sandwich,  and  carried  nem.  con. — 

c  That  leave  be  given  to  any  member  of  the  Society  Residing  in 
Italy  to  propose  Members  by  Letters,  to  be  Balloted  for  as  if 

c  Resolv'd  Nem.  Con.  that  this  order  be  pass'd  into  a  Law/ 

This  was  to  enable  Sir  James  Gray,  then  Secretary 
to  the  Embassy  and  afterwards  British  Resident  at 
Venice,  to  secure  members  for  the  Society,  so  to 
speak,  on  the  wing.  In  April,  1777,  it  was 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    39 

c  That  all  who  can  give  proof  of  their  having  been  ever  out 
of  the  King's  Dominions,  shall  hereafter  be  deem'd  sufficient 
Candidates  and  may  be  elected  Members  of  the  Society ' ; 

but  in  April,  17^4,  this  resolution  was  erased  as 
contrary  to  the  original  spirit  and  meaning  of  the 
Society,  and  the  original  rule  was  further  amended 
by  the  resolution  to  substitute,  for  the  words 
following  'this  Society,'  the  words — 

c  Who  cannot  bring  sufficient  proof  of  his  having  been  in  Italy, 
or  upon  some  other  Classic  Ground  out  of  the  King's  Dominions 
and  at  his  own  request/ 

Early  in  1742  it  was  considered  necessary  that  a 
diploma  or  parchment  instrument,  with  the  great 
seal  of  the  Society  affixed,  should  accompany  the 
admission  of  members.  On  February  4,  174J,  it 
was  resolved 

c  That  it  is  the  opinion  of  the  Society  that  the  Form  of  an 
Instrument  for  the  Admission  of  Members  be  as  follows  : — 
To  the  Highly  Favoured — 

We  the  most  Illustrious  and  vertuous  Society  of  the  Dilettanti 
do  hereby  inform  you  to  take  your  place  in  our  most  august 
assembly.  ,  President/ 

And  on  April  1,  1744, 

c  That  it  is  the  opinion  of  the  Society  that  a  Committee  of  seven 
of  the  most  antient  members  of  this  Society  be  appointed  to  sign 
the  Diplomas  to  all  those  who  are  now  members,  and  that  the 
Presid*  do  sign  all  those  for  the  time  to  come/ 

New  members  were  obliged  to  take  their  seats 
within  the  next  six  meetings  of  the  Society,  and 
their  introduction  was  conducted  by  the  Arch- 
Master  with  ceremonies  partaking  to  some  extent 
of  a  masonic  character.  Resignation,  whether 
voluntary  or  incurred  through  inadvertent  neglect 
of  the  rules  and  usages  of  the  Society,  was  styled 
abdication,  and  a  member  was  said  to  have  abdicated 
under  the  rule — 

'That   every  Member  who   neglects   to  Come  or  Write   Six 

40   History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

Meetings  successively  be  looked  upon  as  no  longer  a  Member  of 
this  Society  and  his  Name  be  Struck  out  of  the  List  accordingly/ 

The  following  minutes  tell  the  story  of  the  early 
attempts  of  the  Society  to  keep  inviolate  the  honour 
of  being  a  member  of  the  Dilettanti  : 

'April  i,  1739.  Resolved  that  to  prevent  difficulties  which 
may  arise  from  the  appearance  of  any  former  members  after 
abdication  the  officiating  Secretary  be  directed  to  advise  them 
of  their  neglect  according  to  the  following  form  : — 

Sr — You  having  neglected  to  write  or  attend  the  Society 

of  the  Dilettanti  as  their  Laws  require  I  am  ordered 

to    acquaint    you  that  you    are  no    longer    a    member 


'  Resolved  that  any  new  elected  member  who  shall  not  appear  at 

the  Society  within  six  meetings,  the  day  of  election  inclusive,  shall 

be  excluded. 

'Resolved  that  in  case  any  person  elected  does  not  make  his 
appearance  within  the  time  before  limited  the  person  who  proposed 
him  shall  be  obliged  to  pay  the  forfeitures  incurred  by  his  non 

'  March  2,  1 74.0.  Ordered  that  one  hundred  Copies  of  the  Letter 
notifying  Exclusion  be  printed  in  Italicks/ 

'  April  1,  1744.  Ordered  that  a  printed  Letter  of  Admonition 
sign'd  by  the  secretary  be  sent  to  those  members  who  have  missed 
three  times  successively  coming  to  the  Gen11  Meeting/ 

'May  zf,  174.4..  Ordered  that  the  following  form  should  be 
used  in  the  Letter  of  Admonition  : — 

This  is  to    inform   you   that  you  have   neglected  to 
attend  or  write  your  excuse  to  the   Society   of  Dilet- 
tanti for  three  successive   meetings,  and  that  upon  a 
fourth  omission  you  will  be  no  longer  a  member  thereof. 
Resolved  that  this  form  be  neither  engraved,  written,  nor  printed/ 
'  April  7, 174.5-.     Resolved  that  when  any  member  shall  abdicate, 
a  memorandum  of  the  sum  in  which  he  shall  then  stand  indebted 
to  the  Society  be  added  by  the  Secretary  as  a  Postscript  at  the 
bottom  of  the  Letter/ 

'April  5,  1747.  The  Society  agreed  with  the  Committee  in 
their  Resolution  That  the  Debts  of  those  members  who  have 
abdicated  be  examined  into,  and  that  a  statement  of  the  Debt 
of  each  particular  abdicated  member  be  sent  forthwith  with  a  most 
vehement  Exhortation  to  them  to  pay  their  debts  so  fairly  con- 
tracted and  so  unjustly  detained/ 

'March   4,   iffx*     Ordered  that   any  member  who  does   not 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    41 

make  his  personal  appearance  at  the  Society  with  in  the  space 
of  two  years  (it*  in  Great  Britain)  be  excluded  to  commence  from 
the  first  Sunday  in  December  next.5 

'April  6y  1 7  5  7.  Resolved  that  all  Persons  who  have  ever  been 
members  of  the  Society  may  upon  application  at  any  of  the 
meetings  of  the  Society  on  or  before  the  meeting  in  May  1758 
be  re-admitted  and  considered  as  new-elected  members/ 

'April  1,  1764.  Ordered  that  any  Person  who  has  been 
a  member  of  the  Society  and  is  re-elected  shall  on  his  re-election 
pay  all  the  Debts  incurred  and  due  to  the  Society  at  the  time  of 
his  Exclusion  or  that  he  shall  be  excused  on  payment  of  Ten 

'Jan.  23,  1780.  Orderd  that  the  Secretary  shall  in  future  when 
any  member  shall  have  incurrd  «  forfeits  write  him  a  letter 
notifying  to  him  the  danger  of  Abdication  in  which  he  stands  and 
that  he  be  allowd  to  incur  two  more  forfeits  before  his  abdication 
be  considered  as  compleat/ 

'  That  a  year  of  Grace  be  allowd  to  all  who  have  abdicated 
during  which  year  they  may  return  to  &  again  take  their  places 
in  the  Society  without  a  re-election/ 

With  reference  to  the  committees  of  the  Society,  commit- 
it  was  resolved  on  April  7,  i745\  tees  and 

'  That  a  number  not  less  than  five  do  constitute  all  Committees 

of  this  Society,' 

and  in  March,  1747,  it  was  ordered 

'  That  nine  members  shall  be  deen/d  a  suff*  number  to  Transact 
the  common  Business  of  the  Society  viz:  Receiving  and  paying 
and  putting  out  money  to  Interest  and  Electing  of  Members,  But 
that  no  number  less  than  twelve  shall  be  empower' d  to  alter  any 
of  the  Standing  Laws/ 


Miscellaneous  activities  of  the  Society:  the  West- 
minster Bridge  Lottery — Foundation  of  General 
Fund:  building  schemes — The  Cavendish  Square 
site — Its  abandonment  and  the  financial  result — 
Promotion  of  the  Italian  opera — Middlesex  and 
Vanneschi — Schemes  for  an  Academy  of  Arts — 
Mr.  Dingleys  plan — Communications  with  Haymans 
Committee  of  Fainter s  —  Fhe  Society's  plan — 
Collapse  of  negotiations — Foundation  of  the  I{oyal 
Academy :  its  relations  with  the  Dilettanti — Proposal 
to  form  a  gallery  of  casts  from  the  antique — 
Revival  of  the  building  scheme — Suggested  sites: 
the  Green  Park — The  Star  and  Garter — Camelford 
House — Final  abandonment  of  building  scheme — 
Increasing  riches  of  the  Society — Face-money:  J^ule 
Ann.  Soc.  'Undec. — Other  sources  of  income — Incidental 

Miscel-        r"  ~^HE  earliest  recorded  transaction  of  the  Society 
laneous  of  Dilettanti  relates  to  the  lottery  for  the 

tfZ?"  new  bridge  over  tne  Thames  at  Westminster. 

society:  This  lottery  was  a  scheme  initiated  by  Sir  Robert 
the  West-  Walpole  in  order  to  defray  the  cost  of  constructing 
mmster  tne  new  bridge.  An  Act  of  Parliament  was  passed 
iltury.  m  I7$6  to  sanction  the  lottery,  and  commissioners 
were  appointed  to  manage  it.  The  scheme  was 
not  very  successful,  although  it  was  taken  up  by 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti   43 

the  public  with  their  usual  reckless  impetuosity 
in  such  matters ;  and  Walpole  had  to  bear  the 
brunt  of  the  complaints  which  came  from  those 
who  were  disappointed  or  dissatisfied.  Numerous 
satirical  prints  were  published  on  the  matter. 
There  seems  to  have  been  more  than  one  drawing 
of  the  first  lottery,  and  a  second  was  begun  in 
December,  1740.  The  Dilettanti,  many  of  whom 
had  no  doubt  been  individually  responsible  for 
helping  to  start  the  scheme,  were  early  in  the  field 
in  a  corporate  capacity.  On  May  2,  1736,  it  was 
resolved  (and  this  is  the  first  resolution  standing  in 
their  minute-books) 

c  That  it  is  the  opinion  of  this  Society,  that  the  proposal  for 
a  subscription  to  the  Lottery  for  the  intended  Bridge  is  worthy  the 
consideration  of  the  Dilettanti  and  accordingly  have  agreed  to 
subscribe  two  Guineas  and  a  half  each  in  case  the  same  is  agreed 
to  at  the  next  meeting.  Harcourt,  President/ 

The  sum  of  £112  17s.  6d.  was  thus  raised  by 
subscription,  and  the  list  of  members  who  either 
subscribed  or  else  were  absent  at  the  moment  gives 
for  the  first  time  the  names  of  those  who  have  been 
since  regarded  as  the  original  members  of  the  Society. 
On  May  id,  1 7  3  6",  it  was  resolved 

'That  Mr.  Harris  be  desired  by  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  to 
take  upon  himself  the  office  of  Treasurer  of  the  Lottery  Money. 
That  he  be  impowered  to  lay  out  in  Lottery  tickets  one  hundred 
&  seven  guineas  &  one  half,  for  the  use  of  the  said  Society- 
and  whatever  deficiencys  may  remain  upon  the  Collection  of  the 
Subscription,  shall  be  made  up  out  of  the  money  contributed  towards 
the  next  year's  Dinners,  which  money  he  is  hereby  permitted  to 
make  use  of*  but  at  the  same  time,  desired  to  write  to  so  many 
Members  as  have  not  subscribed,  or  not  paid  in  their  money,  if 

Also  it  was  ordered 

c  That  Mr.  Harris  shall  transmit  to  Sr  Fra's  Dashwood  the  number 
of  tickets  bought  with  one  hundred  and  twelve  pounds  seventeen 

44-   History  of  the  Society  of  "Dilettanti 

shillings  and  sixpence  with  the  respective  numbers  of  the  said 
purchased  tickets.  L.  Pilkington,  Presid*/ 

Eleven  additional  subscriptions  were  subsequently- 
paid  in,  leaving  Mr.  Harris  with  £123  7s.  6d.  to 
invest  in  lottery  tickets,  and  eventually  twenty- 
seven  tickets  were  purchased  at  £\  iij\  each  from 
Richard  Shergold,  whose  lottery  office  is  stated  in 
an  advertisement  of  the  London  Daily  Post^  January 
23,  1740,  to  have  been  at  the  Union  Coffee  House 
over  against  the  Royal  Exchange,  Cornhill.  Three 
of  these  twenty-seven  tickets  won  prizes,  and  in 
March,  173^,  the  following  entry  was  made  in  the 
minutes : — 

'Received  of  Mr.  Harris  £4.4.  8*.  od.  for  three  prizes  zt  £11 
4*.  od.  each  and  for  24  blanks  at  ys.  each/ 

It  will  thus  be  seen  that  the  venture  was  not  very 
profitable.  When  the  second  lottery  was  started  in 
1740  it  was  resolved,  on  May  4, 

1  That  thirty-nine  pounds  eighteen  shillings  and  sixpence  be 
paid  to  Mr.  Treasurer  Harris  out  of  the  Lottery  Money,  for  the 
use  of  the  Society,  in  the  Adventure  of  the  present  Bridge  Lottery/ 

And  it  was  ordered 

'  That  Mr  Harris  shall  transmit  to  Mr  Comptroller  Boone  the 
Number  of  Tickets  bought  with  thirty-nine  pounds  eighteen  shillings 
&  sixpence  with  the  respective  numbers  of  the  sd  purchased 

Eight  tickets  were  purchased  with  this  money,  two 
of  which  gained  prizes  of  £20  and  £10  each  at  the 
drawing  in  March,  i74f.  This  venture  was  more 
successful  than  the  last,  but  on  December  7,  1740, 
it  was  ordered 

{  That  a  Committee  of  the  whole  Society  be  appointed  to  meet 
on  Tuesday  the  17th  instant  to  enquire  into  the  Conduct  of 
Mr.  Treasurer  Harris  and  Mr.  Comptroller  Boone  in  respect  to 
the  purchasing  of  Lottery  Tickets,  and  that  they  have  power  to 
call  for  Books,  papers,  etc.  Duncannon/ 

















History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti   45- 

The  result  of  this  inquiry,  if  held,  has  not  been 
preserved.  A  statement  made  by  Colonel  George 
Gray,  the  Secretary  to  the  Society,  just  previous  to 
the  drawing  of  the  last  lottery  gives  an  interesting 
record  of  the  finances  of  the  Society  in  1740  and 


Ann.  Soc.  Sept.  £    s.    d. 

In  the  Lottery  Box  the  first  meeting         .         .         .     zj     9     8 
Money  arising  from  Profits     .... 
Overplus  of  Dinner  Money  for  Ann.  Sext. 

In  Cash,  exclusive  of  Dinner  Money  for  Ann.  Oct. 
Paid  to  Mr.  Harris  for  Lottery  Tickets    . 

Remaining  in  Lottery  Box 
Thirty  subscriptions  for  Dinners  for  the  next  year, 


Total  Cash    . 

From  this  it  will  be  seen  that  the  ventures  of  the 
Society  in  the  lottery  were  attended  with  great 
risk,  reducing  their  cash  in  hand  to  £6  us.  %d. 
Had  they  been  unsuccessful  altogether,  the  Society 
might  have  had  no  further  history,  and  might  have 
distinguished  itself  by  none  of  those  achievements 
with  which  its  name  was  subsequently  to  be 
connected.  The  original  members  were  not,  how- 
ever, prophets  or  clairvoyants,  and  the  idea  of 
making  any  practical  use  of  their  meetings  and 
their  funds  had  not  as  yet  entered  their  heads. 

The  experience  thus  gained  from  the  Westminster  foundation 
Bridge  Lottery  led  to  a  very  important  resolution  °fGeneral 
on  March  7,  i74|j  that  %%J„g 

c  The  Words  "  Lottery  Money,"  placed  on  the  fourth  partition  schemes. 
of  the  Treasure   be  removed,  and  the  Words  "  General  Fund " 
placed  in  their  room/ 

It  was  at  the  same  time  ordered 

c  That  a  Building  be  erected  or  procured  for  the  more  honourable 
and  commodious  reception  of  the  Society/ 

46  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

c  That  a  Voluntary  Subscription  be  made  by  every  Member  of  the 
Society  not  exceeding  five  guineas  nor  less  than  one  guinea/ 

'That  the  General  Fund  be  appropriated  and  made  sacred  to 
the  sole  use  of  erecting  or  procuring  Building,  etc/ 

e  That  an  officer  be  appointed  with  title  of  High  Steward,  etc/ 
(see  page  a 8). 

c  That  Mr.  Harris  be  desired  and  empowered  to  ask  and  collect 
the  voluntary  Contribution  not  under  one  guinea  nor  exceeding 
five  guineas  for  the  erecting  or  procuring  a  Building  for  the  more 
Honourable  and  Commodious  reception  of  the  Society  as  he 
occasionally  sees  them/ 

On  May  i,  1743,  it  was  resolved 

c  That  four  Commissioners  be  appointed  to  look  out  for  a  proper 
spot  to  build  a  Room.  The  Commissioners  Lord  Middlesex,  S* 
James  Gray,  Mr.  Boone,  Mr.  Very  High  Steward  Harris  and  a 
fifth  added  Sr  Francis  Dashwood/ 

Active  steps  towards  this  scheme  do  not  appear 
to  have  been  taken  till  May  3,  1747,  when  a  com- 
mittee of  thirteen  members  (five  being  a  quorum) 
was  appointed 

'To  enquire  and  treat  for  a  proper  place  and  ground  for  the 
Erecting  the  Building  intended  for  the  Reception  of  the  Society,* 

and  empowered  to  purchase  ground  for  a  sum  not 
exceeding  £300  or  the  value  of  that  in  annual  rent. 
The  thirteen  members  chosen  were  Sir  Francis  Dash- 
wood,  the  Duke  of  Bedford,  Mr.  Gray,  Mr.  Fauquier, 
Mr.  Boyle,  Sir  H.  Liddell,  the  Earl  of  Holdernesse, 
the  Earl  of  Middlesex,  Mr.  Harris,  Mr.  Howe,  Lord 
Duncannon,  Mr.  Boone,  and  Mr.  Brand,  and  to  this 
number  were  subsequently  added  the  Earl  of  Bles- 
sington,  Mr.  Knapton,  Mr.  Berkeley,  Mr.  Shirley, 
Sir  A.  Calthorpe,  Mr.  Villiers,  and  Mr.  Mackye. 
The  caven-  This  committee  decided  on  a  site  in  Cavendish 
dish  Square  5quare?  which  was  purchased  by  the  Society  from 
the  Duke  of  Chandos  at  a  cost  of  £400,  the  in- 
creased expenditure  being  sanctioned  by  a  minute 
of  December  6y  174.7.     The  ground  was   situated 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti   47 

on  the  north  side  of  the  square,  between  the  houses 
of  the  Earl  of  Abercorn  and  Sir  Richard  Lyttelton. 
The  ground  was  levelled,  enclosed  with  a  wall  de- 
signed by  Colonel  George  Gray,  who  was  an  amateur 
architect  himself,  and  eight  large  elms  and  six  horse- 
chestnut  trees  were  planted  on  the  north  side 
of  the  square.  Over  two  hundred  pounds'  worth 
of  Portland  stone  was  purchased  and  deposited  on 
the  spot,  the  foundations  were  actually  dug  out, 
and  an  additional  piece  of  waste  ground  behind 
Lady  Abercorn's  house  was  rented,  apparently  from 
Sir  Richard  Lyttelton,  in  order  to  afford  a  back 
entrance  into  the  Society's  premises.  On  May  3, 
1 7  j  2,  a  resolution  was  passed 

e  That  it  is  the  opinion  of  the  Society  that  it  would  be  adviseable 
to  come  to  a  Resolution  to  fix  upon  some  Antique  Building  as 
a  model  for  that  intended  by  the  Society  according  to  the  most 
exact  proportions  &  measurements  that  can  be  procured,  this  with 
a  view  to  prevent  the  numberless  difficulties  that  may  come  in 
fixing  upon  any  new  modern  Plan  as  such  an  undertaking  when 
finished  must  amuse  the  curious  and  having  bten  approv'd  for 
many  ages  must  naturally  put  a  stop  to  all  supercilious  Criticisms/ 

On  May  d,  17^3,  the  Society  agreed  with  the  com- 
mittee in  their  resolution 

c  That  the  Temple  of  Pola  be  taken  as  a  model  for  the  intended 
Building  and  that  a  Plan  or  Elevation  according  to  that  model  be 
forthwith  directed  to  be  prepared  that  it  may  be  carried  into 
immediate  execution/ 

Sir  Francis  Dashwood,  Mr.  Howe,  Mr.  Dingley, 
another  member  who  dabbled  in  architecture  and 
designed  the  Magdalen  Hospital,  and  Colonel  Gray 
were  appointed  a  committee  to  carry  out  the  above 
resolution.  The  choice  of  the  Temple  at  Pola  was 
probably  due  to  the  drawings  by  James  Stuart  and 
Nicholas  Revett,  which  had  been  taken  there  in 
175-0,  and  doubtless  submitted  to  Sir  James  Gray 
at  Venice  (see  below,  p.  76). 

4-8  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

Its  aban- 
and  the 

The  whole  project,  however,  seems  to  have  been 
abandoned  by  April  d,  i7?6>  the  Society  resolving 

c  That  a  Committee  be  appointed  to  meet  and  that  they  have 
full  Powers  to  treat  with  the  best  purchaser,  that  shall  offer,  and 
dispose  of  the  Ground  in  Cavendish  Square  to  ye  best  Bidder,  but 
that  the  said  ground  be  not  disposed  of  for  any  sum  under  ;£i8oo 
besides  the  full  value  of  the  stone,  and  that  three  be  a  Quorum 
provided  that  Sr  Fra8  Dash  wood  or  Col.  Gray  be  one,  and  that 
the  sd  Committee  have  power  of  vesting  the  purchase  money  in 
the  publick  Funds  for  the  use  of  the  Society/ 

The  land  was  valued  at  £2,200,  and  the  com- 
mittee in  May,  i7y<*,  was  instructed  not  to  dispose 
of  it  for  less  than  £2,400,  c  if  such  a  sum  is  offer'd 
during  the  course  of  the  summer.'  Such  an  offer 
does  not  appear  to  have  been  made,  for  on  May  1, 
1 7  j  7,  it  was  ordered 

c  That  Sir  Francis  Dashwcod  and  Colonel  Gray  dispose  of  the 
Ground  before  the  next  meeting  for  the  best  sum  that  they 
can  get,' 


c  That  the  sd  purchase  money  when  receiv'd  be  vested  in  Bank 

It  was  not,  however,  till  May,  17^9,  that  the  follow- 
ing order  was  signed  by  the  members  present : — 

c  At  the  General  Meeting  of  this  Society  it  is  this  day  ordered 
that  Sr  Fran8  Dashwood  Bar*  in  whose  name  the  Land  in 
Cavendish  Square  was  lately  purchased  of  the  most  Noble  Henry 
Duke  of  Chandois  and  his  Trustees,  in  Trust  for  the  use  of  this 
Society  Do  sell  and  dispose  of  the  same  and  all  the  said  Society's 
interest  therein  unto  George  Forster  Tufnell  Esq*  and  his  Heirs  for 
the  sum  of  ;£i8oo — which  sum  he  the  said  Sr  Fran8  Dashwood  is 
hereby  authorized  and  required  to  receive  and  to  give  a  sufficient 
Receipt  or  other  discharge  to  the  said  Purchaser  for  the  same. 
Ordered  that  the  said  ;£i8oo  together  with  the  produce  of  the 
General  Fund  be  laid  out  in  Gouvernment  Securitys  in  the  names 
of  Sr  Fran"  Dashwood  and  Col.  George  Grey  for  the  use  of  the 

It    is    not    clear    why    the    Society    so    suddenly 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  49 

abandoned  its  plan  of  erecting  a  Temple  of  Pola 
in  Cavendish  Square.  So  keen  had  the  members 
been  about  the  scheme  a  few  years  earlier,  that  they 
had  passed  a  resolution  in  April,  1749, 

'That  any  member  who  proposes  to  alienate  any  part  of  the 
Gen11  Fund  to  different  purposes  than  for  which  it  was  established, 
viz*,  towards  procuring  or  erecting  a  Building  for  the  more  com- 
modious and  honourable  reception  of  the  Society  shall  be  declared 
an  Enemy  to  the  Society  and  that  on  no  account  any  disposition 
shall  be  made  of  any  sum  appropriated  to  the  sd  Fund  except  on 
the  day  of  a  Gen11  call  of  the  whole  Society/ 

Nay  more, — a  further  subscription  to  a  special  Build- 
ing Fund  was  started  at  the  same  date,  headed  by 
a  subscription  of  £20  from  Dash  wood  and  various 
sums  from  other  members  of  the  Society,  the  minimum 
being  five  guineas.  It  may  have  been  the  rapid  rise  in 
value  of  the  land  in  Cavendish  Square  which  led  to 
the  decision  to  part  with  it,  for  on  the  whole  the 
Society  came  well  out  of  the  affair,  since  after  defray- 
ing all  the  expenses  and  selling  the  Portland  stone, 
the  Society  was  left  with  a  clear  profit  of/i,od  311/.  yd. 
This  sum,  added  to  that  specially  subscribed  and  to 
the  General  Fund,  placed  the  Society  in  possession 
of  capital  from  about  £3,000  to  £4,000.  An  attempt 
was  made  in  April,  1756^  to  secure  a  room  in  Mon- 
tague House,  presently  to  be  occupied  by  the  British 
Museum,  or  else  in  Somerset  House  ;  but  this  proving 
unsuccessful,  the  idea  of  establishing  the  Society  in 
a  building  of  its  own  seems  to  have  lapsed  for  the 
next  five  years,  and  the  Society  resumed  its  ordinary 
meetings  at  the  Star  and  Garter  Tavern  in  Pall  Mall. 

Meanwhile   the   Society  had  given  other  proofs  Promotwi 
that  its  members  intended   themselves  to   be   con-  °fthf 
sidered  as  leaders  and  arbiters  of  public  taste.     On  lt* lan 

*  opera, 

March  6,  1 741,  it  was  resolved 

'  That  a  Committee  of  the  whole  Society  do  meet  at  the  Star 


5"o   History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 




and  Garter  on  Thursday  the  ioth  of  March  to  consider  of  the 
Proposals  made  to  the  Society  in  regard  to  the  carrying  on  of 
Operas  for  the  next  season  &  if  the  scheme  be  found  practicable 
that  the  Committee  have  full  power  to  transact  the  affair  with  the 
Propostr  the  same  as  if  a  Society  ' ; 

and  it  was  further  resolved,  on  April  3  following, 

c  That  it  is  the  opinion  of  this  Society  that  the  scheme  for  carry- 
ing on  of  Operas  is  highly  worthy  of  the  Countenance  of  the  Society 
of  Dilettanti,  that  the  Society  is  sensible  by  the  number  of 
subscriptions  already  obtained  amounting  in  the  whole  to  at  least 
150  that  the  scheme  is  likely  to  be  brought  into  effect  (by  which 
it  is  the  opinion  of  this  Society  that  great  Emolumts  must 
redound  to  the  Society)  and  therefore  it  is  most  earnestly  recom- 
mended by  the  Society  the  taking  the  most  vigorous  measures  for 
the  putting  this  scheme  into  immediate  Execution  especially  as 
by  the  nature  of  the  thing  and  the  necessity  of  giving  an  answer  to 
the  Performers  it  can  admit  of  no  delay/ 

This  motion  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  was 
obviously  due  to  the  Earl  of  Middlesex,  who  was 
a  great  supporter  of  the  Italian  opera,  and  had 
in  1 741  himself  taken  the  King's  Theatre  in  the 
Haymarket,  which  he,  as  director  and  impresario, 
opened  on  October  31  of  that  year.  This  was 
in  direct  competition  with  the  Italian  opera  as 
directed  by  Handel  and  Heidegger,  and  led  to 
Handel's  quitting  London  for  Ireland,  almost  ruined 
by  opera,  but  with  the  newly  written  score  of  The 
Messiah  in  his  coat-pocket. 

Middlesex  engaged  a  new  company  of  Italian  artists, 
with  the  celebrated  Galuppi  as  conductor,  Monticelli 
as  first  male  soprano,  Amorevoli  as  tenor, 
Visconti  as  first  female  soprano,  and  the  Abbe' 
Vanneschi  as  general  manager.  Horace  Walpole  writes 
to  Sir  Horace  Mann  on  November  y,  1741  ; — 

'Here  is  another  letter,  which  I  am  entreated  to  send  you, 
from  poor  Amorevoli :  he  has  a  continued  fever,  though  not  a  high 
one.  Yesterday  Monticelli  was  taken  ill,  so  there  will  be  no  opera 
on  Saturday,  nor  on  Tuesday.     Monticelli  is  infinitely  admired, 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    5-1 

next  to  Farinelli.  The  Viscontina  is  admired  more  than  liked. 
The  music  displeases  everybody,  and  the  dances.  I  am  quite  un- 
easy about  the  opera,  for  Mr.  Conway  is  one  of  the  directors,  and 
I  tear  they  will  lose  considerably,  which  he  cannot  afford.  There 
are  eight,  Lord  Middlesex,  Lord  Holdernesse,  Mr.  Frederick,  Lord 
Conway,  Mr.  Conway,  Mr.  Damer,  Mr.  Brook  and  Mr.  Brand. 
The  five  last  are  directed  by  the  three  first ;  they  by  the  first,  and 
he  by  the  Abbe  Vanneschi,  who  will  make  a  pretty  sum/ 

On  April  14, 1 743,  Walpole  writes  again  to  Mann  : 

c  There  is  a  new  subscription  formed  for  an  opera  next  year  to 
be  carried  on  by  the  Dilettanti,  a  club,  for  which  the  nominal 
qualification  is  having  been  in  Italy,  and  the  real  one,  being  drunk.' 

This  is  the  subscription  recorded  as  above  in  the 
minutes  of  the  Society,  but  it  does  not  appear  to 
have  come  to  anything,  for  no  operas  were  given 
at  the  Haymarket  Theatre  from  June,  1744,  to 
January,  1746.  From  that  date  it  was  carried  on 
fitfully  under  Middlesex's  direction  for  about  ten 
years,  after  which  period,  what  with  the  whims, 
squabbles,  and  ailments  of  the  performers,  the  in- 
difference of  the  public,  and  the  reckless  extravagance 
of  Middlesex  and  Vanneschi,  the  whole  scheme  came 
to  grief,  and  Vanneschi  found  himself  in  the  Fleet 

Soon    after   this    somewhat    ineffectual    attempt  Schemes  for 
of  the  Dilettanti  to  guide  the  public  into  a  taste  *»^cademy 
for  Italian    music,  a   scheme  of  a   more  important  °* 
and     very    different     nature    came     before     their 
notice :    namely,   that    for    founding  an    Academy 
of   Arts   in    London    similar   to   those   existing   in 
Rcme,  Bologna,  and  other  cities  on  the  Continent. 
The    drawing   academy   which    already   existed    in 
St.   Martin's  Lane  was  entirely  in  the  hands  of  a 
committee  of  artists,  who  had  no  wish  to  enlarge 
its  scope.     The  Dilettanti  evidently  aimed   at   the 
foundation  of  a  new  institution  on  a  broader  basis, 

E  2 

5*1    History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

and  including  some  of  those  social  elements  which 

they  themselves  represented. 
Mr.  At  a  committee  meeting  held  at  the  King's  Arms, 

Dinghy s      pa[j[    Mall,  on    February    18,    1748,   the    members 
*  an'  present  being  Lord  Holdernesse,  Lord  Duncannon, 

Sir  Francis  Dashwood,  Mr.  Fauquier,  Mr.  Berkeley, 

Major  Gray,  Mr.  Gell,  and  Mr.  Dingley, 

cMr.  Dingley  laid  his  scheme  before  the  Committee  which  after 
having  examined  Resolved  That  it  is  the  opinion  of  this  Committee 
That  it  is  highly  worthy  the  Consideration  of  the  particular 
members  of  the  Society  and  recommend  it  as  a  scheme  that 
deserves  all  encouragement. 

'  Resolved  That  it  is  the  opinion  of  this  Committee  whenever 
Mr.  Dingley's  or  any  other  scheme  for  an  Academy  shall  take 
place  to  show  their  readiness  to  promote  and  encourage  such 

*  That  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  do  give  ten  pounds  per  ann.  out 
of  their  General  Fund  for  the  second  best  Performances  in  the 
three  different  Branches  mention'd  in  the  said  scheme. 

'Holdernesse,  Chairman/ 

This  was  the  meeting  to  which  allusion  has  already 
been  made  (p.  37),  and  at  which  a  postscript  was 
added  to  the  effect  that 

'  The  Committee  growing  a  little  noisy  and  drunk  and  seeming 
to  recollect  that  they  are  not  quite  sure  whether  the  Report  of  the 
Committee  signed  by  Chairman  and  Toast-master  Holdernesse 
may  not  be  so  intelligible  to  the  Society  as  the  meaning  of  the 
Committee  have  intended,  that  there  should  be  inserted  after  the 
word  "encourage  "  and  before  the  word  "  such,"  " having  premiums 
assd."  and  after  the  word  "  that "  and  before  the  word  "  the  "  the 
word  "  then  "  be  inserted  and  that  the  words  "  the  n  and  "  said  " 
before  the  word  "scheme"  be  expunged  and  the  words  "Mr. 
Dingley's  "  be  inserted.     Resolved  in  the  negative/ 

The  precise  nature  of  the  scheme  proposed  by  the 
versatile  Mr.  Dingley  has  not  been  recorded.  A  too 
adventurous  bark,  amply  christened  at  its  launching, 
it  seems  to  have  promptly  foundered  in  port. 

However,  the  desire  of  the  Dilettanti  to  promote 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    $3 

some  such  scheme  seems  to  have  got  abroad,  for 
on  February  2,  i7ffy 

CA  Paper  from  Mr.  Newton  secretary  to  the  Committee  of 
Painters  directed  to  the  President  was  deliver'd  to  them  by  Colonel 
Gray  and  read  accordingly/ 

This  paper  accompanied  an  introductory  discourse  Communka- 

and  plan  of  an  Academy  for  the  Improvement  of  ttons  **** 

Arts  in  General,  and  was  drawn  up  by  the  select  com-  rSmStn 

mittee  of  painters,  statuaries,  architects,  engravers,  &c,  of  Painters. 

which  had  originally  met  at  the  Turk's  Head  Tavern, 

Gerrard  Street,  Soho,  with  Francis  Hayman  in  the 

chair,  on  November  13,  17^3  ;  a  momentous  date  in 

the  history  of  British  art.    The  concluding  paragraph 

of  the  said  discourse  contains  a  distinct  reference 

and  appeal  to  the  Society  of  Dilettanti,  as  follows : — 

c  As  then  the  undertaking  is  of  a  public  nature ;  as  the  expense 
to  the  public  will  be  inconsiderable  in  comparison  to  the 
advantages  to  be  expected  from  it;  as  a  distinguished  set  of 
Noblemen  and  Gentlemen,  long  ago  convinced  of  the  necessity 
of  such  a  plan,  set  apart  a  sum  of  money  to  be  applied  to  a 
similar  use,  when  opportunity  shall  offer;  as  pecuniary  rewards 
have  been  offered  by  another  society  of  Noblemen  and  Gentlemen, 
to  stimulate  and  encourage  young  beginners ;  and  as  no  founda- 
tion however  narrow  in  its  views  and  purposes  whatsoever,  has 
ever  yet  wanted  patrons  and  benefactors,  it  would  become 
criminal  even  to  suppose  a  possibility  that  such  an  one  as  this 
would  be  suffered  to  perish  in  the  birth  for  want  of  assistance  only.' 

On  March  2,  1757,  it  was  resolved 

c  That  it  is  the  opinion  of  the  Society  that  a  Letter  be  wrote  to 
the  Members  of  the  Academy  of  Painting  &c,  to  return  them 
thanks  for  the  particular  regard  shown  in  their  application  to  them 
as  a  Body  and  to  every  member  respectively  and  that  as  soon  as 
the  proposed  scheme  is  brought  to  any  maturity  and  a  Charter 
obtain'd  they  will  be  ready  to  give  them  all  the  assistance  that 
shall  be  in  their  power.  (Bedford,  president.)' 

On  April  tf,  175T,  a  letter  from  the  Academy  of 
Painters,  &c,  signed  by  the  Gentlemen  of  the  said 
Academy,  among  whom  James  Stuart  and  Nicholas 

5"4-    History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

Revett  were  also   members  of  the  Dilettanti,  was 
read.     The  contents  were  as  follows : — 

'  Gentlemen  of  the  Dilettanti  Society. 

'  May  it  please  you  to  accept  the  sincere  acknowledgments 
of  us  the  Committee  of  Painters,  Statuaries,  Architects,  etc.,  for 
the  condescending  Resolution  passed  in  our  favour,  and  com- 
municated to  us  by  Colonel  Gray,  as  also  to  permit  us,  in  the 
most  respectful  manner,  to  represent,  that  in  consequence  of  the 
encouragement  derived  to  us  from  it,  we  have  entertained  thoughts 
of  enlarging  the  plan  of  our  Charter,  so  as  to  make  room  for  the 
reception  of  a  number  of  Members  not  of  the  professions  above 
specified,  to  assist  conjointly  with  us  in  directing  and  governing 
the  Royal  Academy,  of  which  we  are  now  soliciting  the  establish- 
ment; and  that  we  should  think  ourselves  highly  honoured  and 
extremely  happy  in  receiving  the  number  which  may  be  proposed 
out  of  your  Society ;  to  which  we  are  also  desirous  to  submit  the 
nomination  of  our  first  President ;  being  persuaded  that  with  your 
countenance  and  assistance  we  cannot  fail  to  obtain  the  counten- 
ance and  assistance  of  the  public.  But  then  we  beg  leave  to  add, 
that,  such  an  alteration  in  our  original  plan  making  it  absolutely 
necessary  to  have  a  suitable  alteration  in  our  Charter,  it  will  be 
out  of  our  power  to  bring  it  to  an  issue  as  required,  till  your  pleasure 
with  regard  to  this  is  made  known  to  us. 
c  We  are,  Gentlemen, 

c  Your  most  obliged  and  most  devoted  humble  Servants, 
F.  Hayman  J.  Gwyn  Robt.  Taylor 

Chas.  Grignion  G.  M.  Moser  Wm.  Hoare 

Thos.  Hudson  Sam.  Wale  L.  F.  Roubilliac 

George  Lambert  Ric.  Yco  Thos.  Carter 

Samuel  Scott  R*.  Strange  James  Stuart 

Richd.  Dalton  G.  Hamilton 

Fr.  Milr.  Newton  Isc.  Ware 

J.  Reynolds  John  Astlcy 

Hy.  Cheere  Nicolas  Revett 

John  Pine  Thomas  Sandby 

'April!,  17^/ 

After  reading  this  letter  it  was  resolved 

1  That  the  consideration  of  the  said  Letter  be  referr'd  to  the 
General  Meeting  in  May/ 


'That  Col.  Gray  be  desir'd  to  inform  himself  from  the  Academy 
of  Painters  etc.,  of  their  scheme  for  a  Royal  Academy  and  the 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    57 

purport  of  their  intended  Charter,  which  he  is  requested  to  produce 
at  the  next  general  meeting ' ; 


'That  an  extraordinary  and  General  Committee  be  appointed  to 
meet  on  Sunday  the  20th  of  April  to  consider  of  the  proposition 
of  the  Academy  of  Painters  etc.,  and  that  Circular  Letters  be  sent.' 

At  the  committee  meeting  of  the  Dilettanti  on  The  Society's 
April  20  the  following  resolutions  were  passed,  and  &*• 
adopted  by  the  general  meeting  of  the  Society  in 
May  following: — 

'  That  it  is  the  opinion  of  that  Committee  That  the  President 
of  the  intended  Royal  Academy  be  all  wayes  and  annually  chosen 
out  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti.' 

'That  all  the  members  of  the  Dilettanti  be  members  of  the 
Academy,  but  that  only  twelve  of  the  Senior  members  Present 
at  the  meeting  shall  have  votes/ 

'  That  any  artist  may  be  chosen  a  Member  of  the  Academy,  but 
that  only  twelve  of  the  Artists  to  be  chosen  annually  out  of  their 
Body  shall  have  votes,  and  that  upon  an  equality  of  Votes  the 
President  shall  have  a  second  vote.  e  Sandwich?  chairman/ 

In  the  minutes  of  the  same  meeting  it  is  recorded  that 

'  A  printed  paper  of  a  scheme  for  a  Royal  Academy  *  being  read 
to  the  Society  it  was  agreed  that  Colonel  Gray  be  desired  to  obtain 
one  of  the  said  printed  papers  from  the  author  and  to  enclose  the 
same  in  a  letter  to  the  Society  of  painters  acquainting  them  that  the 
Society  of  the  Dilettanti  approve  of  that  as  a  groundwork  to  proceed 
upon  tho5  liable  to  alterations,  and  to  desire  their  opinion  thereupon 
and  report  the  same  at  the  next  meeting  of  the  Dilettanti  in  Dec/ 

No  mention  of  such  a  report  occurs  in  the  minutes 

of  the  Society  for  December,  i7ff'y  but  the  following 

was  addressed  to  the  Society  by  the  Committee  of 

Painters  on  December  3  o  : — 

'  To  the  Noblemen  and  Gentlemen  of  the  Dilettanti  Society. 
We,  the  Committee  of  Painters,  Sculptors,  and  Architects,  beg 
leave  to  remind  the  Honourable  Dilettanti  Society  of  two  Resolu- 
tions of  theirs  ;  the  one  signed  by  His  Grace  the  Duke  of  Bedford, 
encouraging  us  to  proceed  with  our  design  of  preparing  and 
soliciting  a  Charter  for  the  establishment  of  a  Royal  Academy ; 

1  Perhaps  Mr.  Dinglcy's  scheme. 

$6    History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

and  the  other  by  the  Earl  of  Sandwich,  Chairman  of  the  Committee, 
for  considering  our  proposals  in  relation  thereto :  assuring  us  that 
their  determination  thereon  should  be  communicated  to  us;  as  also 
to  intimate  in  the  most  respectful  manner,  that  the  sooner  we  can 
be  favoured  with  the  said  determination,  the  more  a  favour  we  shall 
esteem  it, — it  appearing  to  us  as  highly  unbecoming  to  proceed  in  an 
affair  once  laid  before  them,  till  we  have  been  made  acquainted 
with  their  sentiments  upon  it. 
i  We  are,  Gentlemen, 

c  Your  most  obliged  and  most  devoted  humble  Servants, 
F.  Hayman  G.  M.  Moser  Jas.  Paine 

Robt.  Taylor  Saml.  Scott  Frs.  Milner  Newton 

Saml.  Wale  Thos.  Carter  C.  Grignion.' 

J.  Gwyn  J.  Reynolds 

Collapse  of  There  is  no  record  in  the  minutes  to  show  that 
negottatmis.  this  letter  was  ever  submitted  to  the  Society,  or  of 
any  further  communication  with  the  Society  of 
Painters  on  the  subject.  The  Society  of  Dilettanti 
seems  at  first  sight  to  have  been  rather  high-handed 
in  passing  the  resolutions  detailed  above,  which  were 
hardly  consonant  with  the  scheme  set  forth  by  the 
committee  of  artists ;  but  at  that  date  circumstances 
had  already  shown  the  difficulty  of  carrying  on  an 
Academy  managed  by  artists  alone,  and  some  of  the 
artists  themselves  appear  to  have  been  of  opinion 
that  a  strong  infusion  of  unprofessional  members 
would  make  the  scheme  more  workable.  It  is 
evident  that  the  Dilettanti  would  be  content  with 
nothing  but  the  complete  control  of  the  new 
Academy,  and  that,  their  help  not  being  forthcoming 
on  any  other  terms,  the  whole  scheme  collapsed.  One 
member  however  of  the  committee  of  artists,  Sir 
Robert  Strange,  has  in  his  Inquiry  into  the  J^ise 
and  Establishment  of  the  fyyal  Academy  left  the 
following  tribute  to  the  behaviour  of  the  Dilettanti 
on  this  occasion  : — 

c  A  Society  composed   of  a   number  of  the   most  respectable 
persons  of  this  country,  commonly  known   by  the  name  of  the 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    5-7 

Dilettanti,  made  the  first  step  towards  an  establishment  of  this 
nature.  That  society,  having  accumulated  a  considerable  fund, 
and  being  really  promoters  of  the  fine  arts,  generously  offered  to 
appropriate  it  to  support  a  public  academy.  General  Gray,  a 
gentleman  distinguished  by  his  public  spirit  and  fine  taste,  was 
deputed  by  that  Society  to  treat  with  the  artists.  I  was  present 
at  their  meetings.  On  the  part  of  our  intended  benefactors,  I 
observed  that  generosity  and  benevolence  which  are  peculiar  to 
true  greatness  j  but  on  the  part  of  the  majority  of  the  leading 
artists,  I  was  sorry  to  remark  motives  apparently  limited  to  their 
own  views  and  ambition  to  govern,  diametrically  opposite  to  the 
liberality  with  which  we  were  treated.  After  various  conferences, 
the  Dilettanti  finding  that  they  were  to  be  allowed  no  share  in  the 
government  of  the  Academy,  or  in  appropriating  their  own  fund, 
the  negotiation  ended/ 

The  Society  nevertheless  took  a  cordial  interest  Foundation 
in  the  Royal  Academy  when  that  body  eventually  °fthe  R°yal 
came   into   existence   and   obtained   its  charter   in  t ca  e,mJ ' 

a  r         t^  r  lts  relations 

176%.     As  it  turned  out,  the  first  President  or  the  with  the 
Royal  Academy,  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds,  was  actually  Dilettanti. 
a  member  of  the    Dilettanti   at   the   time  of  his 
election.     The    Society   showed    its    interest    in    a 
practical  way,  for  on  March  0%  1774,  it  was  ordered 

1  That  the  Interest  of  four  Thousand  pounds  three  pr  Cent. 
Annuities  be  appropriated  to  the  use  of  sending  two  students 
recommended  by  the  Royal  Accademy  to  study  in  Italy  or  Greece 
for  three  years,  and  no  longer,  from  the  time  they  are  appointed ; 
that  tho:  due  attention  is  to  be  paid  to  the  recommendation  of  the 
Royal  Accademy  the  Dilettanti  shall  not  be  oblidged  to  receive  the 
persons  they  propose  except  they  are  approved  by  a  majority  at 
a  Call  of  the  Society  when  if  they  think  them  insufficient  they 
may  nominate  others/  [Seaforth.] 

On  February  2?,  177?,  a  call  of  the  Society  was 
ordered  for  the  first  Sunday  in  the  following  month  of 
March,  and  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds  was  desired  to  bring 
the  students  appointed  by  the  Royal  Academy  to 
pursue  their  studies  abroad  to  receive  the  approba- 
tion of  the  Society.  The  Dilettanti  exercised  their 
power  of  selection,  for  in  March,  1 77?,  Mr.  JeiFerics, 

5*8    History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

Proposal  to 
form  a 
gallery  of 
casts  from 
the  antique. 

painter,  and  Mr.  Banks,  sculptor,  being  recommended 

by  the  Royal  Academy,  it  was  ordered 

£That  Mr.  Jeffries  be  appointed  as  a  student  to  go  into  Italy 
under  the  Protection  of  the  Society '  • 

and  also 

1  That  Mr.  Pars  also  go  into  Italy  claiming  the  same  Protection, 
Their  salaries  to  begin  from  the  date  of  their  arrival  at  Rome/ 

The  two  students  named  arrived  in  fact  at  their 
destination  on  October  7  and  December  21,  1777, 

The  object  of  establishing  a  national  drawing 
academy  in  London  had  been  materially  advanced 
by  the  munificence  of  Charles  Lennox,  third  Duke  of 
Richmond,  who,  after  returning  from  the  usual  tour 
in  Italy,  formed  when  twenty-two  or  twenty- three 
years  of  age  a  collection  of  paintings,  sculpture,  and 
casts  from  the  antique  in  a  gallery  in  the  garden  of 
his  house  at  Whitehall.  This  he  opened  in  March, 
175-8,  as  a  gratuitous  school  of  drawing  for  students 
under  the  direction  of  G.  B.  Cipriani  the  painter  and 
J.  Wilton  the  sculptor.  This  was  the  first  attempt 
to  make  a  collection  of  such  casts  in  England,  and 
the  first  school  in  which  the  systematic  study  of 
antique  sculpture  was  rendered  possible  to  young 
students  of  small  means.  Horace  Walpole  says : 
cThe  institution  of  a  school  of  statuary  in  the  house 
of  a  young  nobleman  of  the  first  rank  rivals  the 
boasted  munificence  of  foreign  princes.'  The  Duke 
of  Richmond  was  not  at  the  time  a  member  of  the 
Society  of  Dilettanti,  which  he  did  not  join  until 
March,  1765  ;  but  it  may  safely  be  attributed  to  his 
example  that  on  March  1,  1761,  it  was  moved  by 
Sir  Francis  Dashwood  and  carried, 

c  That  a  Committee  be  appointed  to  consider  of  the  expcnce,  and 
how  far  it  is  practicable  to  procure  the  first  and  best  casts  of  the 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    5-9 

principal  Statues,  Busto's,  cV  Bass  Relievo's  great  or  small  in 
order  to  produce  something  from  this  Society  that  may  be  benc- 
ficiall  to  the  publick.' 

In  the  original  plan  for  the  formation  of  a  Royal 
Academy  such  a  collection  of  casts,  etc.,  had  been 
contemplated,  but  only  c  for  the  improvement  of  the 
students.'  The  resolution  of  the  Dilettanti,  although 
not  carried  into  effect,  appears  to  be  the  earliest 
scheme  in  England  for  founding  a  set  of  casts  from 
antique  sculpture  for  the  use  of  the  public,  such  as 
have  been  recently  formed  at  Cambridge,  Oxford, 
and  the  South  Kensington  Museum. 

This  scheme  had  the  effect  of  reviving  the  idea  of  Revival  of 
a  separate  building  to  be  erected  for  the  use  of  the  *f?*"J     * 
Society,  since  the  committee  to  which  it  was  referred, 
its  members   being  Sir  Francis    Dash  wood,  Colonel 
Gray,  Colonel  Denny,  and  Sir  Thomas  Robinson, 
were  of  opinion 

c  That  some  Act  should  be  undertaken  to  show  to  the  World 
the  Intention  of  their  Original  Institution — in  order  to  wh.  they 
agreed.  First— that  some  proper  place  should  be  found  out,  in 
order  to  build  a  Room,  to  hold  any  purchases  of  the  Virtu  kind  the 
Society  may  hereafter  make,  and  also  it  was  Resolv'd  that  Enquiry 
should  also  be  made  with  regard  to  any  room  or  rooms,  now  built, 
which  may  answer  the  said  purposes — to  make  a  report  to  the 
Society  on  these  heads,  at  their  next  meeting. 

( It  was  then  proposed  to  recommend  to  the  Society  to  purchase 
Casts  of  the  best  Statuery  Busts  or  Basso-relievo's  etc.,  that  may 
be  now  in  Great  Britain  or  Ireland. 

c  It  was  further  agreed  by  the  Committee  to  recommend  to  the 
Society  to  purchase  abroad  any  fine  Casts  of  the  best  statues  &c. 
in  the  manner  and  att  the  time  the  Society  shall  direct — &  it  is  left 
to  the  consideration  of  the  Society  to  make  out  the  names  of  such 
Gentlemen  abroad,  who  they  think  might  be  willing  to  assist  in 
procuring  those  pieces  of  Virtu,  which  are  the  objects  the  Society 
have  in  view  &  letters  to  be  wrote  to  'em,  signed  by  their  members, 
desiring  their  assistance  on  this  occasion.' 

Keeping  in  view  the  requirements  of  this  scheme,  *«■**"• 
the  committee  made  an  attempt  to  secure  the  auction-  Grem  Park. 

60   History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

rooms  of  the  well-known  Mr.  Cock,  the  auctioneer, 
for  their  premises.  But  the  negotiations  proved 
fruitless  owing  to  a  complication  of  leases  between 
Mr.  Cock,  a  Mr.  Smith,  the  Crown,  and  the  French 
Protestant  refugees,  whose  chapel  the  building  had 
once  been,  while  Mr.  Cock  asked  an  exaggerated  sum 
for  his  share  in  the  lease.  The  committee  then  stated 
their  opinion 

c  That  if  a  piece  of  ground  could  be  obtained  from  the  crown, 
adjoining  to  the  Park  Wall  in  Piccadilly  situated  between  the 
Duke  of  Devonshire's  and  Lord  Bath's  in  order  to  build  an  exact 
copy  of  an  antique  Temple,  that  it  would  be  the  properest  way 
of  disposing  of  the  Society's  money,  according  to  their  Intention, 
and  would  be  a  publick  ornament,  and  the  first  example  of  this 
kind  in  his  Majesty's  Dominions — and  redound  greatly  to  the 
honour  of  this  Society.' 

No  further  action,  however,  was  taken  in  the 
matter  until  March  28,  17^4,  when  the  committee 
declared,  and  on  April  1,  17^4,  the  Society  ordered 

'  That  the  Original  Resolution  viz*.  That  a  Building  be  erected, 
for  the  more  Commodious  and  Honourable  reception  of  the  Society 
for  which  purpose  the  money  has  hitherto  been  collected,  be  speedily 
taken  into  consideration  being  consistent  with  the  Honour  and 
Dignity  of  the  Society/ 

The  committee  further  recommended 

c  That  a  memorial  be  presented  to  His  Majesty  beseeching  His 
Majesty  that  he  will  be  graciously  pleased  to  allot  a  proper  piece 
of  ground  in  the  Green  Park  next  Piccadilly,  or  wherever  else  His 
Majesty  shall  think  fit,  on  which  a  building  may  be  erected  for 
the  more  commodious  and  honourable  reception  of  the  Society, 
according  to  the  Order  of  the  Society  at  the  last  General  Meeting  • 
and  that  Lord  Le  Despenser,  Lord  Charlemont,  Mr.  Wood  and 
Colonel  Gray  be  desired  to  prepare  such  memorial  to  be  laid  before 
the  Committee.' 

A  draft  petition  was  prepared  and  Sir  Francis 
Dash  wood  (now  Lord  le  Despencer)  <  was  desired  to 
present  the  same  to  His  Majesty,  and  if  it  meets  with 
His  Majesty's  approbation  to  forward  the  petition  to 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    61 

the  Treasury.'  On  April  20  Lord  le  Despencer 
reported  '  that  he  had  presented  to  His  Majesty  the 
petition  agreed  to  at  the  last  committee,  which  His 
Majesty  received  very  graciously  and  was  pleased  to 
say  he  would  consider  on  it.'  This,  however,  proved 
a  barren  effort,  for  on  May  1  a  resolution  was  passed 
(and  subsequently  ordered  by  the  Society) 

'  That  it  was  the  opinion  of  the  Committee  viz.  Lord  Le 
Despenser,  Lord  Middlesex,  Mr.  Howe,  Colonel  Denny,  Lord 
Charlemont,  Mr.  Wood,  Colonel  Gray,  Sir  James  Gray,  Mr. 
Stewart  and  Mr.  Fauquier,  Secretary,  that  another  Petition  be 
presented  to  His  Majesty,  specifying  particularly  the  ground 
in  the  Green  Parke,  on  which  it  is  proposed  to  erect  the  intended 
Building  viz.  to  commence  opposite  the  East  End  of  Whitehorse 
Street  next  below  the  Earl  of  Egremont  from  thence  one  hundred 
and  twenty  four  feet  westwards  towards  Hyde  Park  Corner  and 
projecting  into  the  Green  Park  one  hundred  and  forty  Fett.' 

This  petition  was  likewise  presented  to  His  Majesty 
by  Lord  le  Despencer,  who  on  June  5-  following 
reported  to  the  committee  that  c  the  Chancellor  of 
the  Exchequer,  Mr.  G.  Grenville,  had  returned  him 
the  Petition  to  His  Majesty,  desiring  ground  in  the 
Green  Park,  to  erect  a  building  on,  and  at  the  same 
time  acquainting  him  that  His  Majesty  desired  to  see 
a  Plan  of  the  Intended  Building  first.' 

At  this  gentle  but  obvious  snub  the  Society  The  star 
abandoned  their  designs  on  the  Green  Park,  but  in  ^d  Garter. 
May,  176  f ,  they  made  an  attempt  to  secure  for  them- 
selves the  premises  of  the  Star  and  Garter  Tavern  in 
Pall  Mall,  at  which  they  were  accustomed  to  hold 
their  monthly  meetings.  The  tenant,  Mr.  Fynmore, 
was  willing  to  part  with  his  lease,  which  had  twelve 
years  to  run,  but  on  application  to  Mr.  James  Beau- 
voir  of  Danham  Hall,  Essex,  the  lessee  under  the 
Crown,  it  was  discovered  that  Mr.  Beauvoir  had  no 
power   to   sell.     No  further  steps  were  taken  for 

6z  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

some  time  towards  erecting  a  building,  but  in  April, 
1770,  it  was  resolved 

'That  any  member  making  any  motion  for  the  appropriation 
of  any  part  of  the  General  Fund  exceeding  One  hundred  Pounds 
to  any  purpose  but  that  of  erecting  the  new  Intended  Building 
should  for  leave  to  make  such  motion  pay  the  sum  of  two 
guineas,  &  in  case  the  motion  is  rejected  by  a  majority  of  the 
Members  present,  he  is  to  forfeit  the  further  sum  of  three  guineas/ 

The  matter,  however,  only  advanced  in  fits  and 
starts,  though  never  dropped  out  of  sight.  In 
May,  1772,  it  was  resolved 

c  That  a  Committee  be  appointed  to  Consider  of  a  proper 
manner  of  effectually  carrying  into  execution  the  resolution  of  the 
Society  with  regard  to  the  New  intended  Building, — that  Lord 
Dispenser,  Sr  James  Gray,  Mr.  Howard,  Ld  Clanbrasil,  Mr. 
Ascough,  Sr  Jos.  Reynolds,  Mr.  CrowJe,  Be  of  that  Committee 
and  to  meet  next  Saturday  9th  May  177X5 — That  all  members  who 
come  have  Voices  and  that  Cards  be  sent  to  all  acquainting  them 
of  this  resolution, — That  this  Committee  be  Called  the  Grand 
Committee ! ' 

On  May  2,  1773,  it  was  resolved 

'  That  during  the  Recess  the  Society  be  formed  into  a  Committee 
to  Consider  of  purchasing  a  piece  of  Ground  to  erect  a  Building 
upon  for  the  use  of  the  Society  and  that  Five  Members  be 
a  quorum, — That  the  Committee  do  not  exceed  the  sum  of  one 
Thousand  Pounds  for  the  purchase  of  the  Ground/ 

Then  nothing  more  was  done  until  April,  1776, 
when  it  was  ordered 

£  That  there  be  a  Call  of  this  Society  next  meeting  to  take  into 
Consideration  the  disposal  of  a  certain  sum  from  the  Publick  Fund 
towards  Building  a  Temporary  Room  for  the  Reception  of  the 
Society  next  year/ 

But  this  proposal  was  negatived  in  the  following  May. 
In  April,  1777,  it  was  proposed  by  the  committee  to 
take  permanently  a  room  at  the  Star  and  Garter 
Tavern,  and  in  the  following  May  the  Society 
resolved  to  agree 
'with  the   Determination  of  the  Committee  of  the  zoth  April 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    63 

1777  and  Recommend  it  to  the  members  of  the  Society  to  pay 
a  guinea  per  annum  for  3  years  to  come  to  the  Master  of  the 
Star  and  Garter  tavern  for  the  Recompense  to  him  for  the  use 
of  this  room, — That  the  Secretary  do  pay  two  Hundred  guineas  to 
the  Master  of  the  Star  and  Garter  Tavern  upon  His  signing  the 
Article  of  Agreement  this  day  produced  by  the  Secretary  and  laid 
before  the  Society  for  their  inspection.' 

It  is  not  clear  from  the  records  of  the  Society  camelford 
whether  this  arrangement  was  actually  carried  out  House. 
or  not.  But  the  idea  of  erecting  a  separate  building 
for  the  use  of  the  Society  seems  to  have  been  again 
abandoned  about  this  date  (1777)  owing  to  heavy 
expenditure  from  its  funds  in  another  direction,  as 
will  be  recorded  in  the  succeeding  chapters.  It 
was  once  more  revived  in  February,  1785-,  by  a 
proposal  from  Lord  Camelford  to  sell  to  the  Society 
the  shells  of  two  new  houses  adjoining  his  own  in 
Hereford  Street,  which  might  be  thrown  together 
to  form  a  museum  *  for  what  is  properly  called 
virtu.'  The  offer,  however,  was  declined  by  the 
Society  on  discovering  that  in  addition  to  an  initial 
cost  of  £2,5-00  for  the  completion  of  the  buildings 
by  Sir  John  Soane,  they  would  incur  large  ex- 
penses for  furniture,  decoration,  ground-rent,  taxes, 
service,  &c.  5  moreover,  Lord  Camelford  made  it 
a  condition  that  he  was  to  be  allowed  a  special 
door  and  key  leading  from  his  own  house  into 
the  gallery  on  the  ground  floor. 

The  last  flicker  of  the  building  scheme  seems  to  Final  aban- 
have  occurred  in  March,  1790,  when  it  was  resolved  donment  °f 

c  That  a  Committee  be  appointed  to  meet  here  on  Sunday  the  scheme. 
aist  instant  j  and  that  they  do  take  into  Consideration  the  sums 
that  have  been  expended  by  the  Society  in  attempting  to  provide 
a  room ;  and  inquire  into  the  state  of  the  site  of  the  Opera  House, 
that  was  burnd  down  last  summer,  and  how  far  the  same  may  be 
proper  to  be  purchasd  for  the  purpose  of  building  one,  and  to  such 
other  matters  as  they  may  think  Fit/ 

6^   History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

Nothing  appears    to    have   come   from    the   above 
resolution ;  and  thus  the  idea  of  a  separate  build- 
ing or  even    a  separate  room  for  the   use  of  the 
Society   was    finally    abandoned,   and    the    Society 
continued    to   hold   its   meetings   at   the   Star   and 
Garter  Tavern   up  to   the  end  of  the   eighteenth 
increasing         The    voluntary    subscriptions,   however,   of    the 
rkhes  of  the  senior    members,   and    the    customary   contribution 
octeiy'         to   the  building  fund,  paid  as  an  entrance  fee  by 
all  newly  elected  members,  added  to  the  profit  made 
by  the  sale  of  the  land  in  Cavendish  Square,  had 
increased  the  riches  of  the  Society  and  placed  them 
in  command  of  capital  of  no  inconsiderable  amount. 
This  was  further  augmented  by  two  enactments  of 
great  importance  in  the  history  of  the  Society. 
Face-money.       On  January  4,  1 74^,  it  was  ordered 

c  That  every  member  of  the  Society  do  make  a  present  of  his 
Picture  in  Oil  Colours  done  by  Mr.  Geo.  Knapton,  a  member,  to 
be  hung  up  in  the  Room  where  the   sd  Society   meets; 

(Sam1  Savage,  President.) ' 

and  on  February  3,  174^,  it   was   ordered,  nemine 

c  That  every  member  of  the  Society  who  has  not  had  his  Picture 
painted  by  Mr.  Knapton  by  the  meeting  in  February  next  year, 
shall  pay  One  Guinea  per  Annum  till  his  Picture  be  Deliver'd 
into  the  Society,  unless  Mr.  Knapton  declares  that  it  was  owing  to 
his  want  of  time  to  finish  the  same.' 

As  many  of  the  members  did  not  care,  or  did  not 
find  opportunity  to  comply  with  this  order,  the  pay- 
ments   on    this   account,   known    as   c  Face-money,' 
produced  a  considerable  sum  every  year. 
Rule  Ann.         On  February  y,  174J,  it  was  ordered 

'  'That   after  the  first  of  March  174I   every  member  who  has 

any  increase  of  Income  either  by  Inheritance  Legacy   Marriage 
or  preferment  do  pay  half  of  one  p.  ct.  of  the  first  year  of  his 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    6$ 

additional  income  to  the  Gen11  Fund,  but  that  every  member 
upon  paymt.  of  £10  shall  be  released  from  such  obligation/ 

[Strafford,  Preside] 

This  enactment,  known  as  Rule  Ann.  Soc.  rUndec.^  and 
still  solemnly  recited  at  every  meeting  of  the  Society, 
seems  to  have  been  first  received  in  a  rather  ribald 
spirit,  for  on  April  7, 1747,  it  was 

i  Resolv'd  that  the  Committee  have  leave  to  sett  again  and  that  it 
be  an  Instruction  to  the  said  Committee  to  Consider  and  explain  the 
word  Preferment  in  the  order  dated  Ann:  Soc:  Undec:  Feby.  ?th.' 

In  May,  1745-,  it  was  resolved 

1  To  agree  with  the  Comittee  in  their  first  Resolution  That  all 
Titles  and  Honours  are  deem'd  Preferment.  Also  in  their 
Comittee's  second  Resolution  viz:  That  all  Preferment  shall  be 
valued  according  to  the  subsequent  rates  viz  : 

An  Arch  Bishop 

A  Duke  . 

A  Marquiss 

An  Earl  . 

A  Viscount 

A  Bishop 

A  Baron 

A  Judge   . 

A  Knight  of  the  Garter 

A  Knight  of  the  Thistle 

A  King  at  arms 

His  Majesty's  Ratcatcher 

A  Knight  of  the  Bath 

his  Blessing 

his  Grace 

his  Honour 



ii  ...  . 

6  pence 

6s.  %d. 


10  pounds  Scotch 

5  pounds  English 

8  pounds 

9  pounds 

10  pounds/ 

A  Trumpeter 

On  May  7,  1769,  it  was  resolved 

c  That  it  is  the  opinion  of  this  Society  that  the  word  Inheritance 
means  any  encrease  of  income  by  the  death  of  another  person  j 
but  that  this  be  not  meant  to  extend  to  the  falling  in  of  Leases 
for  Lives  or  Lands  and  Tenements.' 

The  payments  on  this^  account  also  produced 
annually  a  fairly  large  sum,  and  as  it  is  one  of 
the  few  orders  dating  from  the  early  years  of  the 
Society's  existence  which  remain  in  force  at  the 
present  day,  the  full  list  of  such  payments  gives 

66   History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

sources  of 


a  most  interesting  insight  into  the  rank  and  position 
of  the  members.  The  first  few  entries  give  a  good 
idea  of  these  payments. 

'March  4,  174I.  Mr.  Secretary  Gray  paid  in  the  sum 
of  eighteen  shillings  &  threepence  being  the  half  of  one  p.  ct. 
of  £r%6  10s.  conformable  to  the  Resolution  of  Feb.  5th  being 
appointed  Major  of  Brigade/ 

c  Dec.  2,  1744.  Mr.  Fauquier  paid  in  to  the  Gen11  Fund  the  sum 
of  fifteen  shillings  being  the  half  p.  Ct.  of  ^"i  50  ann.  Conformant 
to  the  Resolution  of  Feb.  5th  and  appointed  Director  of  the  London 
Insurance  Company ;  Lord  Middlesex  being  married  to  the  Honble. 
Miss  Boyle  Daughter  to  the  late  Ld  Viscount  Shannon  paid  into  the 
Gen11  Fund  the  sum  of  Twenty  Guineas  (not  taking  the  advantage 
of  the  Resolution  of  Feb.  ye  5th  which  admitts  of  compounding  for 
ten  pounds  being  the  nearest  calculation  to  his  Increase  of  Income)/ 

cJan.  6,  174I.  Received  of  the  Duke  of  Bedford  Eleven  guineas 
for  having  accepted  the  Place  of  First  Commissioner  of  the 
Admiralty*  Received  of  Lord  Sandwich  Five  guineas  for  having 
accepted  the  Place  of  one  of  the  Lords  of  the  Admiralty/ 

The  principal  sources  of  the  funds  in  the  posses- 
sion of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  up  to  1778  may 
therefore  be  briefly  enumerated  as  follows  : 

Dinner  Money. 

Lottery  Money. 


Fines  and  Forfeits. 

Entrance  subscriptions  to  Building  Fund. 

Fee  of  £  per  cent,  on  Increase  of  Income. 

Profit  from  sale  of  land  in  Cavendish  Square. 

Interest  on  investments  in  bank  or  other  annuities. 

Interest  on  the  sum  of  i^o  guineas  lent  on  mortgage  to  the 

Earl  of  Sandwich,  paid  up  to  1791,  when  the  earl  died 

and  the  capital  was  never  recovered. 

To  these  funds  must  be  added  a  legacy  of  jfyoo 
made  to  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  by  Mr.  James 
Dawkins  in  175-  9.  By  accumulations  derived  from 
these  various  sources  the  riches  of  the  Society, 
which  in  1743  amounted  to  £321  $s.  8^.,  had  in 
May,  1778,  increased  to  £\^o66  19/.  2d. 

The  following  incidents  recorded  in  the  minutes 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    67 

seem  worth  noticing  as  among  the  obiter  dicta  and 
facta  of  the  Society.  At  a  committee  meeting 
(where  the  company  seems  to  have  been  invariably 
very  lively)  on  February  7,  174-^,  it  is  recorded: 

'The  Committee  met.  Resolved  That  it  is  the  opinion  of 
this  Committee  that  Mr.  Brand  will  be  Damned. 

'  Resolved  That  it  is  the  opinion  of  this  Committee  That  all 
Publick  pious  Charities  are  private  Impious  abuses/ 

'March,  1747.  Resolved  that  the  Honble.  Richard  Edgecumbe 
be  Bard  to  the  Society/ 

This  was  the  Dick  Edgcumbe  already  mentioned, 
the  friend  of  George  Selwyn  and  Gilly  Williams  and 
Horace  Walpole,  one  of  the  choicest  wits  of  his  day. 

'April  ?,  1 7 5" 5.  Whereas  a  very  extraordinary  message  was 
sent  up  to  the  Society,  by  a  Divine  of  the  Church  of  England  for 
ought  it  knows,  with  a  couple  of  Books  fairly  bound,  which  the 
Society  never  can  or  will  read,  It  was  thought  absolutely  necessary 
to  prevent  any  further  interruption  to  send  him  one  Guinea  of 
publick  money  for  the  Society's  private  convenience.' 

'March  a,  1760.  John  Russell  a  Eoy  between  14  or  17  years 
of  age  produced  to  the  Society  several  drawings  which  were  judged 
to  be  very  deserving  and  therefore  for  his  encouragement  It  was 
agreed  to  make  him  a  present  of  £<;  5.  0/ 

This  entry  appears  to  note  the  first  appearance  in 
public  of  John  Russell,  the  well-known  painter  of 
portraits  in  pastels  and  afterwards  a  Royal  Acade- 
mician. Russell  seems  to  have  enjoyed  the  special 
favour  of  the  Society,  for  he  was  their  guest  at 
dinner  on  at  least  two  occasions  in  1774  and  1778. 
On  March  y,  1 7  8  d,  it  is  recorded  that 

'Mr.  Johnnes  having  offered  to  the  Society  certain  Poems 
of  the  Late  Sir  Ch.  Hanbury  Williams  that  have  not  yet  been 
Publish' d  on  condition  that  they  publish  them,  ordered  that  the 
consideration  thereoff  be  referred  to  the  Committee  which  meet  on 
Sunday  March  19/ 

The  publication  of  these  poems  seems  to  have 
engaged  the  attention  of  this  committee,  but  no 
resolution  was  ever  arrived  at  upon  the  question. 

F    X 


The  Dilettanti  and  Classical  Archaeology — Earlier  history 
of  the  study — The  Earl  of  Arundel — The  Arundel 
Marbles — Other  collectors — Explorations  in  situ : 
Nointel  and  Carrey — Spon  and  Wheler  j  Chishull 
— British  artists  in  fyme  j  Brettingham  and  Gavin 
Hamilton — Stuart  and  J^evett — Sir  James  Gray  and 
the  Dilettanti — Election  of  Stuart  and  T{evett — 
Their  expedition  to  Athens — Dawkins  and  Wood — 
Le  Ityy  and  Dalton — The  Dilettanti  and  '  The  Anti- 
quities of  Athens' — Success  of  the  volume — The 
Society  sends  an  expedition  to  Asia  Minor — Chandler > 
J(evett,  and  Pars — Instructions  to  the  expedition — 
Work  in  the  Troad  and  Ionia — Approval  of  the 
Society — Work  in  Attica  and  the  Morea — Return 
and  reception  of  the  explorers — The  'Ionian  Anti- 
quities' :  choice  of  materials — Preparation  and 
publication  of  the  volume — Presentation  copies — 
Chandler's  *  Inscriptions '  and  '  Travels ' —  Proposed 
continuation  of  '  Ionian  Antiquities ' — The  drawings 
of  I^evett  and  Pars  :  various  claimants  for  their 
use — Difficulties  between  Stuart  and  I^evett — 
Appointment  of  a  Committee — Death  of  Stuart: 
posthumous  publication  of 'The  Antiquities  of  Athens,' 
vols.iisiiiiand  iv — Publication  of  'Ionian  Antiquities' 
vol.  ii — Custody  of  the  Society's  marbles — Marbles 
and  drawings  presented  to  the  British  Museum. 

The  /^^\^^    narrative    has    thus    far    been    chiefly 

Dilettanti      I       1    occupied    with    the   personal    aspects    and 
and  classical  V-^    convivial   usages   of  the   Society,  with   its 
re  aeo  ogy.  ^ny^ing  schemes,  its  gradual  accumulation  of  cor- 
porate funds,  and  its  projects,  more  or  less  successful, 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    69 

for  the  encouragement  and  patronage  of  the 
fine  arts  at  home.  We  now  approach  a  different 
and  by  far  the  most  fruitful  field  of  its  activity. 
To  the  Dilettanti  belonged  for  many  years  the 
chief,  and  in  several  instances  the  whole,  credit 
of  initiating  and  supporting  those  undertakings  by 
which  the  remains  of  classical  antiquity  in  Greece 
and  the  Levant  have  been  explored  and  published 
for  the  benefit  of  students  and  of  the  world.  Before 
recounting  in  detail  their  enterprises  of  this  nature,  a 
few  words  on  the  previous  history  of  archaeological 
discovery  and  research  in  Europe  will  be  in  place.        / 

From  the  days  of  the  early  Renaissance,  the  soil  Earlier 
of  Italy,  and  especially  that  of  Rome  and  its  neigh-  history  of 
bourhood,  had  been  continually  yielding  up  its  the  study- 
treasures,  and  the  passionate  curiosity  and  admira- 
tion excited  by  these,  as  well  as  by  the  remains  of 
ancient  architecture  still  above  ground  in  the  same 
country,  had  revolutionized  the  arts  and  the  taste 
of  Europe.  But  Greece  itself,  and  the  sites  of 
Greek  civilization  in  Thrace,  Macedonia,  Asia 
Minor,  and  the  Archipelago,  had  under  the  Turkish 
dominion  become  practically  inaccessible  to  students 
from  the  West.  Beyond  the  small  number  of 
objects  obtained  from  Greece  by  Poggio  Bracciolini, 
and  the  remains  observed  and  inscriptions  copied  in 
the  islands  by  Ciriaco  of  Ancona,  both  of  them  in 
the  fifteenth  century,  there  had  existed  only  a  very 
meagre  importation  of  antiquities  from  those  coun- 
tries into  Venice;  and  these  had  consisted  chiefly 
of  the  casual  spoils  of  conquest.  In  promoting  the 
regular  search  for  such  antiquities,  and  thus  laying 
the  foundations  of  what  we  now  call  the  science 
of  Greek  archaeology,  England  may  fairly  claim  to 
have  taken  a   lead  among  the  nations  of  Europe. 

70    History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

It  was  only  in  the  seventeenth  century  that  an 
English  nobleman  found  and  used  the  opportunity 
of  giving  a  new  stimulus  to  such  research. 
The  Earl  of  This  was  the  famous  art-lover  and  collector, 
Arundel.  ^Thomas  Howard,  Earl  of  Arundel.  He  had  spent 
some  years  at  Rome,  and  there  signalized  himself 
by  his  zeal  and  lavish  expenditure  in  the  collection 
or  ancient  marbles  and  other  antiquities.  When  Sir 
Thomas  Roe  was  appointed  ambassador  from  James  I 
to  the  Ottoman  Porte,  in  1621,  Arundel  profited  by 
the  occasion  and  endeavoured,  through  the  new 
ambassador,  to  secure  some  of  the  monuments  of 
Greek  art  known  or  reputed  to  be  scattered  among 
the  more  famous  classical  sites  of  Greece  itself  and 
of  the  Levant.  Roe  accordingly  sent  agents  to  the 
sites  on  the  Bosphorus  and  in  the  Troad  \  but  more 
definite  work  was  commenced  in  \6i$  by  William 
Petty,  whom  Arundel  sent  out  as  a  special  agent  in 
his  interest.  Arundel  found  an  important  rival  in 
George  Villiers,  Duke  of  Buckingham,  who  used  his 
unparalleled  influence  at  home  and  abroad  to  secure 
such  objects  for  his  own  collection,  and  established 
a  strong  claim  to  a  joint  share  with  Arundel  in  the 
results  of  Roe's  efforts. 
The  Petty  in  1615  visited  Pergamon,  Samos,  Ephesus, 

Arundel  Chios,  Smyrna,  and  Athens,  and  obtained  a  number  of 
marbles,  including  a  valuable  series  of  inscriptions. 
These  were  dispatched  home,  and  arrived  at  Arundel 
House  in  1 627  ,  and  no  less  a  person  than  John  Selden 
devoted  his  attention  to  deciphering  the  inscriptions, 
which  were  published  as  the  Marmora  Arundelliana 
in  1628.  A  fresh  collection  of  marbles  was  sent 
over  in  that  year  by  Petty  to  Arundel,  who  after 
Buckingham's  assassination  found  a  fresh  rival  in 
Philip  Herbert,  Earl  of  Pembroke  and  Montgomery ; 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    71 

while  other  collectors  on  a  smaller  scale  sprang 
up,  including  the  king,  Charles  I,  himself.  The 
civil  wars  put  an  end  for  the  time  being  to  these 
pursuits.  The  collections  of  the  king  and  the 
Duke  of  Buckingham  were  dispersed,  and  Arundel 
himself  died  in  16 4.6,  before  the  wars  were  ended. 
There  is  no  need  here  to  describe  in  detail  the 
gradual  dispersal  and  partial  reunion  of  the  famous 
Arundel  Marbles — how  some  went  to  Tart  Hall  and 
were  eventually  sold ;  how,  after  the  bulk  of  the 
collection  had  been  shamefully  ill-treated  and 
neglected  by  Arundel's  grandson,  all  the  inscriptions 
which  could  be  saved  were  presented  to  the  Univer- 
sity of  Oxford  j  how  another  division  of  the  collec- 
tion found  its  way  to  the  Earl  of  Pomfret's  house  at 
Easton  Neston,  and  after  much  mauling  under  the 
pretence  of  restoration  by  one  Guelfi,  was  eventually 
reunited  to  the  inscriptions  at  Oxford  ;  and  how  yet 
another  part  went  to  form  the  nucleus  of  the 
Earl  of  Pembroke's  famous  collection,  still  pre- 
served at  Wilton  House.  The  Wilton  collection 
was  presently  much  enlarged  by  the  acquisition  of 
the  antiques  which  had  belonged  to  Cardinal 
Mazarin,  and  of  numerous  busts  collected  some- 
what indiscriminately  in  Italy  by  the  eighth  earl. 

These  were  the  great  collections  of  classical  other 
antiquities  gathered  in  England  in  the  seventeenth  collectors- 
century,  though  a  historian  cannot  neglect  the 
smaller  cabinets  formed  by  the  third  Earl  of  Win- 
chilsea  (d.  169  6\  the  first  Baron  Carteret  (d.  169  j ), 
and  Mr.  John  Kemp,  F.R.S. ;  the  last  sold  in  172.1. 
Mention  must  also  be  made  of  the  celebrated  col- 
lection of  Dr.  Mead  (d.  1 7  j  3),  and  of  that — including 
miscellanies  in  almost  every  department  of  antiquity, 
curiosity,  and  natural  history — which  was  formed  by 

71    History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

Sir  William  Courten,  passed  afterwards  to  Sir  Hans 
Sloane,  and  finally  became  the  nucleus  of  the  British 
Museum.  The  first  Duke  of  Devonshire,  Edward 
Harley  second  Earl  of  Oxford,  the  fourth  Earl  of 
Carlisle,  the  architect  Earl  of  Burlington,  and  Sir 
Andrew  Fountaine,  and  above  all  Thomas  Coke, 
afterwards  created  first  Earl  of  Leicester,  were  all 
active  collectors  of  antiquities  in  the  early  years  of 
the  eighteenth  century. 
Explora-  The  attention  of  these  several  collectors  and  their 

tions'm  agents  had  been  almost  entirely  confined  to  the  ac- 
Nointeland  c[ulSit^on  °£  sucn  works  of  sculpture  and  fragments 
Carrey.  of  architecture  as  were  movable  and  portable  within 
reasonable  expense.  In  the  meantime  a  beginning 
had  been  made  in  that  other  branch  of  classical 
research  in  which  the  Dilettanti  were  by-and-by  to 
reap  their  especial  laurels,  that  is,  in  the  systematic 
exploration  and  study  of  ancient  monuments  as 
they  were  to  be  found  existing  in  situ.  About  id 74 
(or  a  little  earlier)  the  Marquis  Olier  de  Nointel, 
French  Ambassador  to  the  Ottoman  Porte,  passed 
through  Athens,  and  was  so  much  struck  by  the 
beauty  of  the  sculptures  still  remaining  on  the 
Parthenon,  that  he  employed  a  painter,  by  name 
Jacques  Carrey,  a  pupil  of  Le  Brun,  who  accom- 
panied him  in  1674,  to  make  careful  drawings  in  red 
chalk  of  all  the  sculptures  which  then  survived. 
Wars  and  earthquakes,  the  ravages  of  time  and  man, 
had  left  little  that  remained  of  Greek  sculpture 
or  architecture  undamaged  or  entire.  The  Turks, 
never  a  wilfully  destructive  race,  had  nevertheless 
allowed  in  contemptuous  negligence  all  the  monu- 
ments of  antiquity  which  had  survived  the  classical 
days  to  perish  slowly  by  reckless  usage,  decay,  and 
ruin.     Even  in  Carrey's  day  the  sculptures  of  the 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    73 

Parthenon  were  in  a  very  damaged  and  mutilated 
state,  but  his  drawings  derive  an  especial  value  from 
the  fact  of  the  further  destruction  which  ensued 
during  the  Venetian  bombardment  under  Morosini 
in  i6%7  l.  A  narrative  of  De  Nointel's  expedition 
was  published  in  16%%  by  Cornelio  Magni,  of  Parma, 
who  accompanied  it 2. 

Shortly  after  Carrey  had  commenced  his  drawings,  spon  and 
in  167?  and  167 6 ,  a  learned  antiquary  of  Lyons,  wt?lr.) 
Jacob  Spon,  in  company  with  an  Englishman,  Mr. 
(afterwards  Sir)  George  Wheler,  travelled  through 
Greece  and  the  Levant.  Theirs  was  the  first  anti- 
quarian expedition  in  those  regions  of  which  a 
careful  record  has  been  kept,  and  although  the  in- 
formation gathered  by  them  has  been  supplemented 
and  in  part  superseded  by  subsequent  travellers, 
their  labours  served  as  a  starting-point  for  all 
those  which  immediately  ensued.  Spon  published 
an  account  of  the  expedition  in  1678 3,  and  Sir  George 
Wheler  an   account  in  English  four  years  later4. 

1  Carrey's  drawings  of  the  Parthenon  pediments  are  preserved 
in  the  Louvre,  and  are  well  known  by  numerous  reproductions  in 
archaeological  works.  But  there  exist  other  pictorial  records  of 
M.  de  NointeFs  expedition,  in  all  likelihood  also  by  Carrey's  hand, 
which  have  until  recently  escaped  notice.  These  consist  of  (i)  two 
paintings  in  one  of  the  upper  galleries  of  the  palace  at  Versailles, 
representing  the  reception  of  the  Embassy  at  Constantinople ; 
and  (a)  a  large  picture  recently  deposited  in  the  town  museum  at 
Chartres,  in  which  are  represented  M.  de  Nointel  and  his  suite 
received  by  the  Turkish  pasha  at  Athens.  The  town  of  Athens 
appears  in  the  background,  with  the  Acropolis,  on  which  are  seen 
the  Parthenon,  the  Turkish  minaret,  and  the  mediaeval  tower, 
surrounded  by  the  red  roofs  of  houses  standing  crowded  up  to  the 
very  walls  of  the  enclosure. 

2  Relatione  delta  Citta  d  Athene,  colle  Provincie  deW  Attica,  Focia, 
Beozia,  etc.  net  Tempi  che  furono  passeggiate  da  Cornelio  Magni,  Parme- 
giano,  I'anno  1674,  e  dallo  stesso publicate  V anno  i(>88. 

3  Voyage  (fit  a  lie,  de  Dalmatie,  de  Greee  et  du  Levant.    Lyon,  1678. 

4  A   Journey  into  Greece  by  George  Wheler,    Esq.,   in  company  of 

74   History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

Another  traveller  in  classical  lands  whose  work 
deserves  recognition  was  Edmund  Chishull  of 
Corpus  Christi  College,  Oxford.  Having  received 
from  his  college  the  'traveller's  place,'  he  was  in 
1698  appointed  chaplain  to  the  factory  of  the 
Turkey  Company  at  Smyrna,  and  during  his 
residence  there  made  various  expeditions  in  Asia 
Minor  and  Turkey,  of  which  he  published  ac- 
counts which  proved  valuable  to  later  explorers  *. 
Chishull  found  a  friend  and  editor  in  the  well- 
known  antiquary  Dr.  Mead,  and  also  owed  some  of 
his  information  to  a  French  explorer  in  Asia  Minor, 
M.  Pitton  de  Tournefort,  the  botanist,  whose  voyage 
into  the  Levant  was  translated  into  English  in 
1 7 1 8 .  The  published  accounts  of  these  several 
travels,  together  with  the  impetus  given  to  the 
taste  for  Greek  art  by  the  marvellous  yields  of 
archaeological  excavation  in  Italy,  and  the  attrac- 
tion of  an  added  spice  of  adventure,  no  doubt 
supplied  the  stimulus  which  induced  some  young 
English  aristocrats  on  the  Grand  Tour,  such  as  Lord 
Sandwich,  Lord  Charlemont,  Mr.  Ponsonby,  and 
others,  to  extend  their  travels  to  Greece  and  the 
coasts  of  Asia  Minor.  The  experience  gained  and 
interest  awakened  during  these  journeys  were  reflected 
in  the  subsequent  action  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti. 
British  Another  group  of  persons  who  shared  the  pre- 

artists  in  vailing  enthusiasm  for  classical  antiquity  and  c  virtu ' 
BrS*  ham  was  to  ^e  found  among  the  colony  of  British  artists 
and  Gavin  wno  made  Rome  their  head-quarters  from  the 
Hamilton,     early  part  of  the  eighteenth  century.     Among  these 

Dr.  Spon  of  Lyons ,  Lond.  i68a,  folio.     Spon  and  Wheler  met  and 
compared  notes  with  M.  de  Nointel  at  Constantinople. 

1  Inscriptio  Sigea  antiquissima,    Ijzl ;    Antiquitates  Asiaticae,  etc., 
1718;  Travels  in  Turkey  and  back  to  England,  1747  (a  posthumous  work). 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    75* 

were  two  who  are  particularly  identified  with  the 
cause  of  archaeology,  and  whose  services  to  the 
collectors  and  amateurs  of  their  age  appear  to  have 
been  free  from  the  charges  of  extortion  and  falsifica- 
tion to  which  other  purveyors  of  the  antique  then 
laid  themselves  open  :  viz.  Matthew  Brettingham  the 
architect,  who  built  the  Earl  of  Leicester's  house  at 
Holkham  (1699-1769),  and  Gavin  Hamilton  the 
painter  (17  3  0-17  9  7). 

In  the  course  of  the  year  1742  there  arrived  two  Stuart  and 
others  whose  names  were  destined  to  be  still  more  R*vm. 
honourably  connected  with  the  progress  of  the  same 
study,  and  with  the  work  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 
in  particular.  These  were  James  Stuart  and  Nicholas 
Revett.  James  Stuart  was  the  son  of  a  mariner  of 
North  British  extraction,  and  was  born  in  London 
in  1 7 1 3 .  Losing  his  father  at  an  early  age,  he  for 
a  time  supported  his  family  by  painting,  and  according 
to  tradition  painted  fans  for  Goupy,  the  celebrated 
fan-painter  in  gouache.  In  1742  he  determined  to  go 
to  Rome,  and  made  his  way  there  on  foot.  At  Rome 
he  not  only  studied  art, but  acquired  a  sufficient  know- 
ledge of  the  classical  languages  at  the  College  of  the 
Propaganda  to  publish  in  17^0  a  treatise  in  Latin1 
on  the  obelisk  found  in  the  Campus  Martius,  which 
attained  sufficient  notice  to  gain  him  a  personal  intro- 
duction to  the  Pope.  Nicholas  Revett  was  a  member 
of  a  very  ancient  Suffolk  family,  being  the  second  son 
of  John  Revett  of  Brandeston  Hall  near  Framling- 
ham,  where  he  was  born  about  1721.  Determining 
to  become  an  artist,  he  left  England  on  September  22, 
1742,  for  Leghorn,  and  thence  proceeded  to  Rome, 

1  De  Obelesco  Caesaris  Augusti,  Campo  Martio  Nuperrime  Effbso, 
Epistola  Jacobi  Stuart  Angli,  ad  Carolum  Wentworth,  ComJtem  de 
Malton.     Roma,  1750. 

76    History  of  the  Society  of  "Dilettanti 

Sir  James 
and  the 

where  he  studied  under  Cavaliere  Benefiale,  a  painter 
then  in  repute.  In  April,  1 748,  he  joined  Brettingham, 
Stuart,  and  young  Gavin  Hamilton  in  an  expedition  to 
Naples,  which  they  accomplished  on  foot,  and  it 
appears  to  have  been  during  this  expedition  that  the 
project  of  a  journey  to  Athens  was  first  mooted.  At 
any  rate  it  was  towards  the  close  of  this  year  that  the 
young  men  drew  up  the  prospectus  of  a  scheme 
entitled  c  Proposals  for  publishing  an  accurate  descrip- 
tion of  the  antiquities  of  Athens,  &c.'  The  idea  seems 
to  have  originated  with  Hamilton  and  Revett,  and  to 
have  been  eagerly  and  warmly  taken  up  by  Stuart. 
Their  scheme  receiving  support  and  financial  aid  from 
distinguished  amateurs  like  Lord  Charlemont  and 
Charles  Watson-Went  worth,  Earl  of  Mai  ton  (after- 
wards Marquess  of  Rockingham),  Stuart  and  Revett 
quitted  Rome  for  Venice  in  March,  175-0.  At  Venice 
they  failed  to  obtain  a  ship  for  Greece  and  were 
delayed  for  several  months.  Three  of  these  months 
they  spent  at  Pola  on  the  Dalmatian  coast,  occupying 
themselves  with  a  careful  examination  of  the  theatre 
and  other  remains  of  classical  antiquity  in  that  city, 
The  result  of  these  researches  was  subsequently 
printed  in  vol.  iv  of  The  Antiquities  of  Athens :  and 
it  was  no  doubt  due  to  them  that  in  175-3  tne 
Dilettanti,  as  set  forth  in  Chapter  III,  contemplated 
constructing  their  new  building  on  the  model  of 
the  temple  of  Pola. 

At  Venice  Stuart  and  Revett  were  thrown  much 
into  the  society  of  Sir  James  Gray,  with  con- 
sequences of  great  importance  both  to  the  Society  of 
Dilettanti  and  to  their  own  future  labours.  It  has 
been  noted  in  Chapter  II  that  at  a  meeting  of  the 
Society  on  January  d,  i74j,  a  motion  was  carried 
permitting   any   member   residing  in  Italy  to  pro- 

SIR    JAMES     GRAY,    BART.     K. 


History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    77 

pose  candidates  by  letters ;  and  at  the  same  time 
it  was  resolved  that  a  letter  be  sent  to  Sir 
James  Gray  acquainting  him  of  this  resolution. 
Gray's  situation,  first  as  Secretary  to  the  Embassy 
and  afterwards  as  British  Resident  at  Venice,  afforded 
him  special  opportunities  for  enlisting  young  English 
travellers  in  Italy  among  the  ranks  of  the  Dilettanti  -> 
but  for  a  time  few  such  travellers  seem  to  have  passed 
his  way.     In  May,  1746,  it  was  resolved  nem.  con. 

'That  the  Secretary  do  write  to  Sir.  James  Gray  to  remind  him 
of  his  proper  situation  &  peculiar  ability  to  procure  members  for 
this  Society/ 

He  had  already  proposed  by  letter  in  May,  1745",  Election  of 
the  Earl  of  Holdernesse,  the  Earl  of  Ashburnham,  Stuart  and 
and  Mr.  St*  George ;  and  in  December,  1746,  in  Revett- 
response  to  the  above  reminder,  he  wrote  to  propose 
Lord  Hobart  and  Sir  Thomas  Sebright.  His  next 
candidate  was  Mr.  Steavens,  in  May,  17/0;  in  the 
course  of  same  year  he  proposed  his  new  acquain- 
tances Stuart  and  Revett,  together  with  a  Mr.  Trench; 
and  the  three  were  duly  elected  at  the  meeting  in 
March,  17^1.  The  election  of  the  two  young  artists 
was  a  new  departure  for  the  Dilettanti,  since  their 
members,  with  the  exception  of  Knapton,  had  hitherto 
been  drawn  from  those  who  by  rank  or  wealth  figured 
as  social  leaders,  and  proved  an  important  event 
for  the  Society,  leading,  as  we  shall  presently  see,  to 
its  first  corporate  venture  in  the  domain  of  Greek 

It  was  not  until  January,  175-1,  that  Stuart  and  Their 
Revett  succeeded  in  embarking  from  Venice.     They  expedition  to 
travelled  by  Zante,  Chiarenza  (or  Cyllene),  Patras,  Athms- 
Corinth,  Cenchrea,  Megara,  Salamis,  and  arrived  at 
the  Piraeus  on  March   17,  and   at  Athens   on  the 
following  day.     In  the  following  May  there  arrived 

78    History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

at  Athens  two  English  gentlemen  of  culture  and 
learning,  who  were  engaged,  like  themselves,  on  a 
voyage  of  archaeological  research,  and  only  wanted 
the  services  of  practical  artists  to  give  greater  utility 
and  completeness  to  their  work. 
Daiukins  In  17 fo  Mr.  John  Bouverie,  Mr.  James  Dawkins, 

and  Wood,  and  Mr.  Robert  Wood  had  started  on  a  journey  of 
exploration  through  the  west  of  Asia  Minor  ;  they 
had  visited  Cyzicus,  Pergamus,  Sardis,  Teos,  Ephesus, 
Miletus,  and  Magnesia  on  the  coast,  and  at  the  last 
place  Bouverie  had  died.  Dawkins  and  Wood  came 
to  Athens  soon  after,  and  remained  there  some  time, 
joining  with  Stuart  and  Revett  in  explorations,  but 
not  interfering  with  their  work.  In  fact  it  was  by 
means  of  the  liberality  of  Mr.  Dawkins  that  Stuart 
and  Revett  were  enabled  to  carry  through  their 
work  at  Athens.  In  March,  17^1,  Dawkins  and 
Wood  left  for  their  celebrated  expedition  to  Palmyra 
and  Baalbec.  Not  long  afterwards  tumults  arose  in 
Athens,  due  to  the  misrule  of  the  Turkish  Govern- 
ment, and  in  March,  17  si-,  Stuart  and  Revett  thought 
it  advisable  to  go  to  Smyrna  for  a  short  time,  visiting 
Delos  and  Scio  on  the  way.  They  returned  in 
June,  but  were  again  driven  away  in  the  follow- 
ing September  both  by  the  tumults  and  by  a  more 
formidable  enemy,  the  plague,  without  having  com- 
pleted their  work  of  measuring  all  the  buildings  on 
the  Acropolis.  They  became  involved  in  a  serious 
dispute  with  the  British  Consul,  a  Greek,  and  as  a 
new  pasha  was  appointed  to  govern  the  district 
about  the  same  time,  Stuart  decided  to  avail  himself 
of  the  escort  of  the  retiring  pasha  to  Constantinople 
to  have  his  position  secured  by  a  firman.  The  escort 
proved  treacherous,  and  Stuart  more  than  once  ran 
considerable  risk  of  being  murdered.    He  succeeded 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    79 

however  in  escaping,  and  arrived  at  Salonica,  where 
he  was  subsequently  joined  by  Revett,  and  whence 
the  two  made  their  way  together  again  to  Smyrna. 
The  continuance  of  the  plague  rendered  it  impossible 
for  them  to  return  to  Athens  to  complete  their 
measurements  and  researches,  and  they  arrived  in 
England,after  a  long  quarantine  at  Marseilles,  early  in 
175-5-.  Meanwhile  a  fresh  prospectus  of  the  proposed 
publication  of  their  researches  had  been  issued  in 
London  by  Colonel  George  Gray  of  the  Society  of 
Dilettanti  in  175-1  ;  another  was  provided  and  issued 
in  175-2  by  Mr.  Dawkins  and  Mr.  Wood  ;  and  another 
in  175-3  by  Consul  Smith  at  Venice. 

It  is  important  to  notice  these  dates,  because  a  &  Roy  and 
Frenchman,  M.  Le  Roy, was  moved  to  undertake  a  rival  Dalton* 
journey  in  the  interests  of  France,  and  was  supported 
both  by  royal  favour  and  private  interest.  He  did 
not  however  leave  Rome  for  Athens  until  175-3.  He 
published  an  account  of  his  researches  illustrated  with 
plates,  and  an  English  translation,  also  illustrated,  was 
brought  out  by  Robert  Sayer  in  17^9,  evidently 
in  rivalry  with  the  projected  publication  of  Stuart 
and  Revett,  whose  appearance  it  anticipated  by  three 
years.  Richard  Dalton  also,  who  accompanied  Lord 
Charlemont  to  Greece  in  1749,  an(^  was  afterwards 
employed  by  George  III,  made  several  drawings  of 
Athenian  antiquities  which  he  engraved;  but  they 
are  of  little  value  either  for  art  or  archaeology. 

On   their  return  to  England  Stuart  and  Revett  The 
were  at  once  admitted  as  members  of  the  Society  of  j^jjj? 
Dilettanti,  to  which,  as  we  have  seen,  they  had  been  Antiquities 
elected  at  Venice  four  years  before ;  and  in  April,  of  Athens: 
1 7  5- 5-,  Stuart  proposed  Mr.  James  Dawkins  as  a  member. 
Stuart's  patron,  the  Marquess  of  Rockingham,  had 
been   elected   in    the    preceding    February;     Lord 

80    History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

Charlemont  was  proposed  by  Mr.  Dawkins  and 
elected  in  March,  17? 6$  Mr.  Robert  Wood  joined 
the  Society  a  few  years  later,  in  1763.  Stuart  and 
Revett  set  to  work  to  arrange  their  notes  and  draw- 
ings for  printing  and  engraving,  and  issued  a  fresh 
prospectus  of  their  intended  publication.  In  their 
expenses  they  were  assisted  by  many  members  of 
the  Dilettanti.     In  March,  175-7,  it  was  resolved 

cThat  the  Society  do  present  the  Authors  of  the  Antiquities 
of  Attica  with  the  sum  of  Twenty  Guineas  for  their  first  Volume 
and  for  the  further  Encouragement  of  so  great  and  usefull  a  Work  do 
intend  the  same  sum  for  each  Volume  as  they  shall  be  published/ 

It  was  not  however  until  1762  that  the  authors 
were  able  to  issue  the  first  volume  of  The  Antiquities 
of  Athens,  measured  and  delineated  by  James  Stuart,  F.l^S. 
and  F.S.A.,  and  Nicholas  T^evett,  painters  and  architects, 
with  a  dedication  to  the  king.  Many  names  of  the 
Dilettanti  appear  in  the  list  of  subscribers  ;  the  Duke 
of  Bedford  took  two  sets,  Sir  Francis  Dashwood 
five,  Mr.  James  Dawkins  (who  died  in  17 f 9)  had 
subscribed  for  twenty,  the  Marquess  of  Rockingham 
for  six,  in  addition  to  those  taken  by  other  members 
of  his  family,  and  Mr.  Wood  for  eight.  On 
January  23,  1763,  it  was  ordered  by  the  Dilettanti 

'  That  the  thanks  of  the  Society  be  returned  to  Mrs.  Stuart  and 
Revett  for  their  attention  in  presenting  them  with  their  Book  of  the 
Antiquities  of  Athens  so  magnificently  and  elegantly  bound.* 

Success  of         The  success  of  this  volume  was  instantaneous  and 

the  volume,    remarkable.     Stuart  found  himself  famous,  and  was 

for  ever  afterwards   known  as  c  Athenian  Stuart }} 

1  It  would  appear  that  even  before  the  publication  of  the  work 
Stuart  had  expatiated  freely  upon  its  merits  and  those  of  the  artists 
concerned,  for  there  is  a  tradition,  apparently  well  founded,  that 
Hogarth's  caricature  of  '  The  Five  Orders  of  Perriwigs,5  published 
in  1 761,  was  intended  as  a  satire  on  the  authors  of  The  Antiquities 
of  Athens.    This  engraving  is  styled  by  Hogarth  '  The  Five  Ordeis 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    81 

The  work  for  the  first  time  revealed  to  the  educated 
public  the  important  place  in  the  history  of  art 
which  the  existing  remains  of  Greek  sculpture  and 
architecture  still  have  a  right  to  hold.  The  pub- 
lications of  Dawkins  and  Wood  on  the  ruins  at 
Palmyra  and  Baalbec  had  excited  interest,  but  had 
not  appealed  to  the  imagination  of  a  class  mainly 
educated  on  classical  lines  in  so  direct  a  manner 
as  The  Antiquities  of  Athens.  <  Grecian  Gusto '  became 
the  fashionable  craze  of  the  moment,  and  Stuart 
and  Revett  found  themselves  elevated  to  the  posi- 
tions of  fashionable  architects  in  a  new  but,  it  must 
be  confessed,  sadly  inadequate  application  of  the 
classical  style  to  domestic  use.  It  is  from  the 
publication  of  this  first  volume  of  Stuart  and 
Revett's  researches  that  the  modern  study  of  Greek 
archaeology  may  be  said  to  date ;  and  although  the 
Dilettanti  were  not  responsible  as  a  body  for  its 
publication,  yet  without  the  support  which  they 
gave  to  it,  individually  and  as  a  society,  the  book 
might  very  probably  have  never  seen  the  light. 

The  success  of  this  publication,  and  the  accession  The  Society 
to   the   Society,  not   only   of  Stuart    and   Revett,  «***?» 
but    also    of   Dawkins,    Wood,    Charlemont,    and  2J25JT 
Rockingham,   led    the    Dilettanti    to    concentrate  Minor. 
their  thoughts  on  a  new  scheme  for  the  continua- 
tion of  these  researches  in  Greece  and  Asia  Minor. 
On  the  regretted  death  of  Mr.  Dawkins  in   17^9, 
he  left  a  legacy  of  £yoo  to  the  Society,  of  which 
the  following  notices  occur  in  the  minutes — 

c  May,  175:9.     Mr.  Revett  deliverd  a  message  from  Mr.  Dawkins 

of  Perriwigs  as  they  were  worn  at  the  late  Coronation,  measured 
Architectonically,'  with  a  further  statement  that c  Least  the  Beauty 
of  these  capitals  should  chiefly  depend,  as  usual,  on  the  delicacy  of 
the  engraving,  the  Author  hath  etched  them  with  his  own  hand/ 
t  G 

82    History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

that  he  was  ready  to  pay  the  ^oo,  left  as  a  Legacy  by  his  Late 
Brother  towards  the  Building  or  an  Academy  whenever  the  Society 
are  ready  to  receive  the  same. 

'Order'd  Mr.  Revett  to  return  the  Thanks  of  the  Society  to 
Mr.  Dawkins  and  that  they  will  lett  him  know  when  they  think 
themselves  Intitled  to  receive  the  said  legacy. 

c  In  order  to  show  the  Society's  great  regard  for  our  late  worthy 
member  Mr.  Dawkins,  the  Society  proceeded  to  Ballot  for  the 
Deceas'd's  Brother  and  he  was  Elected/ 

On  May  i,  1763,  it  is  recorded 

c  Received  of  Col.  Gray  ^oo  paid  to  him  by  Mr.  Henry 
Dawkins,  being  a  Legacy  left  to  the  Society  by  his  Brother  Mr. 
James  Dawkins,  and  for  which  sum  Col.  Gray  has  given  a  receipt 
sign'd  by  him  to  sd  Mr.  Henry  Dawkins.' 

After  some  consideration,  actuated  no  doubt  by 
a  desire  not  to  interfere  with  the  future  publication 
of  Stuart  and  Revett's  remaining  material  from 
Athens,  and  also  probably  at  the  advice  of  Mr. 
Robert  Wood,  the  Society  in  1764  determined  to 
apply  a  portion  of  the  funds — which  had  accumulated 
to  a  fairly  large  sum  since  the  last  scheme  for 
erecting  a  building  had  been  abandoned — to  sending 
out  an  expedition  to  Asia  Minor  at  the  cost  and 
under  the  control  of  the  Society.  In  the  words 
of  the  preface  of  the  Society's  first  publication — 

'  Upon  a  Report  of  the  State  of  the  Society's  Finances  in  the 
year  1764,  it  appeared  that  they  were  possessed  of  a  Considerable 
Sum  above  their  current  Services  required.  Various  Schemes  were 
proposed  for  applying  part  of  this  Money  to  some  Purpose  ;  which 
might  promote  Taste,  and  do  Honour  to  the  Society,  and  after 
some  Consideration  it  was  resolved  "  That  a  Person  or  Persons 
properly  qualified  should  be  sent,  with  sufficient  Appointments 
to  certain  Parts  of  the  East,  to  collect  Informations  relative  to  the 
former  State  of  those  countries,  and  particularly  to  procure  exact 
descriptions  of  the  Ruins  of  such  Monuments  of  Antiquity 
as  are  yet  to  be  seen  in  those  Parts." 

c  Three  Persons  were  elected  for  this  undertaking.  Mr.  Chandler 
of  Magdalen  College,  Oxford,  Editor  of  the  Marmora  Oxoniensia, 
was  appointed  to  execute  the  Classical  Part  of  the  Plan.  The 
Province  of  Architecture  was   assigned  to  Mr.   Revett,  who  had 

afterwards    Earl    of  Besslaorough . 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    83 

already  given  a  Satisfactory  specimen  of  his  Accuracy  and  Diligence 
in  his  Measures  of  the  remains  of  Antiquity  at  Athens.  The 
choice  of  a  Proper  Person  for  taking  Views,  and  copying  Bass 
Reliefs,  fell  upon  Mr.  Pars,  a  young  Painter  of  promising  Talents. 
A  Committee  was  appointed  to  fix  their  Salaries,  and  draw  up 
their  Instructions,  in  which,  at  the  same  time  that  the  different 
objects  of  their  respective  Departments  were  distinctly  pointed 
out,  they  were  all  strictly  enjoined  to  keep  a  regular  journal,  and 
hold  a  constant  Correspondence  with  the  Society/ 

It  is  interesting  to  record  the  names  of  the  com- 
mittee who  were  appointed  to  draw  up  the  instructions 
for  this  expedition.  They  were  Lord  le  Despencer 
(Sir  Francis  Dashwood),  chairman ;  Sir  James  Gray, 
Mr.  Shirley,  Lord  Hyde,  Colonel  Denny,  Colonel 
Gray,  Mr.  Howe,  Mr.  Fauquier,  Earl  of  Bessborough, 
Earl  of  Sandwich,  Mr.  Ellis,  Duke  of  Bedford,  Duke 
of  Kingston,  Mr.  Dingley,  Mr.  Stuart,  Mr.  Revett, 
Mr.  Berkeley;  and  the  committee  called  to  their 
assistance  Lord  Middlesex,  Mr.  Wood  (of  Palmyra 
fame),  Mr.  Robinson  (afterwards  Sir  Thomas),  Marquess 
of  Tavistock,  Lord  Warkworth,  Earl  of  Charlemont, 
and  Mr.  Brand.  It  is  to  the  credit  of  these  gentlemen 
and  noblemen,  some  of  whom  have  borne  but  little 
character  for  seriousness  in  their  life,  that  the 
instructions  laid  down  by  them  were  not  only  clear 
and  distinct  in  their  conception,  but  were  carried 
out  with  conspicuous  success  by  those  upon  whom 
they  were  enjoined. 

At  the  meeting  of  the  Society  in  April,  1764, tne  chandler, 
resolutions  of  the  committee  were  adopted,  it  being  Revett>  and 
also  ordered  ""' 

£  That  a  sum  not  exceeding  Two  Thousand  pounds  be  appro- 
priated to  the  above  excellent  Purpose ; '  and  c  That  when  such 
Persons  properly  qualified  can  be  procured  and  are  approved  of  by 
the  Society,  an  application  be  made  to  His  Majesty  and  His 
Ministers  for  the  strongest  and  best  Recommendations  to  the 
Embassadors,  Ministers,  and  Consuls,  and  also  to  the  Turky 
Company  in  order  to  facilitate  the  Operations  of  such  Persons/ 

g  z 

84    History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

At  their  meeting  in  the  following  May  the 
Society  agreed  to  the  appointment  of  Messrs. 
Chandler,  Revett,  and  Pars,  and  ordered  that 

cUpon  the  best  Calculation  that  can  be  made  the  scheme 
proposed  may  be  carried  into  execution  at  the  rate  of  about  eight 
hundred  pounds  a  year/ 

The  choice  of  Mr.  Richard  Chandler  to  take 
charge  of  this  expedition  shows  the  serious  spirit 
in  which  the  Dilettanti  set  about  this  work. 
Chandler,  a  Fellow  of  Magdalen  College,  Oxford, 
was  introduced  to  them  by  Mr.  Robert  Wood, 
who  had  helped  and  advised  Stuart  and  Revett 
in  their  Antiquities  of  Athens^  although  he  only 
joined  the  Dilettanti  in  17^3.  Chandler  had 
already  performed  an  important  service  to  Greek 
archaeology  by  his  description  of  the  Arundel 
Marbles  at  Oxford,  published  in  two  folio  volumes, 
entitled  Marmora  Oxoniensia^  at  the  expense  of  the 
University  Chest.  He  was  thus  admirably  fitted 
by  previous  training  for  such  a  task  as  that  now 
entrusted  to  him.  Revett's  skill  in  measuring 
and  drawing  monuments  of  sculpture  and  archi- 
tecture had  already  been  tested.  William  Pars 
was  a  young  painter  who  had  just  gained  a  medal 
from  the  Society  of  Arts. 

instructions       The   following  instructions  were   drawn   up   by 

to  the  Mr.  Wood1:— 


'Instructions  for  Mr.  Chandler,  Mr.  Revett  and  Mr.  Pars. 
Whereas  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  have  resolved  that  a  person  or 
persons  properly  qualified  be  sent,  with  sufficient  appointments, 
to  some  parts  of  the  East,  in  order  to  collect  informations,  and  to 
make  observations  relative  to  the  ancient  state  of  these  countries, 
and  to  such  monuments  of  antiquity  as  are  still  remaining  -7  and  the 
Society  having  further  resolved  that  a  sum  not  exceeding  £2000 
be  appropriated  to  that  purpose,  and  having  also  appointed  you 

1   Dr.  Chandler's  Travels  in  Asia  Minor,  1775. 

History  of  the  Society  of  "Dilettanti    85- 

to  execute  their  orders  on  this  head ;  We  the  Committee,  entrusted 
by  the  Society  with  the  care  and  management  of  this  scheme,  have 
agreed  upon  the  following  instructions  for  your  direction  in  the 
discharge  of  that  duty  to  which  you  are  appointed, 

1.  You  are  forthwith  to  embark  on  Board  the  Anglicana, 
Captain  Stewart,  and  to  proceed  to  Smyrna,  where  you  will 
present  to  Consul  Hayes  the  letters  which  have  been  de- 
livered to  you  from  one  of  His  Majesty's  Principal  Secretaries 
of  State,  and  from  the  Turkey  Company  and  you  will 
consult  with  Mr.  Hayes  about  the  most  effectual  method 
of  carrying  these  instructions  into  execution. 
z.  The  principal  object  at  present  is  that,  fixing  on  Smyrna 
as  your  head-quarters,  you  do  from  thence  make  excursions 
to  the  several  remains  of  antiquity  in  that  neighbourhood, 
at  such  different  times  and  in  such  manner  as  you  shall, 
from  the  information  collected  on  the  spot,  judge  most  safe 
and  convenient  j  and  that  you  do  procure  the  exactest  plans 
and  measures  possible  of  the  buildings  you  shall  find,  making 
accurate  drawings  of  the  basreliefs  and  ornaments,  and 
taking  such  views  as  you  shall  judge  proper;  copying  all 
the  inscriptions  you  shall  meet  with,  and  remarking  every 
circumstance,  which  can  contribute  towards  giving  the  best 
idea  of  the  ancient  and  present  state  of  these  places. 

3.  As   various   circumstances,  best  learnt  on  the  spot,   must 

decide  the  order  in  which  you  shall  proceed  in  the  execution 
of  the  foregoing  article,  we  shall  not  confine  you  in  that 
respect,  and  shall  only  observe  in  general,  that  by  a  judicious 
distribution  of  your  time  and  business  you  may,  with  proper 
diligence,  in  about  twelve  months  visit  every  place  worthy 
your  notice  within  eight  and  ten  days  journey  of  Smyrna. 
It  may  be  most  advisable  to  begin  with  such  objects  as  are 
less  distant  from  that  city,  and  which  may  give  you  an 
opportunity  of  soon  transmitting  to  the  Society  a  specimen 
of  your  labours.  You  will  be  exact  in  marking  distances  and 
the  direction  in  which  you  travel,  by  frequently  observing 
your  watches  and  pocket  compasses,  and  you  will  take  the 
variation  as  often  as  you  can. 

4.  Though  the  principal  view  of  the  Society  in  this  scheme  is 

pointed  at  such  discoveries  and  observations,  as  you  shall 
be  able  to  make  with  regard  to  the  ancient  state  of  those 
countries,  yet  it  is  by  no  means  intended  to  confine  you  to 
that  province  :  on  the  contrary,  it  is  expected  that  you  do 
report  to  us  for  the  information  of  the  Society  whatever  can 
fall  within  the  notice  of  curious  and  observing  travellers ; 
and,  in  order  to  ascertain  more  fully  our  meaning  on  this 

86    History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

head,  we  do  hereby  direct,  that,  from  this  day  of  your 
departure  from  hence  to  that  of  your  return,  you  do  each 
of  you  keep  a  very  minute  journal  of  every  day's  occurrences 
and  observations,  representing  things  exactly  in  the  light 
in  which  they  strike  you,  in  the  plainest  manner  and 
without  regard  to  style  or  language,  except  that  of  being 
intelligible ;  and  that  you  do  deliver  the  same,  with  what- 
ever drawings  you  shall  have  made  (which  are  to  be  con- 
sidered the  property  of  the  Society)  to  Mr.  Hayes,  to  be 
by  him  transmitted,  as  often  as  conveyances  shall  offer  to 
us,  under  cover  to  William  Russell,  Esq.,  Secretary  to  the 
Levant  Company,  and  you  shall  receive  from  us,  through  the 
same  channel,  such  further  orders  as  we  may  judge  necessary. 

5.  Having  ordered  the  sum  of  ^"200  to  be  invested  in  Mr. 

Chandler's  hands  to  defray  all  expenses  which  may  be  in- 
curred till  your  arrival  at  Smyrna,  we  have  also  ordered 
a  credit  in  your  favour  to  the  amount  of  £800  per  annum^ 
to  commence  from  the  date  of  your  arrival  at  that  place ; 
you  giving  drafts  signed  by  Mr.  Chandler  and  Mr.  Revett, 
or  Mr.  Pars ;  the  whole  to  be  disposed  of  as  follows,  viz  : — 
^100  a  year  to  Mr.  Revett,  ^80  a  year  to  Mr.  Pars,  who 
are  each  of  them  to  be  paid  one  quarter  in  advance ;  the 
remaining  £6ro  to  be  applied  to  the  common  purposes 
of  the  Journey  by  Mr.  Chandler,  who  is  to  be  Treasurer, 
paymaster  and  accomptant,  and  may  appropriate  to  his  own 
private  use  such  part  of  that  sum  as  he  shall  find  necessary, 
informing  us  of  his  management  of  the  common  stock,  and 
transmitting  to  us  his  account  from  time  to  time. 

6.  And  though  our  entire  confidence  in  your  prudence  and  dis- 

cretion leaves  us  no  room  to  doubt  but  that  perfect  harmony 
and  good  understanding,  which  are  so  necessary  as  well  to 
your  own  happiness  as  to  the  success  of  the  undertaking,  will 
subsist  among  you,  yet  in  order  to  prevent  any  possible 
dispute  which  might  arise  about  different  measures  in  the 
course  of  this  expedition ;  we  expressly  declare,  that  the 
direction  of  the  whole  is  hereby  lodged  in  Mr.  Chandler, 
assisted  by  Mr.  Revett.  And  though  Mr.  Revett  and 
Mr.  Pars  should  protest  against  any  measure  proposed  by 
Mr.  Chandler  it  is  our  meaning  that  any  such  difference 
of  opinion  should  not  in  the  least  interrupt  or  suspend  your 
operations ;  but  that,  at  the  same  time  that  such  persons  as 
dissent  from  or  disapprove  of  what  is  proposed  shall  transmit 
to  us  their  reasons  for  such  dissent,  they  do  notwithstanding 
continue  to  pursue  Mr.  Chandler's  plan  until  they  receive 
our  further  orders  for  their  conduct. 

History  of  the  Society  of  'Dilettanti    87 

Given  under  our  hands,  at  the  Star  and  Garter,  this  17th  day 
of  May  1764. 

(Signed)       Charlemont  Middlesex 

Rob.  Wood  Le  Despenser 

Tho.  Brand  J.  Gray 

Wm.  Fauquier  Besborough.' 
James  Stuart 

In  accordance  with  the  above  instructions  Chandler,  Work  in  the 
Revett,  and  Pars  quitted  England  on  June  9,  17^4,  J^fand 
in  the  ship  Anglicana^  Captain  Stewart,  bound  for 
Constantinople.  They  were  landed  in  the  Darda- 
nelles, and  took  the  opportunity  of  visiting  the 
Troad  with  the  plains  of  Troy  and  the  Sigean 
promontory,  where  Chandler  copied  the  celebrated 
inscription,  which  was  in  later  days  brought  itself 
to  England.  On  leaving  the  Dardanelles  they 
travelled  by  Tenedos  and  Scio  to  Smyrna,  where 
they  arrived  on  September  11.  Making  Smyrna 
their  head-quarters,  as  directed  by  the  Dilettanti, 
they  made  two  prolonged  excursions  in  the  neighbour- 
hood (September  30 — October  29, 1764,  March  25- — 
August  8,  1765).  Among  the  most  important 
antiquities  explored  by  them  were  the  temple  of 
Apollo  Didymaeus,  near  Miletus,  and  the  Sacred  Way 
leading  up  to  the  temple  from  the  harbour,  with  the 
seated  figures  of  the  priestly  clan  of  the  Branchidae, 
which  were  destined,  nearly  a  century  later,  to  be 
secured  for  the  British  nation  by  another  explorer, 
Mr.  Newton,  also  a  leading  member  of  the  Dilettanti 
Society.  They  also  explored  Clazomenae,  Erythrae, 
Teos,  Priene,  Tralles,  Laodicea,  Sardis,  Philadelphia, 
and  Magnesia.  Further  work  in  Asia  Minor  was, 
however,  checked  by  the  most  serious  enemy  which 
foreigners  could  encounter — an  outbreak  of  the 
plague.  The  party  nevertheless  succeeded  in  getting 
to    Smyrna,    and    left   that    place   on   August    20 

88    History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

for  Athens,  which  they  reached  on  August  31, 
after  touching  at  Sunium  and  Aegina  on  the  way. 
From  time  to  time  they  sent  home  to  the  Society 
of  Dilettanti  a  consignment  of  journals  and  draw- 
ings, as  appears  from  the  report  in  the  committee- 

Approval  of      At    a    committee    meeting    on     May    1,    176^ 

the  Society.    Mr.  Fauquier  reported 

c  That  Messrs.  Rivett,  Chandler  and  Pars  had  drawn  for  ^800 
viz  : — £400  on  the  3rd  August  1764.  from  Leghorn,  and  £4.00  on 
the  22nd  January  1765  from  Smyrna  which  Drafts  had  been  paid, 
and  that  their  credit  was  now  out.  Ordered  that  a  Letter  of 
Credit  be  sent  to  Leghorn  to  empower  the  said  Gentlemen  to  draw 
on  the  Society  for  £800  more,  viz  : — ,£4.00  in  July  next  and  £400 
in  January  next.  Mr.  Wood  produced  to  the  Committee  Letters 
from  the  said  Gentlemen  viz  : — one  from  on  board  the  Anglicana 
dated  25th  Augt.  64,  three  from  Smyrna  bearing  26th  Sept.  2nd. 
Novr.  and  the  5-th  of  Jany.  last  and  also  a  Journal  from  the  9th 
of  June  to  the  3rd  of  September  last. 

c  Order*  d  the  said  Letters  and  Journal  be  enter'd  in  a  fair  hand 
in  a  Book  to  be  provided  for  that  purpose. 

c  The  Several  Drawings  following  made  by  Mr.  Rivett  and  Mr. 
Pars  were  produc'd  to  the  Committee  viz :  —  Two  views  and 
a  plan  of  a  ruin'd  Building  at  Troas  an  Inscription  on  a  Pedestal 
with  the  ornaments  of  the  same  a  Fragment  of  a  Basso  Relievo,  and 
a  Copy  of  the  Sigean  Inscription/ 

All  which  met  with  the  approbation  of  the  com- 

c  Resolved  that  it  is  the  opinion  of  this  Committee  that  Messrs. 
Rivett,  Chandler  and  Pars  have  (as  far  as  they  have  gone)  complied 
with  their  Instructions,  and  answer'd  the  intent  and  meaning 
of  the  Society  in  sending  them/ 

At  a  committee  on  December  1  o — 

CA  Letter  from  Mr.  Chandler  dated  Smyrna  14th  Augt.  was 
read.  Mr.  Fauquier  reported  to  the  Committee  that  Messrs. 
Chandler,  Rivett,  and  Pars  had  drawn  on  Messrs.  Backwells  & 
Co.,  two  Bills  for  £400  each  and  that  these  Bills  had  been  paid. 
Several  Drawings  of  Architecture  and  Basso  relievos  and  many 
Greek  Inscriptions  sent  by  the  said  Gentlemen  were  produced  to 
the  Committee  and  met  with  the  approbation  of  the  Committee. 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    89 

'  Resolv'd  that  it  is  the  opinion  of  this  Committee  that  Messrs. 
Chandler,  Rivett  and  Pars  have  so  well  answer'd  the  meaning  and 
intent  of  the  Society  in  sending  them  to  Greece  that  they  deserved 
commendation  and  further  encouragement/ 

In    the    minutes   of  December    iy,    176?,    it    was 

'That  the  Drawings  sent  by  Messrs.  Chandler  and  Co.,  from 
Greece,  be  sent  to  the  Star  and  Garter  in  Pall  Mall  on  the  first  Sunday 
in  Febry  to  be  seen  by  the  members  of  the  Society  from  the  hours 
of  Eleven  o'clock  to  four  o'clock  and  not  afterwards  that  day/ 

On  February  6y  1766^  at  the  committee 

'Mr.  Wood  produced  to  the  Committee  several  Views  and 
Drawings  of  Architecture  sent  by  the  Gentlemen  in  Greece  all 
which  met  with  the  approbation  of  the  Committee/ 

'  The  Committee  took  into  consideration  the  Order  of  the  Society 
at  their  last  meeting  (On  Feb.  2)  viz : — that  the  Further  sum  of 
^foo  be  granted  to  the  Committee  for  the  use  of  the  Gentlemen 
employ'd  in  the  East,  in  order  to  bring  them  home  through  the 
Morea  or  Magna  Grecia  if  Practicable ;  if  not  that  they  be  confined 
to  such  a  sum  as  will  bring  them  home  in  the  most  frugal  and 
expeditious  manner  any  former  resolution  to  the  contrary  not- 

'Resolv'd  that  it  is  the  opinion  of  this  Committee  that  the 
Gentlemen  in  Greece  have  taken  great  Pains  in  the  several  Draw- 
ings transmitted  to  the  Society/ 

'  Resolv'd  that  a  Letter  be  wrote  to  the  said  Gentlemen  acquaint- 
ing them  that  their  Performances  had  given  Satisfaction  to  the 
Society,  and  that  in  consequence  thereof  They  had  granted  a 
further  sum  of  ;£5roo  to  the  Committee  for  the  purpose  of  bringing 
them  home  through  the  Morea  and  Magna  Grecia,  if  Practicable.' 

Chandler's  party  remained  at  Athens  until  June  1 1,  Work  in 
1 766^  completing  some  of  the  work  which  Stuart  Attica  and 
and  Revett  had  been  compelled  to  leave  unfinished,     e    orea' 
and  visiting  Marathon,  Eleusis,  Megara,  Epidaurus, 
Delphi,  Salamis,  Aegina,  Nemea,  Corinth,  and   in 
the   Peloponnesus    Nauplia,   Argos,   Mycenae,   and 
Chiarenza  (or   Cyllene),  Patras,  Olympia,  and  the 
plain  of  Elis.     From  the  latter  place  they  made 
their  way  to  Zante,  from  whence  they  eventually 

90    History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

Return  and 
of  the 

took  ship  on  September  i,  17 66,  for  England, 
and  landed  at  Bristol  on  November  2  following ; 
their  return  having  been  hastened  by  an  illness 
which  most  of  the  party  contracted  in  Elis. 

On  reaching  London  Chandler  lost  no  time  in 
handing  over  to  the  Society  his  journal,  drawings, 
copies  of  inscriptions,  and  all  the  marbles  collected 
by  him  during  the  expedition.  At  the  committee 
on  December  2,  1766, 

£  Mr.  Chandler  and  Mr.  Pars  attending  were  called  in.  Many 
Drawings  and  Measurements  of  Architecture  were  produced  by 
Mr.  Revett  and  also  a  great  Variety  of  Views  and  Drawings  of 
Basso  relievos  of  the  Temple  of  Minerva  at  Athens  and  others 
were  produced  by  Mr.  Pars,  which  appeared  to  the  Committee  to 
be  all  done  with  Taste  and  Accurateness/ 

c  Mr.  Chandler  brought  to  the  Committee  a  Basso  Relievo  part 
of  the  Frieze  of  the  Temple  of  Minerva  representing  a  Horse's 
Head  and  Bust  of  a  Man  of  Exquisite  Workmanship,  and  acquainted 
the  Committee  that  He  had  some  other  Marbles  brought  from 
Athens  particularly  a  very  Curious  Inscription  relating  to  the 
architecture  of  the  Temple  of  Minerva/ 

c  Resolved  That  it  is  the  opinion  of  this  Committee  that  Mr. 
Chandler,  Mr.  Revett  and  Mr.  Pars  have  each  of  them  in  their 
respective  departments  fulfill' d  the  Expectations  of  the  Society,  and 
that  They  deserve  the  Thanks  and  further  Encouragement  of  the 

On  December  1 1  the  committee  met  and  resolved 

c  That  at  the  next  meeting  of  the  Committee  the  Gentlemen 
who  are  return'd  from  the  East  do  deliver  into  the  hands  of  the 
Committee  the  Journal  Drawings  and  Marbles,  which  they  have 
brought  with  them. 

'Resolved  that  at  the  next  meeting  of  the  Committee  the 
remaining  part  of  the  ^oo  granted  to  the  Committee  the  znd 
of  Feb.  last  for  the  use  of  the  Travellers  in  the  East  be  disposed 
of  by  that  Committee  in  the  manner  they  think  most  proper/ 

The  sum  amounted  to  £400,  and  on  January  17, 


'The  Committee  having  very  maturely  consider^  the  Works 
perform'd  by  Messrs  Chandler,  Rivett  &  Pars  and  their  Gratefull 
and  Proper  behaviour,  came  to  the  following  resolution. 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    91 

c  Resolved  that  Four  hundred  Pounds  (being  the  remaining  part 
of  the  £%oo  voted  the  2nd  of  Febry.  last)  be  divided  equally 
between  them  and  to  be  paid  to  them  directly,  on  condition  that 
they  each  of  them  in  their  respective  departments  do  Promise  to 
deliver  their  works  in  such  Order  and  Arrangement  as  shall  appear 
satisfactory  to  the  Committee.' 

The  journals,  drawings,  marbles,  and  inscriptions,  The c  Ionian 
copied  by  Chandler,  Revett,  and  Pars  during  their  Afj- 1 
expedition,  having  been  delivered  up  by  them  to  ffiJ'J^ 
the  Society  of  Dilettanti,  the  committee  appointed  materials. 
to  supervise  the  expedition  proceeded  to  make  a 
selection  from  them  of  what  seemed  most  suitable  for 
publication.     In  view  of  the  projected  continuance 
of  Stuart's  publication,  The  Antiquities  of  Athens,  the 
committee  evidently  considered  it  advisable  not  to 
spend  their   money  on  that  part   of  the  material 
before  them  which  would  be  likely  to  conflict  with 
Stuart's  work,  and  was   really  little   more  than  a 
supplement   to   it.     In   the   preface   to   the   Ionian 
Antiquities  the  Society  state  that 

cThe  Materials  which  they  brought  home  were  thought  not 
unworthy  of  the  Public :  The  Society  therefore  directed  them  to 
give  a  Specimen  of  their  Labours  out  of  what  they  had  found 
most  worthy  of  Observation  in  Ionia ;  a  Country  in  many  re- 
spects curious,  and  perhaps,  after  Attica,  the  most  deserving  the 
Attention  of  a  Classical  Traveller.  Athens,  it  is  true,  having 
had  the  good  Fortune  to  possess  more  original  Genius  than  ever 
was  collected  in  so  narrow  a  Compass  at  one  Period,  reaped  the 
Fruits  of  literary  Competition  in  a  degree  that  never  fell  to  the 
lot  of  any  other  People,  and  has  been  generally  allowed  to  fix 
the  Aera  which  has  done  most  Honour  to  Science,  and  to  take 
the  lead  among  the  antient  Greek  Republics  in  matters  of  Taste : 
However,  it  is  much  to  be  doubted,  whether,  upon  a  fair  Enquiry 
into  the  Rise  and  Progress  of  Letters  and  Arts,  they  do  not, 
upon  the  whole,  owe  as  much  to  Ionia,  and  the  adjoining 
Coast,  as  to  any  other  Country  of  Antiquity/ 

'The  Knowledge  of  Nature  was  first  taught  in  the  Ionic 
School :  And  as  Geometry^  Astronomy^  and  other  Branches  of  the 
Mathematics ,  were  cultivated  here  sooner  than  in  other  Parts 
of  Greece,  it  is  not  extraordinary  that  the  first  Greek  Navigators^ 

9X    History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 


of  the 

who  passed  the  Pillars  of  Hercules,  and  extended  their  Commerce 
to  the  Ocean,  should  have  been  Ionians.  Here  History  had  its 
Birth,  and  here  it  acquired  a  considerable  degree  of  Perfection. 
The  first  Writer  who  reduced  the  knowledge  of  Medicine  or  the 
Means  of  preserving  Health,  to  an  Art,  was  of  this  Neighbourhood  : 
And  here  the  Father  of  Poetry  produced  a  Standard  for  Composition, 
which  no  Age  or  Country  have  dared  to  depart  from,  or  have  been 
able  to  surpass.  But  Architecture  belongs  more  particularly  to 
this  Country  than  to  any  other ;  and  of  the  three  Greek  Orders  it 
seems  justly  entitled  to  the  Honour  of  having  invented  the  two 
first,  though  one  of  them  only  bears  its  Name ;  for  though  the 
Temple  of  Juno  at  Argos  suggested  the  general  Idea  of  what  was 
after  called  the  Doric,  its  Proportions  were  first  established  here. 
As  to  the  other  Arts  which  also  depend  upon  Design,  They  have 
flourished  no  where  more  than  in  Ionia  ;  nor  has  any  Spot,  of  the 
same  Extent  produced  more  Painters  and  Sculptors  of  distin- 
guished Talents.  Among  the  Remains  of  Antiquity  which  have 
hitherto  escaped  the  Injuries  of  Time,  there  are  none  in  which 
our  Curiosity  is  more  interested  than  the  Ruins  of  those  Buildings 
which  were  distinguished  by  Vitruvius  and  other  antient  Writers, 
for  their  Elegance  and  Magnificence.  Such  are  the  Temple  of 
Bacchus  at  Teos,  the  Country  of  Anacreon  ;  the  Temple  dedicated 
to  Minerva,  at  Priene,  by  Alexander  of  Macedonj  and  the 
famous  temple  of  Apollo  Didymaeus,  near  Miletus.  However 
mutilated  and  decayed  these  Buildings  now  are,  yet  surely  every 
Fragment  is  valuable,  which  preserves,  in  some  degree,  the  Ideas 
of  Symmetry  and  Proportion  which  prevailed  at  that  happy  Period 
of  Taste.' 

The  three  temples  mentioned  in  this  extract 
formed  therefore  the  material  for  the  volume  to  be 
issued  by  the  Society  of  Dilettanti.  The  committee 
on  January  31,  1767,  recorded  that 

c  Having  considered  the  Drawings  of  the  Views,  architecture, 
and  Bass  Reliefs,  of  Asia  Minor,  It  is  their  Opinion,  That  they 
be  engraved  at  the  expence  of  the  Society,  and  that  such  part  of 
the  Journals  and  Inscriptions  be  published  as  relates  thereto/ 

On  February  7,  1767, 

c  It  appears  to  the  Committee  that  the  Publishing  the  Drawings 
etc.  by  Degrees  is  the  properest  method,  and  have  selected  from 
them  Three  of  the  most  curious  and  Interesting  subjects  as  the 
first  specimen  of  the  intended  work :  viz : — one  view  of  the 
Temple  of  Apollo  Didymaeus,  called  the  Branchidae,  Four  pieces 

History  of  the  Society  of  'Dilettanti    93 

of  Architecture  and  Views,  The  Temple  of  Minerva  Polias  at 
Priene,  and  five  Pieces  of  Architecture,  Two  pieces  of  architecture 
of  the  Temple  of  Bacchus  at  Teos,  The  engraving  of  which  will 
amount  to  about  the  sum  of  ;£i8o/ 

This  was  agreed  to  by  the  Society  in  March.  On 
February  14,  1767, 

cMr.  Rivett  was  desired  to  shade  some  of  the  drawings  of 
Architecture  ready  for  the  Engraver,  and  to  produce  them  to  the 
Committee  on  Saturday  the  a  8th  instant  to  which  day  the  Com- 
mittee adjourned/ 

At  this  next  meeting  of  the  committee  (of  which  no 
record  has  been  kept)  it  must  have  been  decided 
to  publish  a  volume  to  be  entitled  a  Specimen  of 
the  work  intended  by  the  Society,  for  on  March  7, 
1767,  it  was  resolved 

'That  it  is  the  opinion  of  the  Committee  That  at  least  One 
hundred  and  fifty  Copies  of  the  first  specimen  of  the  intended  work 
be  engraved,  and  Printed,  for  the  use  of  the  Society/ 

And  on  March  8,  1767,  it  is  recorded  that 

c  Majr  Genl  Gray  laid  before  the  Committee  the  sums  already 
expended  in  the  plates  for  the  specimen  amounting  to  about  £z<)0 
and  was  desired  to  proceed  as  he  shall  find  necessary/ 

In  March,  1 768,  it  was  ordered  by  the  Society 

c  That  a  Committee  of  the  whole  society  be  appointed  to  meet 
on  Teusday  (sic)  the  8  th  day  of  March  at  11  o'clock  in  the  morning 
to  consider  further  on  the  publication  of  the  first  specimen  of  the 
intended  work.  That  five  members  do  constitute  a  Committee, 
and  that  they  be  empowered  to  give  such  orders  and  directions  with 
respect  to  the  said  work,  or  any  other  matters  relative  thereto  as 
to  them  shall  seem  necessary,  and  that  they  have  power  to  adjourn 
themselves  from  time  to  time/ 

The  meetings  of  this  committee  have  not  been 
recorded,  there  being  a  hiatus  valde  deflendus  (as  a 
later  Secretary  has  it)  in  the  committee-book  for 
some  years.  The  work,  however,  progressed,  as  is 
shown  from  the  payments  in  the  minute-book. 

94-    History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

'May  1768.     Paid  to  Mr.   Revett   and   Pars   an  account  for 
Copper  Plates  for  specimen  .         .         .        ^"315  a  o 
To  Do.  on  Do.  account   ....  £<)0  o  o 

Presentation       The  specimen  was,  however,  ready  for  publication 
copies.  jn  the  following  March,  17^9,  when  it  was  ordered 

that  copies  of  the  same  should  be  sent  to  the  King 
and  Queen,  the  Universities  of  Oxford,  Cambridge, 
Edinburgh,  Glasgow,  and  Dublin ;  the  Royal  Society, 
Royal  Academy,  Society  of  Antiquaries,  and  British 
Museum.  In  April  it  was  further  ordered  that 
copies  should  be  sent  to  the  King  of  Spain  and 
the  Universities  of  St.  Andrews  and  Aberdeen. 
The  book  was  ready  in  the  following  May,  when 
it  was  resolved 

c  That  the  books  of  the  specimen  of  Ionian  Antiquities  be  pre- 
sented to  the  several  personages  and  Societies  according  to  the  list 
sent  in  by  Coll.  Gray  * ; 

and  the  following  payments  were  made  among  others  : 

To  Mr.  Revett  on  account £^0 

To        Do.        for  printing  papers  &c.         .         .  100 
To  Mr.  Pars  for  finishing  and  making  new  draw- 
ings colouring  &c .         »  42 

To  Mr.  Revett  on  account 2? 

The  presentation  of  the  volumes  to  the  King  and 
the  Queen  was  entrusted  to  Lord  le  Despencer, 
who  reported  to  the  Society  at  their  meeting  on 
January  14,  1770, 

c  That  pursuant  to  their  request  he  had  presented  the  Book 
of  the  Specimen  of  Ionian  Antiquities  to  the  King,  having  previously 
obtained  permission  from  his  Majesty  to  Inscribe  the  Book  to  Him 
and  that  the  Book  had  been  most  graciously  received  by  His 
Majesty,  who  was  pleased  to  declare  his  approbation  of  the  work.' 

Lord  le  Despencer  also  reported  to  the  Society 

'  That  he  had  delivered  another  Book  of  the  Specimen  of  Ionian 
Antiquities  to  Lord  De  Lawarr  Chamberlain  to  the  Queen  as  the 
proper  Channel  thro*  which  it  might  be  presented  to  Her  Majesty 
who  was  pleased  to  receive  it  most  graciously.' 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    95- 

Sir  James  Gray,  who  had  now  been  for  some  years 
Ambassador  and  Plenipotentiary  to  the  Court  of 
Spain,  reported  at  the  same  meeting — 

c  That  pursuant  to  their  request  he  had  directed  Mr.  Harris  (he 
having  left  Madrid  before  the  Book  arrived)  to  present  the  Book 
of  the  Specimen  of  Ionian  Antiquities  to  the  King  of  Spain  and 
that  in  consequence  he  had  received  a  letter  from  Mr.  Harris 
which  he  read  to  the  Society  as  follows  : — 

Escurial.  Nov.  7,  1769. 
I  received  a  few  days  ago  from  Bilboa,  the  elegant  publication 
of  Ionian  Antiquities  design'd  as  a  present  from  the  Society 
of  Dilettanti  to  his  Catholic  Majesty.  In  consequence  of 
which  I  yesterday  waited  on  the  Duke  de  Lozada,  who  in  the 
evening  in  the  name  of  the  Society,  presented  it  to  the  King  : 
the  Duke  this  morning  told  me,  it  had  given  His  Majesty 
infinite  pleasure  and  that  he  had  charged  him  through  me,  to 
return  his  thanks  to  the  Society  for  it. 

(Signed)        James  Harris.' 

The   valuable    collection   of  inscriptions   copied  chandler's 
during  the  expedition  and  the  journals  were  handed  c  J»^>- 
over  to  Mr.  Chandler  to  publish  at  his  own  risk  /^/w^.' 
and  discretion.     At  a  meeting  of  the  committee  on 
March  8,  1768,  it  is  recorded  that 

'  Mr.  Chandler  desiring  permission  to  publish  the  Inscriptions 
collected  by  him  in  the  Expedition  to  Asia  Minor  and  Greece, 
the  Committee  are  of  opinion  That  he  be  permitted  to  publish 
them  and  that  he  place  such  Title  to  the  said  Work  as  the  Society 
shall  judge  proper/ 

In  1774  Chandler,  who  had  returned  to  Oxford 
and  taken  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Divinity,  published 
at  Oxford  the  inscriptions  in  a  volume  entitled 
Inscription es  antiquae^  pleraeque  nondum  editae :  in  Asia 
Minori  et  Graecia^  praesertim  Atbenis,  collectae.  Cu?n 
Appendice.  In  177 ?  he  published,  also  at  Oxford,  the 
first  instalments  of  his  journals  as  Travels  in  Asia 
Minor^  and  in  1770'  the  second  part  as  Travels  in 
Greece.     All  these  three  works  are  dedicated  to  the 

96    History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 


Society  of  Dilettanti,  and  were  published  with  their 
assistance,  as  is  shown  by  the  following  entries : — 

'March  1773.  Ordered  That  the  Secretary  do  write  to  Mr.  Chandler 
that  as  a  Mark  of  the  Society's  approbation  of  the  intended  Work 
They  have  orderd  their  Secretary  to  pay  Mr.  Chandler  Twenty 
five  Guineas  upon  his  delivering  a  compleat  Bound  Sett  for  the 
use  of  the  Society/ 

'Feb.  1774.  The  officiating  Secretary  having  read  a  Letter 
from  Dr.  Chandler  desiring  to  dedicate  his  Book  of  Inscriptions  to 
the  Society,  the  Secretary  was  order'd  to  write  to  Dr.  Chandler 
to  acquaint  him  that  the  Society  did  accept  of  His  Dedication  as 
proposed  and  to  make  him  a  present  of  Twenty  five  Guineas  for 
the  same,  when  He  shall  deliver  the  Book  properly  bound  to  the 

'March  1775".  Read  Dr.  Chandler's  Letter  and  order'd  by  the 
Society  to  inform  Him  they  accepted  of  His  offer  of  dedicating  His 
Travels  Sec.  to  them/ 

'March  1776.  That  the  Secretary  be  order'd  to  give  Dr. 
Chandler  twenty  five  guineas,  upon  the  completion  of  the 
Pub",  of  His  Travels  and  think  a  further  Dedication  totally 

A  second  edition  of  the  Travels  in  Asia  Minor  and 
Greece,  containing  many  emendations  by  Nicholas 
Revett,  was  published  in  1 8 1 7  ;  Revett's  copy  with 
his  manuscript  corrections  is  now  in  the  British 
Museum.  A  new  edition,  with  a  memoir  of  Chandler 
by  Ralph  Churton,  was  published  at  Oxford  in  1 82^ . 
That  the  Society  intended  to  continue  the  publica- 

of  '  Ionian 

continuation  tion  of  the  Ionian  Antiquities  is  shown  from  minutes 
dated  respectively  January,  1771,  April,  1771,  and 
April,  1772. 

'  That  General  Gray  be  directed  to  enquire  of  Mr.  Revitt  what 
Expence  will  attend  preparing  for  Publication  of  the  Drawings 
belonging  to  the  Society/ — 'That  L*  Gen1  Gray  who  has  given 
in  a  List  of  the  Drawings  in  Mr.  Revett's  possession  in  con- 
sequence of  a  order  of  the  Society  be  empowered  to  pay  Mr.  Revett 
fifty  pounds  towards  finishing  the  same/ — '  That  General  George 
Gray  do  pay  to  Mr.  Rivett  (out  of  the  General  Fund)  a  further 
sum  of  Fifty  pounds  and  desire  him  to  continue  his  drawing  for 
the  use  of  the  Society/ 

History  of  the  Society  of  "Dilettanti    97 

The  matter,  however,  made  slow  progress,  for  in 
March,  1774,  a  further  minute  occurs, 

c  That  Mr.  Rivet  having  wrote  to  the  Secretary  of  the  Society 
desiring  the  Society  woud  assist  Him  farther  towards  the  compleat- 
ing  the  Publication  of  the  Asiatic  and  Grecian  drawings,  Agreed 
that  He  be  paid  Ninety  nine  pounds  nineteen  shillings  out  of  the 
General  Fund/ 

Little  progress  was,  however,  made  with  the  work, 
although  the  value  of  the  drawings  was  well  known. 

In  1770'  and  1777  Paul  Sandby,  the  well-known  Drawings  of 
artist,  made  applications  to  the  Society  for  leave  to  *****  **<* 
publish  a  series  of  aquatint  engravings  from  Pars's  Pars.  [ 

1  •  c   a    1  *«-r«t  •  O  ~D  various 

drawings  or  Athens.     This  request  was  acceded  to  claimants 
in  a  minute  of  March,  1777.  for  their  use. 

'That  Mr.  Sandby  have  permission  to  engrave  all  the  Views 
belonging  to  the  Society  and  that  Mr.  Greville  be  Intrusted  with 
them  to  deliver  them  two  at  a  time  to  Mr.  Sandby  and  to  see 
they  are  properly  engraved  according  to  the  specimens  produced 
with  a  proper  dedication  to  the  Society.  That  the  Society  do  ' 
not  divest  themselves  of  their  Property  in  the  Drawings  It  being 
understood  Mr.  Sandby  is  to  present  the  Soc.  with  four  engravings 
of  each  drawing  and  to  return  the  original  drawings.' 

Meanwhile,  as  Mr.  Revett  delayed  so  long  with  the 

drawings,  a  fresh  competitor  appeared  in  the  field 

in  the  person  of  Stuart,  Revett's  former  colleague, 

and  apparently  now  his  rival.     Stuart  contemplated 

a    continuation    of   his   Antiquities    of  Athens,   and 

(having  purchased  all  Revett's  rights  in  the  book) 

applied  to  the  Society  for  the  use  of  their  drawings 

in  order  to  complete  his  work.     In  March,  1777,  it 

was  ordered 

c  That  Mr.  Rivet  be  orderd  to  attend  with  the  Drawings 
belonging  to  the  Society  that  are  in  his  possession  this  day 
forthnight  and  that  a  Committee  who  are  appointed  to  meet  do 
take  into  consideration  whether  Mr.  Stewart  is  to  be  permitted  to 
have  any  of  them  for  his  use '  j 

and  in  May,  1777, 

c  That  Ld  Mulgrave,  Mr.  Dundas,  &  Mr.  Crowle  be  appointed 


98    History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

to  inspect  the  Drawings  and  Sketches  belonging  to  the  Society  in 
the  possession  of  Mr.  Rivett  and  to  give  Him  such  directions  as 
they  think  proper  which  of  the  unfinish'd  sketches  He  shall  first 
proceed  to  execute.' 

All  schemes  for  further  publication  however  hung 
fire,  for  in  February,  1 7  8  o,  it  was  ordered 

c  That  the  Sec*,  do  deliver  the  Drawings  belonging  to  the 
Soc.  to  Mr.  Wyndham  and  that  he  have  the  custody  of  them 
for  one  year  giving  a  proper  receipt  for  them  to  the  Sec/  j 

and  again  in  March,  1780, 

c  Mr.  Banks  movd  that  the  Sec.  do  order  Mr.  Revett  to  deliver 
all  the  drawings  belonging  to  them  finishd  and  unfinishd  into 
the  hands  of  the  Secretary  before  the  next  meeting/ 

Mr.  Sandby,  who  had  been  entrusted  with  certain 
drawings  belonging  to  the  Society  in  order  to  engrave 
them  in  aquatinta,  returned  the  drawings  to  the 
Society,  and  begged  leave  by  the  Secretary  to  thank 
the  Society  for  the  use  of  them,  and  to  present  a  set 
of  the  prints  to  them  for  their  use.  In  the  following 

i  Mr.  Wyndham  to  whom  the  Soc.  had  entrusted  the  Care  of 
their  drawings  requested  that  they  would  empower  him  to  deliver 
to  Mr.  Stuart  for  the  use  of  his  intended  publication  of  a  second 
volume  of  Athenian  Antiquities  the  Drawings  of  the  Eastern  View 
of  the  Temple  of  Minerva  at  Athens  taken  by  Mr.  Pars  and  such 
of  the  Basso  releivos  belonging  to  the  same  Temple  as  he  may 
wish  to  make  use  of  to  which  request  the  Soc.  agreed/ 

In  March,  178 1,  Sir  John  Taylor  moved  and 
Mr. Wyndham  seconded  tne  following  motion,  viz.: — 

'That  Mr.  Peachy  be  allowd  the  use  of  such  Drawings  the 
Property  of  the  Soc.  now  in  the  custody  of  Mr.  Windham  as 
he  shall  think  fit  to  have  copies  made  of  the  same  for  his  use 
promising  the  Soc.  that  he  will  not  permit  the  artist  who  copies 
them  to  take  any  other  copy  than  that  intended  for  his  use  nor 
will  communicate  the  copies  taken  by  him  to  any  other  person/ 

Difficulties         It  would  appear  that  the  dilatory  progress  made 
with   the   further    publication   of   these   drawings 


History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    99 

was  due  to  difficulties  between  Stuart  and  Revett,  Stuart  and 
and   that    the   Society   decided    in    favour    of  the  ****** 
former;  for  at  a  committee  held  on  April  21,  1782, 
it  was 

c  Resolv'd  That  it  is  the  opinion  of  this  Committee  that  a  Sum 
not  exceeding  ^"xco  be  granted  to  Mr.  Revett  as  a  full  compensation 
for  all  his  Claims  upon  the  Society  including  his  payment  for 
finishing  Drawings  by  order  of  the  Society  and  for  work  done  upon 
and  paid  for  an  unfinished  plate. 

c  On  condition  that  he  gives  up  to  the  Society  as  there  property 
all  Memorandums,  Scetches  and  other  Private  Remarks  taken  by 
him  during  the  voyage  to  Greece  and  Asia  Minor  which  he  made 
under  the  Patronage  of  the  said  Soc' 

*  That  whereas  the  Learned  Judge  Potter  by  his  hereditary 
Knowledge  of  Grecian  Antiquities  and  that  he  has  acquired  of  the 
Laws  of  his  Country  is  amply  able  to  prepare  a  proper  acquitance 
to  Rivett  the  said  Mr.  Rivett  to  the  Performance  of  his  part  of 
this  Contract  he  be  requested  by  the  Society  to  produce  a  Draught 
of  the  said  acquittance  at  their  next  Meeting.' 

*  That  whereas  the  Secretaiy  has  received  information  that  the 
Plates  of  the  Ionian  Antiquities  Formerly  publish'd  by  this  Society 
were  in  the  Possession  of  the  Late  Ld.  Le  Despencer  at  the  time 
of  his  Death  the  Secretary  be  empower'd  to  apply  to  the  executors  of 
the  said  Late  Ld.  Le  Despencer  for  the  said  Plates  the  Property 
of  the  said  Soc.  and  empower'd  to  receive  the  same.' 

'  That  all  the  Drawings  and  Plans  of  the  Propylaea  and  all 
others  of  Fragments  of  Antiquities  in  the  Acropolis  belonging  to 
this  Society  be  lent  to  Mr.  Stuart  for  the  space  of  one  year  in  order 
for  their  publication  in  the  second  volume  of  the  Antiquities  of 

These  recommendations  of  the  committee  were 
ratified  by  the  Society  with  the  further  proviso, 
evidently  passed  in  the  hope  of  hastening  matters, 

'  The  said  Mr.  Stuart  agreeing  to  return  the  same  into  the  hands 
of  the  Secretary  within  twelve  months  from  the  Day  when  they 
shall  be  deliverd  to  him  and  to  publish  engravings  of  each  and 
every  one  of  them  in  the  second  vol.  of  his  Work  entitled  Anti- 
quities of  Athens  within  eighteen  months  from  the  said  day  on 
which  they  shall  be  delivered  by  hand  or  present  to  the  Society 
finishd  proofs  of  all  of  them  under  the  Penalty  of  20  guineas 
to  be  paid  by  him  the  said  Mr.  Stuart  and  applied  to  the  General 

H  1 

ioo  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

ment of  a 

Revett  still,  however,  had  to  be  disposed  of,  and  in 
May,  1782,  the  committee  for  publishing  the  drawings 

*  That  the  Receipt  prepared  by  Mr.  Justice  Potter  according  to 
the  order  of  this  Committee  at  their  last  Meeting  does  appear  to 
this  Committee  to  be  a  proper  and  sufficient  Receipt.' 

'  That  it  is  the  opinion  of  this  Committee  that  all  the  Remain- 
ing perfect  Copies  of  the  Ionian  Antiquities  now  in  the  Hands 
of  Mr.  Revett  be  bought  by  the  Society  at  1  f  shill.  a  piece/ 

<  That  every  member  of  this  Soc.  who  shall  desire  to  purchase 
(Bona  fide  for  himself)  the  Ionian  Antiquities,  shall  have  them  at 
the  Price  paid  to  Mr.  Revett  by  the  Society  and  that  all  profits  by 
the  future  public  sale  of  the  Ionian  Antiquities  shall  be  applied 
to  the  intended  publication  of  the  Remaining  Antiquities  in 
addition  to  the  ^i^o  proposed  to  be  given  out  of  the  Income 
of  the  Society.' 

It  was  also  resolved 

c  That  in  order  for  the  Publication  of  the  Remaining  unpublished 
Drawings  made  by  Messrs.  Revett  and  Pars  in  Ionia  and  Asia 
Minor  the  Society  be  requested  to  appoint  a  Select  Committee 
of  its  own  Members  to  take  the  Charge  of,  and  direct  the  said 
publication — which  Committee  shall  be  answerable  for  the  care 
and  accuracy  with  which  the  publication  shall  be  conducted.' 

'That  a  sum  not  exceeding  £i<)0  for  one  year  be  appropriated 
out  of  the  Income  of  the  Soc.  to  the  engraving  of  such  Drawings 
etc.  as  the  Committee  shall  judge  worthy  of  Publication,  together 
with  such  Letterpress  as  shall  be  thought  necessary  for  the  Explan- 
ation thereof,  and  that  the  Committee  shall  at  the  end  of  the 
year  report  to  the  Society  the  progress  of  their  said  work.' 

*  That  when  any  Numero  of  the  said  work  shall  be  fit  for 
Publication,  a  perfect  copy  of  the  said  Numero  shall  be  presented 
by  the  Society  to  each  of  its  members.' 

The  committee  appointed  for  this  purpose  of  the 
Society  consisted  of  Mr.  Knight,  Mr.  Windham, 
Mr.  Peachey,  Mr.  Stuart,  and  Mr.  Gore.  In  May, 
1783,  Mr.  Revett  produced  200  copies  of  the  Ionian 
Antiquities^  which  were  collated  and  found  correct. 
On  March,  13,  1785-,  it  is  recorded 

<  That  Lord  Sandwich  moved,  Mr.  Potter  seconded   that   in- 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  101 

st ructions  be  given  to  the  Committee  of  Publication  to  assist 
Mr.  Stuart  immediately  and  effectually  towards  the  Publication 
of  his  Athenian  Antiquities  but  that  the  said  Committee  be 
answerable  to  the  Society  for  the  Property  of  the  Plates  engravd 
at  their  expence  untill  the  Publication  of  the  second  volume  of  the 
said  Athenian  Antiquities  be  actually  effected  which  motion  being 
put  was  agreed  to  nem.  con.' 

On  February  26,  1786, 

1  Mr.  Stuart  attended  and  informed  the  Committee  that  he  had 
been  prevented  by  indisposition  from  Collecting  together  the 
Drawings  belonging  to  the  Society  but  intended  to  do  so  forthwith.' 

And  on  March,  19,  1786, 

1  Mr.  Stuart  delivered  in  the  Drawings  intrusted  to  him  by  the 
Society  for  the  Finishing  his  Athenian  Antiquities  which  being 
compared  with  the  scedule  were  found  right  and  return'd  to  him.' 

The    second    volume   of   Stuart's    Antiquities    of  Death  of 
Athens  made  this  slow  progress,  no  doubt,  owing  to  Stuart: 
the   increasing  age   and  infirmities  of  the   author.  ^Zlii^tkn 
Stuart  had  been  appointed  Painter  to  the  Society,  and  of 'Athenian 
through  the  influence  of  Lord  Anson  had  obtained  Antiquities,' 
the  almost  sinecure  post  of  Surveyor  to  Greenwich  .     *  n> tlly 
Hospital.      He  was  employed  in  architectural  work 
of  a  classical  nature  by  Earl  Spencer,  Lord  Anson 
(whose  house  in  St.  James's  Square,  designed  by  Stuart, 
is  stated  to  have  been  the  first  building  of  Grecian 
architecture  in  London),  and  Lord  Eardley.     He 
was  helped  in  the  preparation  of  the  volume  by 
his  assistant  and  successor  at  Greenwich,  William 
Newton,  whose   brother,  James   Newton,  engraved 
some  of  the  plates.    It  was  almost  ready  for  publica- 
tion toward  the  end  of  the  year  1787,  but  its  final 
appearance  was   delayed   by  Stuart's   death,  which 
occurred  in  February,  1788.     It  was  then  at  last 
issued   by  his  widow,  although   it   bears   the   date 
1787.     Prefixed  was  a  'Letter  to  the  Public  from 
Elizabeth  widow  of  James   Stuart,'  in   which  she 

ioi  History  of  the  Society  of  "Dilettanti 

states,  c  to  the  gentlemen  of  the  Dilettanti  Society 
I  am  greatly  beholden,  they  having,  with  the  utmost 
liberality,  presented  me  with  many  of  the  plates, 
necessary  to  complete  the  volume,  from  original 
drawings  in  their  possession';  and  again,  'Com- 
pleted by  the  assistance  of  William  Newton  of 
Greenwich,  having  been  left  unfinished  by  the  sudden 
death  of  Stuart,  who  had  been  very  infirm  for  some 
years  and  left  his  papers  in  great  disorder.  The 
completion  of  the  work  is  entirely  due  to  the 
Society  of  Dilettanti.'  In  a  minute  of  June  i,  1788, 
Mr.  Windham  moved  and  Mr.  Knight  seconded, 

'That  the  vote  of  March  13,  1785:  in  Favor  of  Mr.  Stuart  be 
renewed  on  behalf  of  his  Widow  on  condition  that  the  expenditure 
of  the  money  of  the  Society  be  limited  to  the  Paying  for  Plates  of 
the  Drawings  lent  by  them  for  the  completion  of  the  second  volume 
of  the  Athenian  Antiquities.  It  was  understood  that  £300  would 
fully  answer  the  purpose  and  that  probably  the  business  would  be 
effected  for  Less  money  but  it  was  thought  proper  to  Leave  the 
Committee  without  any  Limitation.' 

In  1794  Stuart's  executors  published  a  third 
volume,  the  editing  of  which  was  entrusted  to 
Mr.  Willey  Reveley,  the  architect.  To  this  volume 
the  Society  of  Dilettanti  contributed,  as  appears 
from  a  minute  of  May  10,  1790 — 

'The  3rd  volume  of  the  Antiquities  of  Athens  being  undertaken 
under  the  direction  of  the  executors  of  the  Late  Mr.  Stuart, 
Mr.  Windham  proposd  that  two  drawings  now  in  the  possession 
of  the  Committee  of  publication  viz  : — the  two  views  of  the  Temple 
of  Jupiter  Olympius  at  Athens  be  Lent  to  the  managers  of  that 
work  in  order  that  a  plate  may  be  engravd  from  them  to  be 
inserted  in  it  which  was  unanimously  agreed  to/ 

In  1 8 14  a  fourth  volume  was  published  by  Mr.  John 
Taylor  and  edited  by  Mr.  Joseph  Woods.  This 
last  volume  contained  biographies  of  Stuart  and 
Revett,  an  engraved  portrait  of  Revett,  and  numerous 
extracts  from  Stuart  and  Revett's  miscellaneous  notes 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  103 

and  journals,  including  their  notes  on  the  antiquities 
of  Pola  K 

Meanwhile   the   Committee  of   Publication  con-  Publication 
tinued  to  prepare  for  publication  a  second  volume  of 'Ionian 
of  the  Ionian  Antiquities.     In  1783   the  committee  **?&**** 
resolved  at  successive  meetings : — 

4  That  the  Drawings  of  the  Temple  at  Jackly  should  be  engraved 
— Mr.  Byrne  upon  being  applied  to  agreed  to  undertake  the 
engraving  the  View  of  the  said  Temple  for  the  price  of  70  guineas 
and  to  finish  the  same  by  Christmas  next/ — c  That  the  plan  and 
parts  at  large  at  Jackly  be  delivered  to  Mr.  Newton  to  whom 
they  were  accordingly  given  for  engraving.' — c  That  the  Drawing 
of  the  Elevation  of  the  Columns  of  the  temple  at  Jackly  be 
delivered  to  Mr.  Newton  for  the  purpose  of  engraving  the  same/ 

The  number  of  drawings  selected  for  this  work  did 
not  however  appear  to  be  sufficient,  so  the  com- 
mittee in  June,  1784,  resolved 

4  That  the  No.  containing  the  drawings  of  the  great  Theatre 
of  Laodicea  together  with  the  view  of  the  Stadium  be  fixed  upon 
for  the  next  publication/ 

In  May,  1790,  Mr.  Windham  gave  notice 

c  That  the  number  which  is  at  present  in  hand  under  the  direction 
of  the  Committee  of  publication  is  in  great  forwardness  and  will 
he  hopes  be  ready  for  delivery  in  the  beginning  of  the  next  year/ 

The  publication  of  the  volume  still  hung  fire,  for 

1  In  1830  a  supplementary  volume  to  the  Antiquities  of  Athens, 
intended  to  form  a  fifth  volume  to  the  whole,  was  published  under 
the  title  '  The  Antiquities  of  Athens  and  other  places  in  Greece,  Sicily,  etc. 
Supplementary  to  the  Antiquities  of  Athens  by  James  Stuart  and 
Nicholas  Revett,  delineated  and  illustrated  by  C.  R.  Cockerell, 
W.  Kinnaird,  T.  L.  Donaldson,  W.  Jenkins  and  W.  Railton/ 

A  new  edition  of  vols,  i,  ii,  and  iii,  edited  by  Kinnaird,  was 
published  on  a  reduced  scale  during  the  years  18x5-30,  with 
a  fresh  volume  of  new  matter,  of  which  a  limited  issue  was  also 
printed  on  large  paper  as  vol.  v,  of  the  old  edition.  An  abridged 
version  or  epitome  of  the  whole,  with  reduced  copies  of  the  plates 
in  outline,  was  published  in  manual  form  in  1841,  and  the  third 
edition  of  this  abridgement  was  issued  as  one  of  the  volumes  in 
Bonn's  Illustrated  Library. 

104  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

on  April  f,  1795*,  Mr.  Windham,  on  the  part  of  the 
Committee  of  Publication, 

c  Informed  the  Society  that  the  Second  volume  of  the  Ionian 
Antiquities  is  Finishd  as  far  as  the  engravings  and  that  nothing 
remains  to  be  done  but  printing  the  Letterpress  and  engraving 
the  vignettes,  that  he  had  examind  the  engraving  bills  delivered 
into  the  hands  of  the  Committee  by  the  Secretary  and  found  them 
right.  He  remarkd  that  some  views  had  been  brought  home 
by  Sir  Rob*  Ainslie  of  which  the  Architectural  parts  of  similar 
buildings  were  already  engraved  and  that  Sr  Rob*  had  Liberally 
offered  them  to  the  Society  in  order  to  their  being  engravd  for  the 
completion  of  the  work.' 

It  was  resolved 

£  That  Sr  Rob*  Ainslie's  Liberal  offer  be  accepted  on  the  Part  of 
the  Society  and  that  the  Committee  be  directed  to  avail  themselves 
thcreoff  according  to  their  discretion.' 

The  second  volume  of  the  Ionian  Antiquities  was 
at  last  published  in  1797  as  a  continuation  of 
vol.  i.  Chapter  v  (the  first  of  the  second  volume) 
contained  views  of  the  Temple  (of  Jupiter  Panhel- 
lenius)  at  Aegina,  the  Temple  of  Sunium,  the  Temple 
of  Jupiter  Nemeus  between  Argos  and  Corinth,  and 
the  Temple  of  Ceres  at  Eleusis.  Chapter  vi  con- 
tained a  miscellaneous  collection  of  antiquities  at 
Mylasa,  Stratonice,  Ephesus,  Miletus,  Laodicea,  and 
in  Lycia  and  Troas.  Four  of  the  Lycian  views 
were  taken  from  the  drawings  done  by  L.  Mayer 
(otherwise  Myers),  a  German  artist,  for  Sir  Robert 
Ainslie.  It  would  seem  that  the  volume  was  issued 
in  numbers,  but  there  is  no  mention  of  any  number, 
except  No.  5-,  being  issued  separately. 
Custody  of  The  marbles  brought  home  by  the  members  of  the 
the  Sjicittfs  Ionian  expedition  had  been  at  first  entrusted  by  the 
Society  to  the  care  of  one  of  its  members,  Mr.  Brand. 
On  his  death  in  177 1,  it  was  ordered 

1  That  the  Secretary  do  write  a  Letter  to  Mr.  Brand  to  desire 
him  to  deliver  the  Antiquities  belonging  to  the  Society  of  the 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti   io? 

Dillettanti  which  were  deposited  at  his  Father's  House  (our  late 
worthy  member)  to  the  care  of  Lord  Clanbrassil : " 

and  in  May,  1771,  it  was  reported 

cThat  Mr.  Revett  received  the  Antiquities  belonging  to  the 
Society  from  Mr.  Brand  and  delivered  them  to  the  care  of  Lord 

In  December,  i77f,  they  were  again  transferred,  this 
time  to  the  care  of  Lord  Bessborough.  In  May, 
1778,  the  Secretary  reported  to  the  Society 

'  That  in  consequence  of  their  orders  he  had  waited  on  Ld. 
Bessborough  and  reccivd  from  him  the  Marbles  belonging  to  the 
Society,  which  he  had  deposited  in  his  own  house;  that  Ld. 
Bessborough  had  presented  3  marble  heads  to  the  Society  which 
the  Secretary  had  deposited  with  the  rest  of  the  marbles  of  the 
Society,  that  a  peice  of  the  principall  inscription  was  wanting  when 
the  Secretary  reccivd  it.' 

The  Secretary  at  this  date  was  Sir  Joseph  Banks,  who 
seems  from  this  to  have  received  them  into  his  own 
house.  On  May  n,  1783,  an  interesting  minute 

c  Resolvd  that  Mr.  Flaxman  have  permission  to  modell  a  Bass 
Rcleif  of  a  mans  and  a  hoises  head  the  property  of  the  Society  in 
the  Secretary's  house.' 

This  appears  to  have  been  the  fragment  of  the 
frieze  of  the  Parthenon,  brought  home  by  Chandler, 
and  now  in  the  British  Museum.  On  April  d, 
1784,  Mr.  Colman  moved  and  Lord  Mulgrave 

c  That  the  marbles  formerly  a  part  of  the  Frieze  of  the  temple 
of  Minerva  Parthenon  the  property  of  this  Society  be  deposited  in 
the  custody  of  the  Royal  Academy,  until  reclaimd  by  us  their 
owners,  the  President  of  the  Royal  Academy  signing  a  receipt  in 
the  name  of  the  Royal  Academy  Binding  the  President  and 
Members  of  the  said  Royal  Academy  to  return  the  said  Marbles 
whenever  they  are  Demanded  by  order  of  the  Dilettanti  Society 
signified  through  their  Secretary  for  the  time  being.' 

io6  History  of  the  Society  of  "Dilettanti 

Marbles  These  fragments  of  the  frieze  from  the  Parthenon 

~  .  appear  to  have  remained  in  the  custody  of  the  Royal 

presentfdto  Academy  until  1817,  when  they  were  handed  over 

the  British  to  the  British  Museum.     On  May    22,    1784,  Mr. 

Museum.  Peachey  moved,  Mr.  Windham  seconded, 

'That  all  Marbles  the  Property  of  the  Dilettanti  Society,  on 
which  are  inscriptions,  be  presented  to  the  British  Museum  which 
motion  being  put  was  carried  on  condition  that  they  are  placd 
in  such  situations  as  the  Members  of  the  Dilettanti  Society  who 
are  Trustees  of  the  British  Museum  shall  approve  and  proper 
inscriptions  be  affixed  to  them  Commemorating  the  gift  of  the 
Dilettanti  Society.' 

On  March  13,  1785*,  the  secretary  read  a  letter 
from  the  Trustees  of  the  British  Museum  by  the 
hands  of  their  secretary,  the  Revd.  Mr.  Harper,  as 
follows : — 

British  Museum,  January  7/1785-. 

I  am  ordcrd  by  the  standing  Committee  of  the  Trustees 
of  the  British  Museum  to  request  the  Favor  of  you  to  return  their 
respectfull  Thanks  to  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  for  the  very  valuable 
present  of  Marbles  with  which  they  have  been  pleasd  to  enrich 
this  Collection  and  to  assure  them  of  their  readiness  to  comply 
with  the  conditions  annexd  thereto. 

(Signed)    J.  Harper,  Sec. 
Sir  Jos.  Banks,  Bart. 

Sec.  to  the  Society  of  Dilettanti. 

At  a  later  date  all  the  drawings  made  by  Revett  and 
Pars  were  deposited  by  the  Society  of  the  Dilettanti 
with  the  Trustees  of  the  British  Museum.  They  were 
entrusted  to  the  care  of  the  Keeper  of  the  Greek  and 
Roman  Antiquities,  but  were  transferred  to  that  of 
the  Keeper  of  the  Prints  and  Drawings  until  1893, 
when  they  were,  with  the  exception  of  certain 
selected  water-colour  drawings  by  Pars,  retransf  erred 
to  the  department  of  Classical  Antiquities. 


Personal  changes  in  the  Society — New  members — Deaths 
of  Founders — New  spirit  among  their  successors — 
J.  C.  Crowle — Sir  Joseph  Banks — Charles  Greville 
— Sir  William  Hamilton — Sir  Richard  Worsley, 
Mr.  Peachey,  and  Sir  George  Beaumont — Charles 
Townley — Richard  Payne  Knight — Sir  Henry  Engle- 
field — Hamilton  and  the  ritual  of  hernia — DHan- 
carville — The  'Priapeia  • — Reception  of  the  volume — 
Retrospect:  work  of  the  Dilettanti  in  Italy — Work 
in  Greece  and  Asia  Minor — Further  enterprises: 
new  Publication  Committee — c  Specimens  of  Antient 
Sculpture' — Mode  of  publication — Proposed  second 
volume — Opportunities  lost  meanwhile — Sir  William 
Flamiltoiis  notes  and  drawings — Letter  from  Lord 
Elgin — The  Parthenon  Marbles  since  Carrey — Thomas 
Harrison — Action  taken  by  Lord  Elgin — Lord  Elgin 
and  the  Dilettanti — Influence  of  Payne  Knight  in 
discrediting  the  Marbles — Champions  on  the  other 
side  :  West,  Fuseli,  Hay  don — Progress  of  the  Con- 
troversy— Crown  Prince  of  Bavaria,  Visconti,  Canova — 
The  Select  Committee — Final  result. 

IN  narrating  the  circumstances  attending  the  long-  Personal 
delayed  publication  of  Ionian  Antiquities,  vol.  ii,  chimps  m 
we  have  passed  somewhat  beyond  the   proper       Society. 
limits  of  the  last  chapter,  which  deals  in  the  main 
with  the  period  in  the  Society's  history  comprised 
between  17^0  and   1790.  During  this  interval  the 
personal  changes  arising  from  the  election  of  new 
members  and  the  disappearance  of  old  had  naturally 

108   History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

been  many.  We  have  seen  how,  about  the  beginning  of 
the  period,  fresh  blood  was  introduced  in  the  persons 
of  several  artists  and  scholars  engaged  in  the  practical 
labours  of  exploring  and  publishing  the  remains  of 
ancient  art  in  Greece  and  Asia  Minor.  At  the  same 
time  the  original  character  of  the  Society  was  kept 
up  by  the  admission  of  a  steady  flow  of  new  members, 
recruited  chiefly  from  the  governing  families  of  the 
country,  and  including  many  names  well  known  in 
political  and  social  life. 
New  Such  were  Charles  Watson-Wentworth,  Marquess 

members.  0f  Rockingham,  the  Whig  Prime  Minister  and 
friend  of  Burke,  who  was  the  fourth  of  his  family 
to  join  the  ranks  of  the  Dilettanti;  the  Dukes  of  Rich- 
mond, Roxburghe,  Buccleuch,  and  Marlborough;  the 
Earls  of  Charlemont,  Upper  Ossory,  Clanbrassil,  and 
Earl  Spencer;  Sir  Thomas  Robinson,  afterwards  Lord 
Grantham;  and  Viscount  Palmerston.  Charles  James 
Fox  was  elected  at  the  age  of  twenty  :  and  there  ap- 
pear on  the  list  some  members  of  the  family  of  Pitt, 
but  not  those  either  of  the  Great  Commoner  himself 
or  of  his  father.  The  army  sent  Lord  Ligonier  and 
Colonel  Henry  St.  John  ;  the  navy,  Augustus  Hervey, 
the  original  husband  of  the  bigamous  Duchess  of 
Kingston,  and  his  nephew  Constantine  Phipps,  the 
Arctic  explorer,  afterwards  Lord  Mulgrave.  Other 
sections  of  society  and  fashion  were  represented 
by  such  men  as  the  Honourable  Charles  Greville, 
George  Selwyn,  the  famous  wit,  with  Bennet  Langton 
and  Topham  Beauclerk,  the  friends  of  Johnson.  One 
member  earned  distinction  of  a  fortunately  unique 
description ;  Robert  Fitzgerald,  by  birth  and  marriage 
connected  with  the  best  families  in  the  land,  was 
found  guilty  of  murder  of  a  very  atrocious  descrip- 
tion, and  suffered  the  just  expiation  of  his  crimes  upon 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti   109 

the  gallows.  The  bar  was  represented  by  John 
Charles  Crowle,  of  whom  more  hereafter.  Commerce 
sent  Luke  Scrafton,  who  was  for  some  years  governor 
of  Bengal,  and  being  sent  out  with  Governor  Van- 
sittart  to  inquire  into  the  affairs  of  India  was  lost 
at  sea  in  the  Aurora  frigate  in  1 7  7  o.  Science  furnished 
a  powerful  representative  in  the  person  of  Sir 
Joseph  Banks,  who  was  destined,  as  we  shall  see,  to 
take  a  very  prominent  place  in  the  affairs  of  the 
Society.  The  drama  and  dramatic  literature  con- 
tributed David  Garrick  and  George  Colman.  From 
the  ranks  of  art  came  first  and  foremost  Sir  Joshua 
Reynolds  (who  was  elected  in  1764  and  appointed 
Painter  to  the  Society  in  1769,  an  office  which  he 
continued  to  hold  until  his  death),  as  well  as 
Nathaniel  Dance,  and  (coming  down  to  a  date  a  few 
years  later  than  the  limit  mentioned  at  the  beginning 
of  this  chapter)  Sir  Thomas  Lawrence  and  Benjamin 
West,  who  were  both  elected  in  1792.  At  the  same 
time  it  happened  that  antiquaries  and  dilettanti 
rproperly  so  called,  the  professed  lovers,  collectors,  and 
connoisseurs  of  art,)  began  to  hold  an  increasingly 
prominent  place  in  the  Society's  ranks.  Distinguished 
among  these  were  Sir  William  Hamilton  (unless  he 
is  rather  to  be  counted  in  his  other  capacity  as 
a  diplomatist),  Sir  Richard  Worsley,  Sir  George 
Beaumont,  the  Honourable  John  Peachey,  afterwards 
Lord  Selsey,  Philip  Metcalfe  (one  of  the  executors 
of  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds's  will),  Joseph  Windham 
(a  member  of  the  Norfolk  branch  of  that  family), 
Richard  Payne  Knight,  Charles  Gore,  Charles 
Townley,  Sir  Henry  Englefield,  Dr.  Ash,  and  in  the 
last  years  of  the  century  the  Rev.  C.  M.  Cracherode. 
To  most  of  these  names  we  shall  presently  recur  : 
four  at  least  of  them,  viz.  Hamilton,  Payne  Knight, 

no    History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

Townley,  and  Cracherode,  will  be  held  in  permanent 
remembrance  on  account  of  the  great  collections  of 
works  of  art  which  passed  by  bequest  or  purchase 
from  their  hands  into  those  of  the  nation,  and 
between  them  compose  no  inconsiderable  proportion 
of  the  public  treasures  at  the  British  Museum. 
Deaths  of  In  the  meantime  most  of  the  founders  of  the 
Founders.  Society,  and  not  a  few  men  of  those  who  may  be 
regaraed  as  belonging  to  the  second  generation  of 
its  members,  had  in  the  course  of  nature  fallen 
out  of  its  ranks.  Mr.  Harris,  its  first  Treasurer, 
was  one  of  the  earliest  to  go  in  1764,  followed 
in  the  next  year  by  the  gay  Sewallis  Shirley.  In 
1769  died  Mr.  Howe  and  the  Duke  of  Dorset,  better 
known  to  the  Society  as  the  Earl  of  Middlesex ; 
in  1 77 1  Daniel  Boone,  the  Duke  of  Bedford,  and 
Mr.  Robert  Wood,  the  explorer  and  first  director 
of  the  Society's  archaeological  ventures.  In  1773 
both  the  brothers  Gray,  who  may  be  ranked  among 
the  true  founders  of  the  Society,  followed  each 
other  quickly  into  the  grave ;  Sir  James  first,  leaving 
the  baronetcy  to  be  held  for  a  few  months  only 
by  his  brother,  the  General.  Both  died  past  the 
years  of  the  Psalmist,  but,  curious  to  say,  left 
a  mother  to  mourn  their  loss.  Earl  Harcourt  died 
in  1777,  Knapton  the  painter  and  the  Earl  of  Holder- 
nesse  in  1778,  Earl  Temple  in  1779,  'Athenian' 
Stuart  in  1 7  8  o.  In  1 7  8 1  Lord  le  Despencer  (under 
which  title  the  conspicuous  name  of  Sir  Francis 
Dashwood  was  somewhat  obscured)  paid  the  debt 
of  nature  after  a  long  and  varied,  not  wholly  in- 
famous, nor  even  wholly  inglorious  career.  Fauquier 
the  banker,  who  had  been  Treasurer  to  the  Society 
for  a  few  years,  died  in  1788.  The  Earl  of  Sandwich 
succumbed  in  1792,  dying,  as  he  lived,  hard,  and 


1    A  R.L     OF     S  ANDWICH 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    in 

leaving  a  name  to  be  battened  upon  by  litefary  and 
historical  scandal-mongers.  With  all  his  vices,  he 
was  a  man  of  unquestionable  ability,  and  a  true 
and  industrious  servant  of  his  sovereign  and  his 
country.  The  last  survivor  among  the  original 
members  was  William  Ponsonby,  Earl  of  Bessborough, 
who  did  not  quit  the  scene  until  1793. 

The  leading  place  which  had  at  first  been  held  in  New  spirit 
the  councils  of  the  Society  by  such  men  as  these  was  among their 
gradually  assumed  by  successors  of  a  somewhat  successors- 
different  stamp.  The  first  Dilettanti  had  been 
a  company  of  gay  and  brilliant  carousers,  animated 
both  by  the  passion  and  the  fashion  for  art,  but 
professing  no  special  knowledge  of  their  own.  They 
wrote  no  essays  and  delivered  no  oracular  opinions 
upon  the  subjects  in  which  they  took  a  common 
interest.  What  they  did  was  to  select  the  best  men 
they  could  to  carry  out  the  work  they  desired  to  see 
accomplished,  and  in  most  instances  to  testify  to  their 
sense  of  the  workers'  merits  by  electing  them  in  due 
course  members  of  the  Society — a  highly  coveted 
social  distinction.  The  work  done,  they  presented 
it  to  the  world  at  large  in  as  handsome  and  complete 
a  form  as  they  could,  displaying  thereby  not  only 
their  true  enthusiasm  for  the  subject,  but  a  generous 
and  honourable  public  spirit.  But  from  the  beginning 
of  the  period  on  which  we  are  now  entering  (about 
1 78 0-18 20)  the  guiding  spirits  of  the  Society  were 
chiefly  drawn  from  the  special  group  of  cultivated 
amateurs  whose  accession  to  their  ranks  has  just  been 
mentioned.  Some  of  these  gentlemen  were  not 
content  to  be  merely  patrons  and  collectors,  but 
must  needs  take  the  tone  of  savants  and  professors. 
To  their  minds  the  pursuit  of  antiquarian  knowledge 
was  a  perquisite  of  wealth  and  influential  position, 

in    History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

and  under  their  guidance  the  Society  was  sometimes 
induced  to  pose  as  the  oracle  and  arbiter  of  taste 
and  learning,  pronouncing  judgement  with  dogmatic 
authority,  and  not  always  according  to  wisdom.  In 
some  directions  they  did  excellent  work ;  in  others 
they  were  betrayed  into  errors  of  judgement  which 
will  have  to  be  recorded  in  the  present  chapter. 
The  names  of  members  on  whom  we  have  to  dwell 
as  taking  a  special  prominent  place  in  the  records  of 
the  Society,  after  the  gradual  disappearance  of  its 
founders,  are  John  Charles  Crowle,  Sir  Joseph  Banks, 
Charles  Greville  and  his  uncle  Sir  William  Hamilton, 
Sir  Richard  Worsley,  the  Honourable  J.  Peachey,  Sir 
George  Beaumont,  Charles  Townley,  Richard  Payne 
Knight,  and  Sir  Henry  Englefield. 
J.c.  In  1774  Mr.  Fauquier,  who  had  succeeded  Lieu- 

crow/e,  tenant-General  Gray  in  177 1  as  Secretary  and 
Treasurer,  resigned  his  post,  and,  as  entered  on  the 
minutes  of  February  tf,  1774, 

c  Mr.  Fauquier  desiring  to  quit  the  post  of  officiating  Secretary 
the  Society  accepted  of  the  same,  and  Mr.  Crowle  was  desired  by  the 
Society  to  accept  of  the  said  post,  and  He  was  pleas'd  to  consent  to 
the  wishes  of  the  Society.' 

John  Charles  Crowle  was  a  barrister,  who  earned 
some  notoriety  at  the  time  of  the  Westminster  election 
in  1749,  which  resulted  in  a  scrutiny  being  held  that 
lasted  for  five  months.  Crowle,  who  was  counsel 
for  Sir  George  Vandeput,  was  accused  of  having  un- 
duly prolonged  the  scrutiny,  and  also  of  having 
spoken  of  the  orders  of  the  House  of  Commons 
as  brutum  fulmen.  For  this  misdemeanour  he  was 
ordered  to  appear  at  the  bar  of  the  House  of 
Commons,  and  solemnly  reprimanded  upon  his 
knees  by  the  Speaker.  On  rising  Crowle  wiped  his 
knees,  and  said    that  it  was  the  dirtiest   place  he 


History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    113 

had  ever  been  in.     Crowle  was  the  owner  of  Fryston 

Hall  in  Yorkshire,  the  seat  in  the  present  century  of 

another  well-known  Dilettante,  Lord  Houghton.    He 

was  a  noted  joker  and  boon  companion,  and  left 

a  tangible  proof  of  his  interest  in  art  and  antiquity  1 

in  the  illustrated  and  interleaved  copy  of  Pennant's 

History  of  London  which  he  bequeathed  to  the  British 

Museum.     He  was  the  hero  of  a   duel  with  Lord 

Hervey,  celebrated  by  Sir  Charles  Hanbury  Williams 

in  some  satirical  verses  entitled  'The  Merry  Campaign ; 

or,  the  Westminster  and  Green  Park  Scuffle,  a  New 

Court  Ballad To  the  Tune  of  "  Chevy  Chase." ' 

Crowle  seems  to  have  been  somewhat  irregular  in  his 
business  habits,  for  on  January  2 2, 1 77  y,  it  is  recorded : 

'  Nothing  more  done,  Mr.  Secretary  Charles  John  Crowle  being 
absent  without  leave,  having  neglected  to  prepare  the  Bcoks,  and 
having  appointed  a  Deputy  totally  incapable.' 

Crowle  held  office  until  March,  1778,  when 

'Mr.  Crowle  Having  desired  to  resign  the  Office  of  Secretary 
He  was  permitted  so  to  do  and  Mr.  Banks  was  desired  to  accept 
the  same  which  he  accordingly  did.' 

Sir  Joseph  Banks  holds  so  high  a  position  among  sir  Joseph 
the  ranks  of  English  worthies  that  it  is  hardly  Banks. 
necessary  to  give  any  account  of  him  here.  His 
succession  to  the  family  estate  of  Revesby  in  Lincoln- 
shire put  him  in  a  position  while  still  young  to  satisfy 
his  passion  for  botanical  science  and  for  travel  j  and 
his  indomitable  strength  of  character .  carried  him 
victoriously  alike  through  the  adventures  of  his 
earlier  and  the  conflicts  of  his  later  career.  Through 
the  influence  of  Lord  Sandwich,  Banks  and  his  friend 
Dr.  Solander  were  enabled  to  accompany  Captain 
Cook's  first  famous  voyage  in  the  Endeavour^  which 
lasted  from  176%  to  1771.  It  is  noteworthy  that 
whereas  a  former  prominent  member  of  the  Society, 

ii4-    History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

the  Earl  of  Sandwich,  gave  his  name  to  the  Sandwich 
Islands,  the  once  famous  Botany  Bay  owed  its  name 
to  the  field  for  successful  research  which  it  afforded 
to  Banks  and  his  companion  Solander.  Banks  was 
proposed  as  a  member  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  by 
'Athenian  '  Stuart  and  elected  on  February  6,  1774. 
In  November,  1778,  he  was  elected  President  of  the 
Royal  Society,  a  post  which  he  held — for  a  while  in 
the  face  of  vehement  opposition — until  his  death  in 
1820,  when  he  bequeathed  his  valuable  library  to 
the  British  Museum,  thus  becoming  a  second  founder, 
after  Sir  Hans  Sloane,  of  what  is  now  the  Museum 
of  Natural  History.  Banks  was  one  of  the  most  dis- 
tinguished and  honoured  members  of  the  Society  of 
Dilettanti.  In  spite  of  his  numerous  occupations 
elsewhere,  he  continued  to  act  as  Treasurer  and 
Secretary  of  the  Society  until  June,  1794,  when  he 
resigned  the  former  office  to  Mr.  Philip  Metcalfe,  and 
as  Secretary  alone  until  February  19,  1797,  when  the 
following  entry  was  made  in  the  minutes : — 

'  A  letter  was  received  this  day  from  Sir  Jos.  Banks  to  the  great 
Regret  of  the  Society,  expressing  his  intention  of  resigning  the 
office  of  Secretary  (which  he  has  performed  so  much  to  their 
satisfaction  &  advantage  for  eighteen  years). 

'  OrderM  That  a  Letter  be  written  to  him  by  the  Treasurer 
conveying  in  the  Strongest  terms  their  regret  at  losing  so  good  &c 
useful!  an  officer,  &  hoping  shou'd  he  persist  in  his  determination 
that  he  will  attend  the  Call  on  Sunday  5th  March  &  to  hope  that 
he  will  retain  the  office,  till  a  successor  be  appointed/ 

charhs  Charles  Greville,  who  on  the  promotion  of  Banks 

Grevllle.  to  be  Secretary  of  the  Society  succeeded  him  in  the 
office  of  Very  High,  was  a  younger  son  of  the  Earl 
of  Warwick  and  nephew  of  Sir  William  Hamilton. 
He  was  one  of  the  best-known  men  in  the  England 
of  his  day,  a  leader  ofbaut  tony  member  of  Parliament, 
and  well-known   amateur   and   collector    of  coins, 

History  of  the  Society  of  "Dilettanti    115- 

gems,  and  engravings.  He  has  earned  a  niche  in  the 
temple  of  history  less  for  his  wit  and  culture  than 
for  the  circumstances  of  his  connexion  with  the 
beautiful  Emma  Lyon.  She  had  lived  with  Greville 
for  four  years  as  his  mistress  and  received  from  him 
a  kind  or  education  before  he  passed  her  on  to  the 
protection  of  his  uncle.  Moreover,  it  was  through 
Greville  that  the  famous  Emma  received  her  introduc- 
tion to  Romney  the  painter,  the  results  of  which  have 
perhaps  done  more  to  recommend  her  to  the  favour  of 
posterity  than  any  of  the  other  adventures  of  her  life. 
A  portrait  of  Greville  appears  in  ZofFany's  picture  of 
Charles  Townley  in  his  gallery  of  antiquities,  and  an- 
other in  one  of  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds's  famous  groups  of 
Dilettanti  portraits,  reproduced  in  the  present  volume. 

Sir  William  Hamilton,  K.B.,  was  a  diplomatist  of  Sk  William 
distinction,  and  rendered  important  services  to  his  Hamtlton- 
country  and  to  the  kingdom  of  Naples  during  the 
twenty-six  years  that  he  acted  as  British  envoy  and 
plenipotentiary  to  that  court.  He  was  more  fortu- 
nate than  his  nephew  Greville,  in  that  his  connexion 
with  the  woman  who  eventually  became  his  wife  and 
Nelson's  mistress  did  not  obscure  the  considerable  and 
not  to  be  forgotten  services  which  he  contributed  to 
the  cause  of  classical  archaeology.  His  earliest  studies 
were  chiefly  connected  with  the  volcanic  phenomena 
of  Vesuvius  and  the  excavations  then  in  progress 
at  Pompeii  and  Herculaneum,  which  he  supported 
both  by  his  enthusiasm  and  his  purse.  In  1766 
Hamilton  commenced  his  famous  collection  of  Greek 
vases,  terra -cottas,  bronzes,  and  gold  ornaments,  which 
he  sold  to  the  nation  in  1772.  This  collection  formed 
the  nucleus  of  the  Department  of  Greek  and  Roman 
Antiquities  in  the  British  Museum.  While  it  was 
still  in  Hamilton's  hands,  he  caused  it  to  be  illustrated 

I  z 

Sir  Richard 
Worsley ; 

Peachey } 
Sir  George 

ii(5   History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

and  described  in  a  great  work  of  four  volumes  with 
text  by  D'Hancarville,  a  French  antiquary  and  scholar 
then  in  undeserved  repute ;  but  deeply  as  the  world  of 
art  is  indebted  to  Sir  William  Hamilton  for  his  col- 
lections of  Greek  vases,  it  is  rather  from  the  vases 
themselves  that  the  modern  student  acquires  informa- 
tion than  from  the  splendid  and  ponderous  folios  on 
which  Hamilton  lavished  so  much  time  and  expense. 
A  second  collection  formed  by  Hamilton  passed — at 
least  as  much  of  it  as  was  rescued  from  shipwreck — 
into  the  collection  of  Mr.  Hope  of  Deepdene.  Elected 
a  member  of  the  Dilettanti  in  1777,  Hamilton  was 
prevented  by  his  residence  at  Naples  from  being  more 
than  a  rare  attendant  at  its  meetings. 

Sir  Richard  Worsley,  who,  like  Sir  James  Gray,  was 
for  some  time  British  Resident  at  Venice,  made  a  tour 
through  Greece  and  the  islands  and  coast  of  Asia 
Minor  in  1 7  8  j-6.  He  formed  a  large  and  valuable 
collection  of  classical  antiquities  on  the  spot,  and  was 
fortunate  enough  to  succeed  in  bringing  his  collection 
safe  back  to  England.  He  spared  no  expense  in 
following  the  examples  of  Stuart  and  Revett  and 
of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  in  causing  the  most  im- 
portant specimens  of  his  collection  (and  with  them 
some  drawings  done  for  the  Dilettanti  by  Pars)  to  be 
engraved  and  published  in  two  important  and  valu- 
able volumes,  known  as  the  Museum  Worsleyanum. 
His  collection,  formerly  stored  at  Appuldurcombe, 
in  the  Isle  of  Wight,  passed  to  his  niece  Miss  Simpson, 
afterwards  wife  of  the  Earl  of  Yarborough,  and 
is  now  housed  at  Brocklesby  Park  <«  The  Hon. 
John  Peachey,  who  afterwards  succeeded  his  father 

1  A  new  catalogue  of  this  collection  has  by  desire  of  the 
present  Earl  of  Yarborough  been  prepared  by  Mr.  A.  H.  Smith,  of 
the  British  Museum. 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    117 

as  second  Lord  Selsey,  was  another  young  English 
nobleman  who  had  been  captivated  in  Rome  by  the 
remains  of  classic  antiquity,  and  had  formed  a  small 
collection  of  marbles  under  the  auspices  of  Jenkins 
and  Gavin  Hamilton.  Sir  George  Howland  Beau- 
mont, Bart.,  was  a  well-known  figure  in  the  history 
of  art  in  England.  His  name  is  more  closely  con- 
nected with  the  art  of  painting  and  the  foundation 
of  a  National  Gallery  than  with  the  antiquities  of 
Greece  and  Rome,  and  will  perhaps  be  longest  re- 
membered by  reason  of  his  friendship  with  the  poet 
Wordsworth  ;  but  there  was  no  branch  of  art  in 
which  he  did  not  take  a  genuine  and  a  liberal  interest. 

Charles  Townley,  of  Townley  in  Lancashire,  is  Charles 
perhaps  the  most  conspicuous  figure  among  those  Townley. 
amateurs  of  art  in  the  eighteenth  century  who 
devoted  zeal  and  money  almost  entirely  to  the 
acquisition  of  the  remains  of  classical  antiquity 
which  were  being  yielded  up  by  the  golden  soil 
of  Italy.  A  Catholic  and  a  Jacobite  by  family, 
he  was  brought  up  on  the  Continent,  and  lived  at 
Rome  from  176?  to  1772.  He  was  an  intimate 
friend  of  Sir  William  Hamilton,  and  associated 
himself  with  Gavin  Hamilton  and  Jenkins  in  pro- 
moting the  excavations  at  Rome  and  partaking 
of  the  fruits  thereof.  Many  of  the  chief  prizes 
fell  to  Townley 's  purse,  in  spite  of  the  rivalry 
of  the  potentate  collectors  at  the  Vatican.  These 
included  bronzes,  vases,  gems,  and  coins,  as 
well  as  marbles.  In  1772  Townley  brought  his 
collection  to  London  and  fitted  up  a  gallery  at 
7  Park  Street,  Westminster,  losing  no  opportunity 
of  adding  to  it  any  treasures  from  private  collections 
in  England  which  came  within  his  reach.  His 
house  was    the  centre  of  an  artistic  circle,  which 

ti8    History  of  the  Society  of  'Dilettanti 

included  many  members  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti, 
but  was  by  no  means  confined  to  those  who  were 
amateurs  of  his  own  particular  line  of  art.  A  well- 
known  painting  by  Zoffany  shows  Townley  in  his 
gallery  with  D'Hancarville  the  writer,  Charles 
Greville,  and  Thomas  Astle.  In  179 1  Townley 
was  made  a  trustee  of  the  British  Museum.  The 
purchase  of  Sir  William  Hamilton's  collection  in 
1772  had  laid,  as  has  been  said,  the  foundation 
of  a  Department  of  Classical  Antiquities.  In  order 
to  further  this  object  and  to  create  a  public  collection 
which  could  compete  with  that  which  was  rapidly 
being  formed  in  the  Vatican  at  Rome,  Townley 
decided  in  1802  to  bequeath  his  collection  of  marbles 
to  the  British  Museum.  After  his  death  in  1805- 
circumstances  prevented  his  wishes  from  being  carried 
out ;  but  the  nation  were  enabled  to  purchase  the 
marbles  for  the  very  moderate  sum  of  £20,000,  and 
with  this  purchase  the  history  of  the  Department 
of  Classical  Antiquities  in  the  British  Museum  may 
be  said  to  commence  so  far  as  concerns  the  acquisition, 
in  any  considerable  quantity,  of  ancient  sculptures. 
Richard  A    third  Englishman  of  this  time  who   may  be 

Payne  ranked  with  Hamilton  and  Townley  among  pioneers 

n'g  '  of  classical  archaeology,  enrichers  and  benefactors 
of  the  British  Museum,  and  guiding  spirits  of  the 
Society  of  Dilettanti,  was  Richard  Payne  Knight. 
A  member  of  a  well-known  family  in  Herefordshire, 
Payne  Knight  went  to  Italy  in  1767  at  the  age  of 
seventeen,  and  paid  repeated  visits  there  of  more  or 
lessprolonged  duration  for  about  twenty  years,  in  close 
association  with  Townley,  Hamilton,  and  other  ama- 
teurs. In  company  with  Charles  Gore,  an  enthusiastic 
artist  and  antiquary,  and  Johann  Philipp  Hackert,  a 
well-known  German  landscape  painter  at  Rome,  he 

'kuAtnce..  .?rf,A.&«*. 

R.   PAYNE     KNIGHT.    ESQ. 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti   119 

made  in  the  spring  of  1777  a.  three  months'  tour  in 
Sicily,  visiting  the  great  temples  of  Agrigentum, 
Selinus,  Egesta,  and  other  spots  famous  for  their 
remains  of  antiquity  and  art.  Knight  kept  a  careful 
diary  of  this  journey,  and  Gore  made  several  impor- 
tant drawings,  some  of  which  are  now  in  the  print- 
room  at  the  British  Museum.  Knight  and  Gore  were 
elected  members  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  on  May 
d,  178 1.  Gore's  connexion  with  the  Society  was  ter- 
minated a  few  years  later  by  his  taking  up  his  final 
residence  at  Florence,  but  Knight  became  the  ruling 
spirit  of  the  Society  so  far  as  concerned  the  study  of 
classical  archaeology,  and  remained  so  until  his  death 
in  1824.  Knight's  Sicilian  diary  gained  for  him  an 
unexpected  immortality.  It  came  into  the  hands  of 
no  less  a  person  than  Goethe,  who  was  so  deeply 
interested  in  it  that  he  translated  it  into  German, 
and  published  it  under  the  title  of  Tagebuch  einer 
fteise  nach  Sicilien.  This  was  the  second  time  that 
a  treatise  by  an  individual  member  of  the  Dilettanti 
had  the  good  fortune  to  act  upon  the  general  mind 
and  culture  of  Europe,  producing  effects  out  of 
proportion  to  any  critical  or  scientific  value  of  its 
own.  First  the  Polymetis  of  Spence,  the  elegant 
compilation  of  an  old-fashioned  scholar  on  whom  a 
sense  of  the  true  methods  of  archaeological  study  had 
not  yet  dawned,  provoked  from  Lessing  the  chief  part 
of  the  arguments  in  his  immortal  Laocoon ;  and  now 
the  travelling  diary  of  Payne  Knight  helped  to 
awaken  and  stimulate  in  Goethe  that  deep  and 
luminous  appreciation  of  classical  art  which  became 
so  large  a  part  of  his  intellectual  endowment. 
Knight  posed  as  the  arbiter  of  taste  in  London 
society  j  he  delivered  his  opinions  with  somewhat 
the  air  of  an  oracle,  and  published  various  essays 

Sir  Henry 

and  the 
ritual  of 

no  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

on  ancient  art,  literature,  and  antiquities,  written 
with  a  genuine  enthusiasm  for  his  subjects,  but 
with  a  love  of  strained  interpretations  and  a  some- 
what unsound  and  fantastic  quality  of  erudition. 
Posterity  therefore  has  inclined  to  rate  him  perhaps 
below  the  value  of  the  influence  which  he  un- 
doubtedly exercised  on  the  culture  of  his  time.  It  was 
as  a  collector  that  he  was  chiefly  and  really  eminent. 
His  cabinet  of  antiquities  included  marbles,  gems, 
coins,  and  bronzes,  and  was  strongest  in  the  last 
three  departments,  in  which  he  had  real  discrimina- 
tion, although  little,  as  the  sequel  will  show,  in 
sculpture.  He  was  also  an  energetic  collector  of 
drawings  by  the  old  masters,  especially  Claude ;  and 
his  acquisitions  in  both  kinds  formed  a  very  impor- 
tant addition  to  the  treasures  of  the  British  Museum, 
to  which  they  were  bequeathed  on  his  death. 

Yet  another  enthusiastic  antiquary  among  the 
Dilettanti  was  Sir  Henry  Englefield,  Bart.  He 
joined  the  Society  in  the  same  year  as  Payne  Knight 
(1781)5  but  his  most  active  participation  in  its 
affairs  took  place  after  1808,  when  he  was  appointed 
Secretary.  He  was  a  Catholic  gentleman  of  cultivated 
tastes  and  charming  conversation,  the  owner  of  an 
important  collection  of  Greek  and  Etruscan  vases, 
a  Fellow  of  the  Royal  Society  and  the  Society  of 
Antiquaries,  who  contributed  to  the  Transactions 
of  both  bodies,  writing  and  speaking  with  claims 
to  authority  on  subjects  so  diverse  as  botany, 
astronomy,  church  architecture,  English  topography 
and  landscape,  and  Catholic  practice  and  doctrine. 

On  May  22,  1784,  it  was  resolved 

c  That  the  Committee  of  publication  be  requested  to  undertake 
to  Print  Sir  William  Hamilton's  letter  concerning  the  great  toes 
of  the  Holy  Martyrs  S.  Cosmo  &  Damiano  with  such  illustrations 


History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    ixi 

as  they  think  proper  &  to  cause  the  drawing  annexed  to  be 
ingraved  for  the  use  of  the  members  of  the  Society  and  that  the 
expence  of  doing  it  be  not  considered  as  part  of  the  original  grant/ 

This  somewhat  cryptic  minute  is  the  first  record  of  J 
what  proved  an  unfortunate  error  of  judgement  on 
the  part  of  the  Society.  Sir  William  Hamilton,  in  the 
course  of  his  long  residence  as  envoy  at  Naples,  lost 
no  opportunity  of  searching  the  kingdom  of  Naples 
for  any  remains  of  classical  antiquity  which  could 
be  discovered.  In  the  course  of  these  investigations 
he  discovered  that  at  a  small  town  in  that  kingdom 
called  Isernia  a  curious  ritual  still  survived,  in 
which  the  ancient  phallic  worship  of  the  Romans 
was  maintained  in  all  its  primitive  simplicity,  in 
combination  with  and  under  the  shadow  of  the  rites 
paid  at  the  shrine  of  the  two  martyrs,  St.  Cosmo  and 
St.  Damian.  Struck  by  the  curiosity  of  this  direct 
survival  from  classical  times,  Hamilton  communicated 
an  account  of  what  he  had  witnessed  to  the  Society 
of  Dilettanti  in  a  letter  addressed  to  Sir  Joseph 
Banks  from  Naples  on  December  30,  1781.  This 
letter  is  the  one  alluded  to  in  the  above  minute. 

In  1784  Pierre  Francois  Hugues,  better  known  by  D*Havear~ 
his  assumed  name  of  D'Hancarville,  came  to  London  w/fe. 
on  a  visit  to  Townley  in  Westminster.  He  had, 
as  has  been  already  mentioned,  been  associated  with 
Sir  William  Hamilton  in  the  production  of  the 
famous  work  illustrating  Hamilton's  first  collection 
and  entitled  Antiquites  etrusques,  grecques,  et  romaims, 
(1766-7).  Since  then  he  had  been  engaged  for  many 
years  in  compiling  a  vast  work,  entitled  l{echerches  sur 
I'Origine^  F Esprit  et  les  Progres  des  Arts  ae  la  Grece, 
which  was  published  in  London  in  1787.  The 
work  in  question  has  been  appropriately  described 
as c  a  fantastic  farrago  of  mystico-symbolical  revela- 

ixx   History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

tion  and  groundless  hypotheses.'  At  this  date  there 
was  nothing  approaching  to  an  exact  or  scientific 
appreciation  of  the  symbolic  rites  observed  in  the 
worship  of  their  deities  by  pagan  or  Oriental  races. 
D'Hancarville,  in  spite  of  the  gross  absurdities  which 
abound  in  his  work,  must  be  regarded  as  one  of  the 
earliest  writers  to  attempt  any  such  solution  of 
these  difficult  questions,  which  in  the  course  of  the 
next  hundred  years  have  furnished  matter  of  research 
and  speculation  to  so  many  more  competent  minds. 
Among  the  subjects  treated  by  D'Hancarville  was  that 
of  phallicism  in  ancient  religious  rites.  His  theories 
and  arguments  completely  fascinated  the  minds  of 
Townley  and  Payne  Knight,  and  this  infection  was 
communicated  by  them  to  the  Society  of  Dilettanti. 
The  Society  therefore,  as  recorded  above,  decided 
to  print  and  illustrate  Hamilton's  letter  on  the 
curious  rites  which  he  had  witnessed  at  Isernia. 
The  The  work  was  entrusted  to  Payne  Knight,  who 

<Pnapeia?  added  an  essay  of  his  own  composition.  The  work 
was  ready  for  publication  in  1786,  and  bore  the 
title  of  An  Account  of  the  Worship  of  Priapus,  lately 
existing  at  Isernia  in  the  Kj-ngdom  of  Naples :  in  Two 
Letters  j  One  from  Sir  William  Hamilton,  K^.B.,  His 
Majesty  s  Minister  at  the  Court  of  Naples,  to  Sir  Joseph 
Banks,  Bart.,  President  of  the  fyyal  Society  ;  and  the  other 
from  a  Person  residing  at  Isernia :  To  which  is  added, 
A  discourse  on  the  Worship  of  Priapus,  and  its  Connexion 
with  the  Mystic  Theology  of  the  Ancients  by  7(.  P.  tonight, 
Esq.  (London.  Printed  by  T.  Spilbury,  Snowhill, 
1786.)  It  was  known  shortly  as  the  Priapeia.  On 
March  3,  1787,  it  is  recorded  in  the  minutes  that 

c  Mr.  Windham  on  the  part  of  the  Committee  of  publication 
reported  that  the  Priapeia  ordered  by  the  Society  to  be  printed  is 
Finishd  &  ready  for  delivery. 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    1x3 

c  Ordered,  motion  made  by  Ld.  Bessborough,  Father  of  the  Society, 
That  the  Thanks  of  this  Society  be  given  to  R.  P.  Knight  Esqre.  for  the 
able  &  elegant  manner  in  which  he  has  investigated  the  interesting 
&  diiicult  subject  of  this  valuable  work  &  that  they  be  delivered 
to  him  at  the  next  meeting  he  shall  attend  by  the  arch-master  or 
his  deputy  appointed  by  the  Society,  dressd  in  his  Crimson  TafFety 
Robe  &  other  insignia  of  his  office. 

c  That  the  Copies  be  lodg'd  in  the  custody  of  the  Secretary  &: 
one  of  them  deliverd  to  each  member  of  the  Society,  &  that  except 
these  he  do  not  on  any  Pretence  whatever  part  with  any  other  copy 
without  an  order  made  at  a  regular  meeting/ 

c  That  each  member  be  allowd  once  &  no  more  to  move  the 
Society  recommending  by  name  a  Friend  to  whom  he  wishes  the 
Society  to  present  a  copy/ 

And  again  on  April  i,  1787, 

cMr.  Wilbraham  as  Deputy  Arch-Master  Dressd  in  all  the 
insignia  of  office  returned  the  Thanks  of  the  Society  to  R. P.  Knight 
Esq',  for  his  able  work  of  the  Priapeia/ 

c  Ordered  that  the  Secretary  do  inscribe  on  the  back  of  the  title- 
page  of  each  the  name  of  the  Person  to  whom  it  is  presented  &  the 
circumstances  of  its  being  a  Present  from  the  Society  of  Dilettanti/ 

Copies  of  the  work  were  presented  under  the 
above  orders  to  H.R.H.  the  Prince  of  Wales,  the 
British  Museum,  the  Society  of  Antiquaries,  the  Royal 
Society,  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Scotland,  the 
Royal  Academy,  the  Royal  Library,  Copenhagen, 
&c.  Six  extra  copies  were  presented  to  Sir  William 
Hamilton,  and  twenty-five  others  to  be  distributed 
among  foreigners.  The  names  of  about  eighty 
noblemen,  gentlemen,  clergymen,  antiquaries,  and 
others  occur  in  the  minutes  as  recipients  of  presenta- 
tion copies,  including  those  of  Horace  Walpole, 
Dr.  Combe,  D'Hancarville,  the  Duke  of  Portland, 
Lord  Thurlow,  Mr.  Planta,  Charles  James  Fox, 
Mr.  Astle,  Mr.  Malone,  Mr.  Gibbon,  Mr.  Wilkes, 
the  Duke  of  Roxburghe,  Caleb  Whitefoord,  and  other 
notable  persons,  including  distinguished  foreigners. 

It  is  evident  that  the  Society  in  issuing  this  work  Reception  of 
had  no  intention  of  publishing  anything  calculated  to  tb§  volume. 

1X4  History  of  the  Society  of  "Dilettanti 

give  offence  or  to  be  considered  a  breach  of  morality. 
Its  spirit  is  meant  to  be  truly  antiquarian:  if  the  result 
is  both  dull  and  grotesque,  that  is  due  partly  to 
the  far-fetched  mythological  fancies  which  passed  for 
learning  at  the  time,  partly  to  a  failure  of  tact  and 
humorous  perception  in  the  authors.  Offence  at  any 
rate  the  publication  did  give,  and  Payne  Knight, 
whose  name  was  chiefly  identified  with  the  publica- 
tion, was  vehemently  assailed  on  its  account.  Mathias, 
a  satirist  of  a  violent  and  reckless  description,  dubbed 
ca  miserable  imp '  by  Dr.  Wolcot,  and  branded  by  De 
Quincey  for  c  much  mean  and  impotent  spite '  and 
1  systematic  pedantry,'  made  a  severe  attack  on  him  in 
the  work  known  as  The  Pursuits  of  Literature.  These 
and  other  attacks  affected  Payne  Knight  so  much  that 
he  did  his  best  to  call  in  all  the  copies  he  could  of 
the  offending  work,  which  is  consequently  of  great 
scarcity  and  especially  in  an  unmutilated  condition. 
Retrospect:  At  the  close  of  the  eighteenth  century  the  Society 
-work  of  the  0f  Dilettanti,  notwithstanding  such  a  slip  in  taste  and 
in  Italy. '  judgement  as  this,  might  well  look  back  with  satis- 
faction upon  the  work  done  by  its  members,  both 
collectively  and  individually,  in  the  cause  of  classical 
archaeology.  Sixty  or  seventy  years  earlier,  the 
study  of  classical  antiquities  could  hardly  be  said  to 
exist,  while  the  collection  of  specimens  and  the 
description  of  ancient  buildings  and  sites  were  left 
to  a  few  casual  travellers.  The  foundation  of  the 
Society  of  Dilettanti  brought  together  all  the  rich 
young  travellers  of  British  birth  in  a  kind  of  healthy 
competition  towards  a  single  goal.  Under  the  spur 
of  this  competition  purses  were  opened  freely,  and 
with  the  help  of  English  gold  the  soil  of  Rome  and 
the  Campagna  yielded  up  its  long-buried  treasures. 
Without  the  zeal  and  perspicacity  of  such  men  as 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti   125- 

Gavin  Hamilton,  Byres,  Fagan,  and  Jenkins  the 
excavations  might  have  been  fruitless  or  barren,  and 
without  the  money  of  the  Dilettanti  they  might  have 
been  indefinitely  postponed.  The  exertions  of  the 
earlier  English  excavators,  dealers,  and  collectors  had 
a  further  good  effect  in  stimulating  native  rivalry. 
Prelates  like  Cardinal  Albani,  popes  like  Clement 
XIV  and  Pius  VI,  becoming  alive  to  the  value  of 
the  treasures  that  the  foreigner  was  exporting  from 
under  their  very  eyes,  were  aroused  to  greater  energy 
in  the  formation  of  those  marvellous  collections 
of  marbles  which  are  now  displayed  in  the  galleries 
of  Rome.  In  other  countries  the  leaven  of  classical 
enthusiasm  worked  more  slowly.  France,  despite  the 
zeal  of  an  amateur  like  Caylus  and  an  artist  like 
Cochin,  took  little  share  in  the  classic  revival  of  the  ' 

eighteenth  century  until  after  the  storms  of  the  Re- 
volution. Germany,  it  is  true,  produced  in  the  person 
of  Winckelmann  an  archaeologist  offar  greater  power 
and  insight  than  any  of  his  English  contemporaries ; 
but  in  historical  order  the  fame  and  European 
influence  of  Winckelmann  follows  and  does  not 
precede  the  efforts  of  the  earlier  English  Dilettanti. 

More  important  and  more  vital  to  the  future  of  Work  in 
the   study  than   the  recovery  and  export   to   this  G"Tflr/f' 
country  of  classical  remains  from  Italy,  had  been  the     "a    mor' 
work  of  the  Society  in  exploring,  measuring,  and 
publishing  the  antiquities  of  Greece  itself  and  of 
Ionia.     It  is  to  the  credit  of  the  Dilettanti  that  at 
the   outset   they  recognized   the  true  and  guiding 
principle  in  classical  archaeology,  that  the  numberless 
monuments  of  sculpture,  architecture,  or  painting 
which   were  continually   being  dug  up   in  Rome, 
Naples,  or  the  surrounding  districts,  were   in   the 
main  but  imperfect  reflections  of  the  pure  light  of 

i%6  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

enterprises : 
nevj  "Publi- 

'  Specimens 
of  JLntient 

Hellenic  art  and  culture,  the  true  source  of  which 
was  to  be  found  alone  on  the  soil  of  Greece,  the 
Greek  provinces  of  Asia  Minor,  or  the  islands  of  the 
Archipelago.  The  great  works  of  Stuart  and  Revett, 
which  the  Dilettanti  encouraged  and  assisted,  the 
Ionian  Antiquities  of  Chandler,  Revett,  and  Pars, 
for  which  they  were  entirely  responsible,  remain  as 
the  basis  from  which  all  classical  archaeologists 
have  since  worked. 

Together  with  this  honourable  record  of  work 
accomplished,  the  Society,  as  the  century  drew  to  an 
end,  found  themselves  in  possession  of  an  incentive 
to  new  exertions  in  the  shape  of  a  comfortable 
balance  of  about  £10,000  in  hand.  Accordingly 
they  decided  to  embark  on  further  ventures  in  the 
domain  of  classical  archaeology.  On  Feb.  10,  1799, 
a  motion  was  made  and  seconded 

cThat  a  New  Committee  of  Publication  be  appointed/ 

At  a  ballot  held  on  March  3  the  new  committee 
was  constituted,  its  members  being  Mr.  Knight, 
Mr.  Windham,  Mr.  Peachey,  Mr.  Townley,  and  Sir 
Henry  Englefield.  It  promptly  commenced  work 
on  a  publication  of  a  new  kind,  the  object  of  which 
was  to  illustrate  and  make  known  the  choicest 
specimens  of  ancient  sculpture  which  had  been 
acquired  by  members  of  the  Society  abroad,  and  now 
adorned  their  private  mansions  in  England. 
On  May  10,  1799,  the  committee  resolved 

'That  Mr.  Townley  and  Mr.  Knight  do  inquire  for  proper 
engravers,  and  put  a  certain  number  of  the  drawings  now  selected 
into  their  hands  to  be  engraved  during  the  summer  •  and  also  do 
employ  draughtsmen  to  make  additional  drawings  from  the  different 
collections  of  antiquities  in  London,  giving  draughts  upon  the 
Treasurer  of  the  Society  for  the  work  as  it  is  executed,  not  exceed- 
ing in  the  whole  the  sum  of  ^"200  till  further  orders.' 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  117 

The  undertaking  thus  set  on  foot  took  shape  in 
due  course  in  the  beautifully  executed  work  entitled 
Select  Specimens  of  Antient  Sculpture  preserved  in  the 
several  Collections  of  Great  Britain.  It  was,  as  might 
be  expected,  mainly  promoted  and  carried  out  by 
Payne  Knight  and  Townley.  The  engraving  of  the 
plates  occupied  eight  years,  from  May,  1799,  to 
May,  1807.  The  sixty-three  works  of  art  selected 
were  chiefly  taken  from  the  collections  of  these  two 
gentlemen,  twenty-three  being  from  Mr.  Knight's 
collection,  and  twenty-three  from  Mr.  Townley's. 
Of  the  remainder,  four  came  from  the  Marquess  of 
Lansdowne's  collection,  nine  from  the  Earl  of 
Egremont's,  two  from  Mr.  Hope's,  and  one  each 
from  those  of  the  Earl  of  Yarborough  and  the 
Earl  of  Cork.  The  volume  contained  seventy-five 
plates,  exclusive  of  head  and  tail  pieces,  and  was 
entrusted  to  the  best  draughtsmen  and  engravers 
of  the  day.  During  its  progress  the  Publication 
Committee  had  been  strengthened  by  the  addition, 
on  February  10,  i8oy,  of  Lord  Northwick  and 
Mr.  Thomas  Hope,  and  later  of  the  Earl  of 
Aberdeen, c  Athenian  Aberdeen.' 

The  Specimens  were  ready  for  publication  in  1808,  Mode  of 
about  £2,300  having  been  expended  upon  the  plates.  /•****■*• 
The  Society  took  a  new  departure  in  determining 
to  issue  the  volume  to  the  public.  In  March,  1808, 
an  agreement  was  made  with  Mr.  Thomas  Payne  of 
Pall  Mall  and  Mr.  John  White  of  Fleet  Street, 
booksellers,  to  publisn  the  work  on  the  following 
terms.  Messrs.  Payne  and  White  agreed  to  purchase 
the  work  and  the  engraved  copperplates  for  2,000 
guineas,  and  to  print  it  in  Colombier  folio  in  the 
most  magnificent  style;  and  the  Committee  of 
Publication  agreed  to  purchase  fifty-five  (afterwards 

ix8    History  of  the  Society  of  'Dilettanti 

increased  to  sixty)  copies  at  fifteen  guineas  each 
for  distribution  among  the  members  of  the  Society, 
these  copies  to  be  printed  on  paper  of  a  larger 
size  than  those  to  be  issued  by  Messrs.  Payne  and 
White  for  sale  to  the  public.  A  copy  was  pre- 
sented to  the  King  through  Mr.  F.  A.  Barnard,  the 
royal  librarian,  another  to  the  Prince  of  Wales 
through  Colonel  MacMahon,  and  a  third  to  the 
British  Museum.  The  expense  borne  by  the  Society 
amounted  therefore  merely  to  the  value  of  the 
copies  purchased  by  them ;  but  they  retained  no 
copies  for  distribution  to  subsequent  members,  a 
motion  being  made  in  April,  1808,  by  the  Earl 
of  Aberdeen,  seconded  by  Sir  H.  Englefield,  and 
carried  unanimously,  '  That  no  member  elected 
into  the  Society  after  March  21,  1808,  shall  be 
entitled  to  receive  the  work  now  about  to  be 
published,'  a  rule  modified  on  March  4,  18 10,  in 
favour  of  Mr.  F.  Foster  and  Mr.  Wilkins  the 
architect,  the  only  two  members  who  had  been 
elected  during  this  interval.  The  full  title  of  the 
book  as  published  was — 

^/  Specimens 

Antient  Sculpture, 

Aegyptian,  Etruscan,  Greek, 


Roman  : 

selected  from 

Different  Collections  in  Great  Britain, 


The  Society  of  Dilettanti. 

Vol.  I. 

T'  ap\aC  6t  oiada,  koo.  to,  ko.iv  ficret  aacfxos. 

London : 

Printed  by  T.  Bensley,  Bolt  Court, 

For  T.  Payne,  Pall  Mall  •   and  J.  White  and  Co.,  Fleet  Street. 


History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    1x9 

The  book  commences  with  a  'Preliminary  Disserta-  -proposed 
tion  on  the  Rise,  Progress,  and  Decline  of  Antient  second 
Sculpture '  from  the  pen  of  Payne  Knight.    A  second  v0  ume' 
volume  was  in  immediate  contemplation,  some  of 
the  plates  even  having  been  engraved  before  the 
publication   of  the   first;   but   this   sequel    was    in 
point  of  fact  not  completed  until  many  years  later. 

During  the  years  when  the  leading  spirits  among  opportu- 
the  Dilettanti  were  thus  engaged  in  preparing  the  nities  lost 
first  volume  of  the   Specimens,  they  unfortunately  meanw 
turned  a  deaf  ear  to  other,  and  what  in  one  instance 
at  least  ought  to  have   been   far   stronger,  claims 
on  their  attention.     Such  neglect  was  due  partly, 
no  doubt,  to  pre-occupation  with  their  own  chosen 
task,  and  partly  also,  it  may  perhaps  be  feared,  to 
some  touch  of  that  spirit  of  jealousy  and  prejudice 
from  which  the  pursuits  of  the  collector  and  con- 
noisseur are  not  always  exempt. 

One  example  occurs  in  the  spring  of  1803,  when  sir  William 
it  is  recorded  under  date  March  6  that  Hamilton's 

notes  ana 

£  The  Right  Honble.  Sir  William  Hamilton,  K.  B.,  offered  to  drawings. 
this  Society  a  collection  of  the  original  Notes  and  Drawings 
relative  to  the  Discoveries  in  the  City  of  Herculaneum  made 
during  the  course  of  the  excavations  in  that  City  by  the  Padre 
Antonio  Piazzi  &  by  the  Padre  himself  given  to  Sir  Wm. 
Hamilton,  in  order  that  the  Society  might  publish  the  same  in 
such  manner  as  they  may  think  Proper. 

<  Resolv'd  That  the  Society  do  accept  from  their  worthy  member 
Sr  Wm.  Hamilton  this  most  valuable  present  &  do  return  their 
sincere  thanks  for  the  same. 

c  Secondly  That  the  Papers  presented  by  Sr  William  Hamilton 
be  referred  to  the  Committee  of  Publication,  who  on  inspection 
of  them  shall  report  to  the  Society  their  sentiments  with  respect 
to  the  most  eligible  mode  to  be  pursued  in  their  publication. 

c  grdly.  That  the  next  ordinary  meeting  of  the  Society  shall 
be  on  Sunday  April  17th  on  account  of  the  Easter  Holidays  and 
that  an  open  Committee  of  this  Society  shall  meet  on  Sunday, 
March  a 7th  to  consider  of  the  Publication  of  the  Manuscripts 
communicated  by  Sir  Wm.  Hamilton.' 

i go   History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

In  spite  of  the  above  minutes  and  of  Hamilton's 
own  anxiety  about  these  papers,  which  he  described 
in  a  letter  to  the  President,  dated  March  2y,  1803,  as 
<a  favourite  child  of  mine,'  the  records  of  the 
Society  contain  no  further  mention  of  the  subject. 
It  cannot  but  be  regretted  that  the  Dilettanti  did 
not  take  advantage  of  this  opportunity  of  identify- 
ing themselves  with  the  introduction  to  the  world  of 
the  long-buried  treasures  of  Herculaneum,  treasures 
which,  though  for  the  most  part  of  the  late  Roman 
date,  possess  both  from  the  artistic  and  the  anti- 
quarian points  of  view  so  profound  and  many-sided 
an  interest.  Hamilton  himself  had  been  too  ill 
to  attend  the  meeting  where  his  offer  was  made, 
and  died  within  a  month  afterwards. 
Letter  from  Another  and  far  more  regrettable  mistake  was 
Lord  Elgn.  made  about  the  same  time  by  the  Society  under 
the  guidance  of  Payne  Knight.  The  minutes  for 
1803  contain  the  following  entry : — 

'1803,  Feb.  13.  Read  a  Letter  from  Ld.  Elgin  to  Th08. 
Harrison,  architect  &  from  him  to  Mr.  Townley  on  the  subject 
of  his  collection  from  Athens  &  other  parts  of  Greece. 

'Ordered  that  the  said  Letters  be  referred  to  the  Commee 
of  Publication  for  them  to  report  their  opinion  on  the  said  papers.' 

The  Par-  Before  narrating  the  sequel   it   is   necessary   to 

thenm  revert  for  a  moment  to  the  history  of  the  sculptured 
^ince^carre  decorations  of  tne  Parthenon  at  Athens  from  the 
point  where  we  left  it  in  Chapter  IV.  Allusion 
was  there  made  to  the  drawings  from  those 
sculptures  executed  in  1674.  for  the  Marquis 
de  Nointel  by  Jacques  Carrey.  While  Carrey 
was  engaged  on  these  drawings,  Spon  and  Wheler 
made  their  expedition  to  Greece  and  the  Levant, 
during  which  Spon  made  hasty  notes  of  the 
sculptures  of  the  Parthenon  and  other  buildings  of 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    131 

the  Acropolis.  In  one  of  these  notes  Spon  hazarded 
the  opinion  that  two  of  the  figures  of  the  west 
pediment  resembled  the  Emperor  Hadrian  and  the 
Empress  Sabina,  and  from  this  cursory  note  deduced 
a  theory  that  the  sculptures,  at  least  in  the  pedi- 
ments, were  a  later  addition  to  the  temple.  In 
1687  came  the  bombardment  of  Athens  by  the 
Venetians  under  Morosini  and  the  partial  destruc- 
tion of  the  Parthenon.  Erom  this  date  onwards 
the  sculptures  were  exposed  to  constant  injury  from 
the  ravages  of  time  and  still  more  from  the  hand 
of  man,  Venetians,  Turks,  and  even  Erenchmen 
having  their  share  in  the  work  of  spoliation  and 
destruction.  Many  portions  of  the  sculptures  noted 
by  Carrey  had  disappeared  before  17/1,  the  year 
of  the  visit  to  Athens  of  Stuart  and  Revett.  The 
appearance  of  the  successive  volumes  of  Stuart's 
Athens  revealed  to  the  world  the  beauty  and  value 
of  the  portions  which  remained,  and  the  Society  of 
Dilettanti  may  fairly  claim  some  credit  for  the  part 
which  they  had  taken  in  assisting  that  revelation. 
Meanwhile  the  work  of  decay  and  destruction  at 
Athens  progressed  slowly  but  steadily. 

In  1796  Thomas  Harrison,  a  Yorkshire  architect  Thomas 
of  eminence,  was  employed  to  build  the  house  of  Hams™. 
Broom  Hall  in  Fifeshire  for  Thomas  Bruce,  seventh 
Earl  of  Elgin.  Harrison  had  studied  in  Rome,  and 
was  a  proficient  enthusiast  in  the  classic  style 
which  had  been  revived  by  the  publications  of 
Stuart  and  Revett  and  the  Society  of  Dilettanti. 
When  in  1799  the  Earl  of  Elgin  was  appointed 
to  the  embassy  at  Constantinople,  Harrison  suggested 
to  him  the  possibility  of  obtaining  casts  and 
drawings  of  the  remains  of  ancient  sculpture  at 
Athens  for  his  new  mansion  of  Broom  Hall. 

K    2 

132    History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

Actiontaken       Fired  by  Harrison's  suggestion,  and   undeterred 
by  Lard        Dv  tne  discouraging  attitude  of  Government,  Elgin 
gm'  consulted  Sir  William  Hamilton  in  Sicily,  and  on 

his  advice  sent  a  Neapolitan  painter,  Lusieri,  with 
two  draughtsmen,  two  modellers,  and  a  Calmuck 
figure-painter  to  carry  out  this  work  at  Athens. 
Difficulties  however  occurred  with  the  local  autho- 
rities, so  that  in  1 8  o  i  Elgin  obtained  from  the  Porte 
a  firman  not  only  to  mould  casts  of  the  figures,  but 
also  to  take  away  any  pieces  of  stone  with  old 
inscriptions  or  figures  thereon.  Shocked  by  the 
deliberate  destruction  which  went  on  almost  before 
his  eyes,  Elgin  determined  to  use  the  firman  to 
remove  as  many  of  the  marbles  as  he  could  from 
Athens  with  the  view  of  preserving  them  from  further 
ravages.  Into  the  detailed  history  of  his  operations 
it  is  unnecessary  to  enter  here. 
Lord  Elgin  When  they  were  completed,  he  addressed  to  the 
and  the  Dilettanti'  through  Thomas  Harrison  the  letter  of 
which  the  receipt  is  acknowledged  in  the  minute 
above  quoted.  Here  was  an  opportunity  for  the 
Society  to  take  the  lead  in  recognizing  the  deserts 
of  the  man  whose  action  has  in  truth  done  more 
than  that  of  all  others  together  to  further  the  know- 
ledge and  love  of  Greek  art  throughout  cultivated 
Europe.  But  the  opportunity  was  deliberately 
missed.  A  chilling  silence  conceals  what  the  real 
feelings  of  the  Society  were  concerning  Elgin's 
i  collection  from  Athens  and  other  parts  of  Greece,' 
and  not  even  the  text  of  his  letter  has  been  pre- 
served. No  answer  is  recorded,  and  no  steps  what- 
ever appear  to  have  been  taken.  Very  soon  after- 
wards Elgin  was  recalled,  and  the  greater  part  of 
his  collections  were  shipped  to  England,  the  first 
part  reaching  London,  after  undergoing  shipwreck 


History  of  the  Society  of  'Dilettanti    133   • 

and  other  adventures,  about  1 8oy.  His  desire  at  the 
beginning  was  that  the  marbles  should  be  handed 
over  unconditionally  to  the  British  Government. 

But  presently  the  silent  neglect  of  the  Dilettanti  influence  of 
turned  into  active  hostility.  (  Townley  was  dead  \  ?22  • 
Payne  Knight  ruled  supreme  over  the  Society,  dhaediting 
and  in  cultivated  circles  generally  was  regarded  the  marbles. 
as  a  kind  of  dictator  in  the  domain  of  antiquarian 
knowledge*)  Busied  as  he  was  upon  his  cherished 
Specimens  of  Antient  Sculpture^  he  may  have  thought 
that  the  Greek  marbles  would  endanger  the  reputa- 
tion of  the  Graeco-Roman  works  which  formed  the 
bulk  of  his  and  of  his  late  friend  Townley's 
collection.  At  any  rate,  without  even  seeing  them, 
Payne  Knight  declared  war  upon  the  marbles,  boldly 
appropriating  Spon's  original  and  perfectly  futile 
suggestion  that  they  were  Roman  works  of  the 
time  of  Hadrian.  In  his  Preliminary  Essay  to  the 
first  volume  of  the  Specimens  he  goes  out  of  his  way 
to  cast  discredit  on  them.  The  Dilettanti,  including 
men  like  Aberdeen  and  Englefield,  followed  him, 
although  it  is  by  no  means  clear  that  they  really 
agreed  with  his  opinion.  That  the  Society  cannot, 
at  any  rate,  have  been  wholly  unanimous  on  the 
point  we  may  gather  from  the  known  opinions  of 
one  member,  Mr.  Morritt  of  Rokeby,  as  well  as  from 
the  fact  that  Elgin's  former  secretary,  William 
Richard  Hamilton,  who  had  superintended  the  re-  > 
moval  of  the  marbles  to  England  and  published 
a  memoir  upon  them,  was  proposed  and  in  the  end  ; 
received  as  a  member.  He  was  indeed  twice  rejected 
in  spite  of  the  influence  of  his  proposers — first  Sir 
H.  Englefield  and  the  Earl  of  Aberdeen,  and  next 
Sir  H.  Englefield  and  Mr.  Symmons ;  but  on  January  tf, 
1 8 1 1,  he  was  elected,  his  proposers  being  Sir  William 

134  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

Drummond  and  the  Marquess  of  Douglas.  Meantime 
the  corporate  attitude  of  the  Society  continued 
hostile  to  Elgin  and  his  treasures.  Largely  in  con- 
sequence of  this  attitude,  the  unfortunate  marbles 
languished  in  unmerited  neglect,  severe  attacks  being 
made  not  only  on  them,  but  on  Elgin's  private 
character  and  behaviour  in  the  matter  of  their 
acquisition ;  and  eventually  Elgin  determined  to 
offer  the  collection  for  sale. 
champions  But  by  degrees  the  marbles  began  to  find  powerful 
on  the  other  champions  in  the  art  world,  including  the  Presi- 
SFu7eliWeSt>  ^ent  °^  the  Roya*  Academy,  Benjamin  West ;  the 
Kay  don.  Keeper  of  the  Royal  Academy,  Henry  Fuseli ;  and 
most  important  of  all,  the  ill-starred  genius  Benjamin 
Robert  Haydon.  Few  chapters  in  the  history  of  art 
are  so  picturesque  and  thrilling  as  that  which 
narrates  the  campaign  carried  on  by  Haydon,  almost 
single-handed,  in  favour  of  the  Elgin  Marbles 
against  the  whole  weight  of  opposition  brought  by 
Payne  Knight,  Aberdeen,  and  the  Society  of  Dilet- 
tanti. Payne  Knight  was  no  craven  fighter,  but  it 
must  be  confessed  that  in  the  controversy  with 
Haydon  he,  and  through  him  the  Society,  came  off 
decidedly  second  best  and  with  greatly  impaired 
Progress  In  1811,  when  the  marbles  were  first  offered  to 

of  the  £1^  Government  by  Elgin  in  return  for  some  com- 

conroversy.  pensatjon  for  jjjg  expenses  and  recognition  of  his 
services  to  his  country  in  this  matter,  the  Premier, 
Spencer  Perceval,  returned  an  answer  as  contemptuous 
and  insulting  as  if  it  had  been  dictated  by  Payne 
Knight  himself.  Lord  Byron  in  his  impassioned 
poem,  the  Curse  of  Minerva,  threw  into  the  attack  on 
Elgin,  West,  and  others  a  touch  of  real  warm- 
hearted sentiment  for  Greece,  which  was  entirely 

History  of  the  Society  of  "Dilettanti    igy 

wanting  in  the  shallow  and  pedantic  criticism  of  Payne 
Knight.     But    before    long    authoritative    foreign 
opinion  came  to  declare  itself  on  the  side  of  Elgin's 
English  champions.    A  Deus  ex  machina  appeared  in  the 
person  of  the  Crown  Prince  of  Bavaria,  who  lately  had 
purchased  the  pedimental  sculptures  of  Aegina,  and 
during  a  visit  to  London  in  1814  made  no  conceal- 
ment of  his  admiration  for  the  Elgin  Marbles  and  his 
desire  to  acquire  them.     The  Government,  impelled 
by  W.  R.  Hamilton,  who  had  become  Under-Secretary 
of  State  for  Foreign  Affairs,  at  last  showed  some 
signs   of    moving  in   the   matter,   but   during  the 
excitement  that  preceded  and   followed  the  Battle 
of  Waterloo  no  action  was  taken. 
\^    Meanwhile,  however,  Haydon  had  not  relaxed  his  Crown 
efforts  to  convince  his  countrymen  of  the  value  of  the  Vrince  °f 
marbles  both  by  his  pen  and  by  oral  and  practical  y^^* 
exposition.     He  was   now  strongly   reinforced  not  canova: 
only  by  the  Bavarian  Crown  Prince,  but  also  by  the  the  Select 
great    Italian   archaeologist    Visconti,   Director    of Commttee- 
the  Musee  Napoleon,  and  the  great  Italian  sculptor 
Canova.     These  were  regarded  in  England  as  better 
prophets    than  any  person    of    British   birth   and 
education,,  and  their  estimate  of  the  marbles  gradually 
permeated  society  and  converted  polite  opinion.     At 
last  a  Select  Committee  was  appointed  by  the  House 
of  Commons  to   inquire  <  whether  it  be  expedient 
that  the  collection  mentioned  in  the  Earl  of  Elgin's 
petition,  presented  to  the  House  on  the  fifteenth  day 
of  February  last,  should  be  purchased  on  behalf  of 
the  public ;  and  if  so,  what  price  it  may  be  reasonable 
to  allow  for  the  same.'     The  evidence  given  before 
the   Committee   shows   individual   members   among 
the   Dilettanti    in   a   more    favourable   light    than 
that  in  which  they  had  hitherto  appeared  by  their 

136   History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

corporate  action  or  inaction.  (  Payne  Knight  stood 
almost  alone  in  his  unflinching  condemnation  of  the 
marbles,  and  it  is  impossible  to  withhold  some  sense 
of  admiration  for  the  courage  with  which  he  main- 
tained what  was  obviously  a  losing  cause)  Wilkins 
the  architect  and  the  Earl  of  Aberdeen  both 
deserted  him,  and  admitted,  though  somewhat  un- 
graciously, the  value  of  the  marbles.  Another  dis- 
tinguished member,  Mr.  Morritt  of  Rokeby  (of 
whom  more  hereafter),  was  an  enthusiastic  supporter 
of  Elgin  throughout.  The  sculptors  Nollekens, 
Flaxman,  Chantrey,  and  Westmacott,  the  painters 
\>£est  and  Lawrence,  with  Alexander  Day,  the  art 
collector  and  dealer,  were  all  on  the  same  side. 
(Only  Hay  don  was  not  examined  by  the  Committee, 
probably  in  view  of  the  intense  personal  animosity 
which  he  had  shown  to  Payne  Knight  and 
Knight  to  him.  Haydon,  however,  fulminated  in 
the  press  with  an  article  <On  the  Judgement  of 
Connoisseurs  being  preferred  to  that  of  Professional 
Men.5  Eventually  the  Elgin  Marbles  were  acquired 
by  the  Government  for  £3^,000,  not  much  more 
than  half  of  the  expenses  incurred  by  Elgin  in  their 
acquisition  and  removal.  Payne  Knight  had  enjoyed 
for  several  years  a  temporary  triumph,  but  in 
this  triumph  his  reputation  as  a  connoisseur  and 
critic  was  for  ever  engulfed. 


Internal  changes — The  Ballot — Abolition  of  Forfeitures — 
Removals:  Parslows:  the  Thatched  House — Re- 
searches in  Greece  and  the  Levant — J^eal  of  new 
members — Colt  Hoare,  Long,  Ainslie^  Hawkins — 
Morritt  of  Rokeby — Hope  of  Deepdene — Lord  Mor- 
peth, Lord  Northwick,  Earl  of  Aberdeen — Wilkins, 
Leake,  Gell — New  Ionian  Committee — Its  report 
on  Gell's  proposed  Expedition — Instructions  to  the 
Expedition — Researches  at  Eleusis — Work  at  Samos, 
Miletus,  Magnesia,  &c. — Work  at  Rhamnus,  Thoricus, 
and  Sunium — The  Aegina  Marbles — Risks  from 
pirates  and  privateers — Return  of  mission — John 
Peter  Gandy — Resolutions  as  to  publication — Con- 
gratulations to  members  of  mission — Details  of  scheme 
— Sir  Henry  Englefields  appeal — Its  results — '  The 
'Unedited  Antiquities  of  Attica  ' — New  Edition  of 
'  Ionian  Antiquities  ' — Further  activities :  second 
volume  of  the  'Specimens' — Difficulties  and  delays 
— Mode  of  meeting  expenses — Deaths  of  Englefield 
and  Payne  IQiight — Sir  T.  Lawrence  as  Secretary — 
A  German  scholar  s  tribute — Distinguished  members. 

AT   this  point   it    becomes   desirable  briefly  to  internal 
interupt  our  account  of  the  Society's  doings  chanles' 
L     in  the  fields  of  antiquarian  research,  publica- 
tion,   and    controversy,    in    order    to    give    some 
account   of  certain   changes  which   were  made  in 
its  internal  economy.     These  changes  coincide   in 

138    History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

date  with  the  period  chiefly  occupied  with  the 
preparation  of  the  Specimens  of  Antient  Sculpture. 
The  ballot.  The  ballot  for  the  election  of  members  seems  to 
have  been  a  source  of  difficulty.  Whereas  in  former 
days  the  non-election  of  a  candidate  duly  proposed 
and  seconded  by  members  of  the  Society  was 
a  matter  of  rare  occurrence,  for  a  few  years  follow- 
ing 1799  lt  became  much  more  frequent,  the  same 
candidate  being  proposed  and  rejected  meeting  after 
meeting  under  circumstances  which  argue  some 
want  of  unanimity  among  the  members  of  the 
Society.     In  April  3,  1796, 

c  It  was  moved  and  seconded  that  the  6th  Rule  respecting  the 
Election  of  Members  be  rescinded.     Resolved  in  the  affirmative. 

c  It  was  moved  and  seconded  that  in  future  ballots  for  the  election 
of  a  member  2  black  balls  do  exclude.   Resolved  in  the  affirmative. 

c  It  was  moved  and  seconded  that  in  future  the  name  of  every 
candidate  for  election  at  this  Society  be  Proposed  at  the  meeting 
previous  to  his  being  put  to  the  Ballot.  Resolved  in  the  affirma- 

The  new  rules  appear  for  the  next  few  years  to 
have  been  exercised  with  some  severity.  We  even 
find,  in  certain  of  the  opening  years  of  the  century, 
the  number  of  the  rejected  exceeding  that  of 
the  successful  candidates.  This  appears  to  have 
produced  some  feeling  in  the  Society.  On  January 
30,18  04,  it  was  resolved 

c  That  no  Ballot  for  a  new  Member  take  place  but  in  the 
presence  of  either  the  Mover  or  the  Seconder  of  the  motion  for 
his  admission/ 

implying  that  a  candidate  proposed  at  one  meeting 
was  in  danger  of  being  blackballed  if  his  supporters 
were  not  present  to  speak  for  him.  A  more  serious 
state  of  things  is  suggested  by  the  following  minute 
of  June  7,  1807.  It  was  moved  by  Mr.  Wilbraham 
and  seconded  by  Mr.  Windham, 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti   139 

•  That  in  future  when  there  are  more  than  one  Candidate  to  be 
ballotted  for  the  ballotting  box  be  not  opened  till  the  ballott  for  each 
Candidate  be  finished  &  that  Quilted  Balls  of  different  Colours  be 
provided  by  Parslow  a  different  Colour  to  be  appropriated  to  each 

A  further  indication  of  feeling  upon  the  subject 
is  shown  by  a  minute  of  March  3,  1 8 1 1 : 

c  Moved  by  Ld.  Borringdon  &  seconded  by  Ld.  Dundas  That 
in  future  when  only  two  Negative  Balls  shall  appear  in  a  Ballott 
the  Ballott  shall  be  repeated/ 

The  collection  of  forfeitures  for  non-attendance  Abolition  of 
and  of  the  debts  of  members  who  abdicated  either  forfeitures. 
of  their  own  will  or  by  compulsion  began  to  prove 
an  irksome  business.     On  March   11,   1797,  it  was 
resolved  in  committee 

c  That  it  being  a  Rule  of  the  Society  to  dine  together  the  first 
Sunday  in  every  month  from  the  ist  Sunday  in  December  to  May, 
Every  Member  absent  on  such  days  shall  forfeit  |  guinea  &  no 
letters  of  excuse  to  be  admitted.  That  any  member  incurring 
twelve  forfeitures  &  not  paying  his  Arrears  in  one  month  after 
they  are  demanded  be  considered,  as  excluded  from  the  Society  & 
such  notice  to  be  put  by  the  Secretary  in  the  accustomed  form/ 

This  arrangement,  however,  does  not  seem  to  have 
worked  very  much  better,  the  sending  of  c  Medusas ' 
and  the  collection  of  forfeitures  still  proving  an 
irksome  business.  On  February  14,  1808,  a  lengthy 
list  of  alterations  in  the  rules  relating  to  forfeitures 
and  abdications  was  resolved  upon  by  the  Society. 

•  Resolved  that  the  law  which  enacts  that  no  letter  shall  in  future 
excuse  the  forfeit  for  nonattendance  not  being  generally  known  to 
those  members  of  this  Society  many  of  whom  have  continued  in 
consequence  of  their  ignorance  of  it,  to  write  letters  of  excuse 
thereby  showing  their  respect  for  the  Society  &  their  desire  to 
continue  Members  thereof-  no  member  shall  on  account  of  his 
having  incurred  more  than  six  forfeitures  under  the  above  recited 
circumstances,  be  considered  as  having  abdicated,  &  that  no  more 
than  6  forfeitures  shall  be  demanded  of  any  member  for  non- 
attendance  up  to  the  present  day. 

c  Resolved  That  the  Secretary  shall  write  to  those  Members,  who 

140  History  of  the  Society  of  "Dilettanti 

have  incurred  six  forfeitures,  informing  them  of  the  Law  abolish- 
ing letters  of  excuse,  &  likewise  of  the  Vote  of  indulgence  now 
passed  in  their  favour,  &  requiring  their  personal  attendance  at 
the  next  Meeting  under  pain  of  Abdication  unless  they  can  show 
such  cause  for  their  Absence  as  shall  appear  satisfactory  to  the  Society. 

'Resolved,  That  the  Secretary  shall  write  letters  to  all  such 
members  as  shall  have  incurred  five  forfeitures,  admonishing  them 
of  their  danger,  &  communicating  to  them  the  law  abolishing 
letters  of  Excuse. 

c  Ordered  That  the  Abolition  of  letters  of  excuse  shall  be 
announced  by  the  Secretary  at  the  Six  next  Meetings  of  the  Society. 

c  Resolved  That  it  having  been  the  antient  usage  of  this  Society 
to  grant  leave  of  absence  for  a  limited  time,  to  such  of  their 
Members  as  have  asked  in  writing  for  the  same,  either  on  account 
of  business  of  importance  detaining  them  in  the  Country,  or  ill- 
health  confining  them  to  their  houses  in  London,  the  Secretary 
having  on  due  consideration  of  such  request  judged  that  sufficient 
reason  appeared  for  granting  the  same  •  and  it  being  evident  that 
such  indulgence  to  their  Members  is  by  the  abolition  of  letters 
of  excuse  rendered  more  Necessary  &  that  it  will  tend  much  to  the 
welfare  of  the  Society  to  grant  it,  as  thereby  the  abdication 
of  many  Valuable  members  may  be  prevented,  That  any  Member 
desirous  of  Leave  of  Absence  on  account  of  business  detaining 
him  in  the  Country  or  ill-health  confining  him  to  his  house  in 
London,  shall  request  the  same  by  a  letter  addressed  to  the 
President  of  the  Soc.  of  Dilettanti  at  Parsloes  or  wherever  the 
Society  may  in  future  hold  their  Meetings  stating  the  cause  of 
such  his  request  •  which  shall  be  taken  into  consideration  at  the 
meeting  when  such  letter  is  received;  and  on  leave  of  absence 
being  granted,  the  members  shall  be  excused  from  forfeitures  for 
non  attendance ;  but  not  from  the  Payment  of  Dinner  or  Face 
Money  :  and  that  the  Secretary  shall  inform  him  by  letter  of  the 
grant  or  refusal  of  his  request.  But  that  his  leave  of  absence  shall 
ipso  facto  expire  on  proof  being  given  to  the  Soc.  of  his  having 
been  seen  in  town  or  if  absent  for  illness  of  his  having  gone  into 
Publick.  And  that  nothing  in  this  resolution  shall  be  understood 
to  relate  to  members  of  this  Society  absent  in  foreign  parts  on  the 
Publick  Service ,  who  have  ever  been  exempted  from  the  payment 
of  all  sums  due  to  the  Society,  during  such  their  absence,  the 
same  having  been  duly  notified  by  them  to  the  Society  by  a 
letter  addressed  to  the  President. 

1  Resolved  That  all  new  Laws  or  Orders  and  all  alterations  in 
the  now  Existing  laws  or  orders  shall  be  read  by  the  Secretary  at 
the  Six  meetings  following  such  enactment  or  alteration ,  that  no 
member  may  plead  ignorance  thereof.' 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti   141 

An  important  step  was  therefore  taken  by  the 
Society  on  February  4,  18 10,  when  it  was  moved  by 
the  Secretary 

'  That  the  collection  of  forfeitures  being  very  inconvenient  to 
the  Society  and  productive  of  much  labour  to  the  Secretary  it  would 
be  advantageous  to  the  Society  to  adopt  the  following  regulations, 

'  First  That  every  member  do  pay  to  the  Society  four  guineas 
annually  as  dinner  money. 

'  Secondly  That  from  this  day  all  forfeitures  for  non-attendance 
do  cease  and  be  abolished. 

'Thirdly  That  no  Reckoning  shall  be  collected  from  the  Company 
but  that  the  Bill  shall  be  paid  by  the  Secretary  out  of  the  Dinner 
Money.     Tea  &  Coffee  not  to  be  included  in  the  Bill. 

'Fourthly  That  the  dinner  shall  be  ordered  at  ic/6  pr.  head,  the 
number  provided  for  to  be  as  formerly  at  the  discretion  of  the 

'And  the  above  4  Resolutions  being  severally  put  from  the  Chair 
&  seconded  were  unanimously  carried  and  recommended  for 
confirmation  at  the  next  meeting.' 

And  on  March  4,  1 8 1  o, 

'  The  four  Resolutions  of  the  meeting  of  Feb.  4  relative  to  the 
Change  of  the  Dinner  Money  &  abolition  of  Forfeitures  were  put 
&  confirmed.' 

The  new  regulations  thus  removed  the  difficulties 
of  forfeitures  and  the  collection  of  the  dinner- 
money  at  the  table  itself,  providing  also  for  the 
contribution  of  absent  members  to  the  expenses  of 
the  Society's  dinners.  This  annual  payment  for 
dinner-money,  with  the  subscription  for  the  building 
and  face-money,  from  this  date  constituted  the 
liabilities  of  members  of  the  Society. 

A  change  also  took  place  in  the  meeting-place  Removals: 
of  the  Society.  In  1 8  00  it  was  decided  to  transfer  the  Parslow's: 
meetings  of  the  Society  from  the  Star  and  Garter  t^Thatched 

i-r<  •  -r»     1 1     ■»  *■     1 1  •  House. 

Tavern  in  Pall  Mall  to  a  great  room  in  a  tavern 
owned  by  Mr.  Parslow  in  St.  James's  Street.  This, 
it  will  be  remembered,  had  been  for  some  years  also 
the  meeting-place  of  another  famous  dining  society, 

14^  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

the  Literary  Club  founded  by  Johnson  and  Reynolds 
and  known  by  custom  as  'The  Club.'  The  following 
minutes  record  this  removal : — 

cFeb.  16,  1800.  Ordered  that  a  Committee  do  meet  on  Sunday 
x  March  to  settle  a  place  for  the  permanent  meetings  of  the  Society/ 

'March  a,  1800.  Ordered  That  the  Very  High  Steward  be 
desired  to  enter  into  an  agreement  with  Mr.  Parslow  for  the  use 
of  a  Room  for  the  pictures  belonging  to  the  Society  for  their 
meetings  exclusively.' 

'Feb.  8,  1801.  Ordered  that  the  Very  High  Steward  do  pay 
Mr.  Parslow's  bill  for  removing  their  pictures  from  the  Star  and 
Garter  &  putting  them  in  his  room.  £8  14  4/ 

'Nov.  a,  1 801.  Ordered  That  the  Very  High  Steward  do 
pay  Mr.  Parslow  Ten  guineas  for  one  years  use  of  his  great 
Room.  £10  10  o.' 

This  arrangement  lasted  till  18 10,  when  it  was 
terminated  by  Mr.  Parslow's  death,  and  the  Society 
had  to  seek  for  quarters  elsewhere. 

'January  iist,  18 10.  The  Society  met  in  the  Rooms  in  Argyle 
Street  to  consider  of  the  future  place  of  their  meetings  Parsloes 
Tavern  being  shut  up  in  consequence  of  his  decease.  The  Secretary 
did  not  attend  being  confined  by  gout.  The  meeting  was  con- 
sidered as  a  Committee  the  Duke  of  Norfolk  in  the  Chair. 
Mr.  Windham  acted  as  Secretary. 

'  It  was  resolved  that  the  next  meeting  be  at  Willis's  Tavern  in 
St.  Jame's  Street  called  the  Thatched  House  on  Sunday  Feb.  4th/ 

'Feb.  4,  18 10.  The  Society  met  at  the  Thatched  House  for 
the  first  time,  when  Mr.  Knight  informed  the  Society  that  H^. 
Greville  Esq.  had  offered  the  use  of  his  Rooms  in  Argyle  Street 
gratuitously  to  the  Society  for  their  meetings,  at  the  same  time 
stating  that  it  would  not  suit  his  convenience  to  provide  the  Dinner 
for  the  Society  but  that  they  must  in  the  event  of  their  acceptance 
of  his  offer  employ  their  own  servants  for  the  dinner  &  wines  etc. 
The  Society  were  of  opinion  that  it  would  be  more  eligible  to  meet  at 
a  Tavern  but  voted  their  unanimous  thanks  to  Mr.  Greville  for  his 
very  liberal  offer  and  desired  Mr.  Knight  to  convey  to  him  the  same. 

'  Ordered  that  the  ensuing  Meeting  of  the  Society  be  held  on 
the  4th  March  at  the  Thatched  House.' 

'April  1,  1 8 10.  It  was  proposed  by  the  Duke  of  Norfolk  & 
seconded  by  Mr.  Dickinson  that  a  Committee  of  five  be  appointed 
to  examine  into  the  particulars  of  the  Premises  late  Parslows  as  to 
their  Value  &  eligibility  for  the  future  use  of  the  Society  and  that 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  143 

they  do  report  on  the  subject  to  the  next  meeting  of  the  Society. 
Ordered  unanimously. 

c  Mr.  Gore  then  proposed  that  the  following  five  members  be  the 
Committee  : 

The  Earl  of  Aberdeen 

The  Earl  Cowper 

Viscount  Morpeth 

Mr.  Wilkins 

and  the  Secretary.  Ordered  unanimously.' 

'Jan.  6,  181 1.  It  was  ordered  on  the  Representation  of  the 
Secretary  that  the  future  meetings  of  the  Society  should  be  at  the 
Thatched  House  and  that  the  pictures  of  the  Society  shall  be 
moved  from  the  house  late  Parslows  to  the  Thatched  House  and 
all  expenses  relative  thereto  shall  be  paid  by  the  Secretary  out  of 
the  Funds  of  the  Society.' 

The  Thatched  House  Tavern,  St.  James's  Street,  con- 
tained a  well-known  large  room  for  meetings  of  all 
sorts,  from  the  days  of  Swift  until  its  destruction 
about  1843,  when  the  Conservative  Club  was  erected 
upon  its  site. 

Returning  to  the  learned  activities  of  the  Society,  Researches 
it  must  not  be  supposed  that  they  were  confined,  «■  Greece 
during  this  period  of  Payne  Knight's  ascendency,  a"dthe 
entirely  to  the  two  works  with  which  the  name  of 
that  gentleman  is  identified,  or  to  the  mistaken  aim 
of  seconding  his  attempts  to  discredit  the  marbles 
collected  by  Lord  Elgin.     The  honourable  and  useful 
object  of  ambition  and  expenditure  which  the  Society 
had  set  before   itself,  that   of  promoting   original 
research  in  Greece  and  the  Greek  provinces  of  Asia 
Minor,  was  never  abandoned. 

The  Society  was  reinforced  during  the  period  in  Zeal  of  new 
question  by  the  election  of  new  members  who  threw  ■*"***• 
themselves  vigorously  into  every  scheme  of  this 
nature  that  might  be  brought  before  them.  Most 
of  these  recruits  had  before  their  election  travelled  in 
Greece,  benefiting  largely  from  the  impulse  given  to 
classical  archaeology  by  the  previous  publications  of 

144  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

Colt  Hoare, 

the  Dilettanti.  The  fact  that  they  supported  Payne 
Knight  in  the  unfortunate  position  which  he  adopted, 
does  not  diminish  the  credit  otherwise  due  to  them 
for  receiving  and  handing  on  the  torch  of  enthusiasm 
in  the  cause  of  Greek  archaeology.  Among  the 
members  joining  the  Society  between  1789  and 
181;-,  whose  names  are  most  connected  with  the 
study  of  classical  antiquities,  were  Sir  Richard 
Colt  Hoare,  Sir  Charles  Long  (afterwards  Lord  Farn- 
borough),  Sir  Robert  Ainslie,  John  Hawkins,  John 
Bacon  Sawrey  Morritt,  Thomas  Hope,  Lord  Morpeth, 
Lord  Northwick,  the  Earl  of  Aberdeen,  William 
Wilkins,  William  Gell,  and  Colonel  W.  M.  Leake. 

Sir  Richard  Colt  Hoare,  Bart.,  the  eminent  Wilt- 
shire antiquary,  made  two  tours  in  Italy  and  Sicily 
for  the  study  and  discovery  of  classical  antiquities, 
and  published  two  works  upon  the  subject,  based 
upon  journals  and  notes  made  during  his  travels. 
At  his  house,  Stourhead,  a  perfect  museum  of  anti- 
quities and  works  of  art,  he  possessed  among  his 
collections  a  great  number  of  books  and  drawings 
relating  to  the  antiquities  and  topography  of  Italy, 
a  great  part  of  which  he  presented  to  the  British 
Museum.  Sir  Charles  Long,  a  well-known  if  not 
very  prominent  Government  official,  inherited  a  large 
fortune  with  his  wife,  one  of  the  heiresses  of  the 
Earl  of  Bridgewater,  and  at  the  close  of  his  life,  after 
being  raised  to  the  peerage  as  Lord  Farnborough, 
devoted  himself  to  forming  a  collection  of  paintings 
and  sculpture.  Long  and  his  brother-in-law,  Sir 
Abraham  Hume,  who  was  also  for  a  short  time 
a  member  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti,  were  in 
their  day  recognized  in  London  society  among  the 
leading  authorities  on  the  fine  arts,  and  as  true 
scions  of  the  old  c  Dilettante '  stock.     Sir  Robert 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  145- 

Ainslie  was  appointed  ambassador  to  the  Ottoman 
Porte  in  1775",  and  resided  at  Constantinople  from 
1776  to  1792.  Having  gained  the  confidence  of 
the  Sultan,  Ahmed  IV,  Ainslie  found  himself  in 
a  peculiarly  advantageous  position  for  assisting  and 
promoting  the  work  of  the  Dilettanti.  He  formed 
a  large  and  important  collection  of  Oriental  coins, 
of  which  a  description  was  published  by  the  Abbate 
Domenico  Sestini  in  1789.  John  Hawkins,  F.R.S., 
a  distinguished  naturalist,  resided  for  a  considerable 
time  in  the  island  of  Zante,  and  from  thence 
travelled  frequently  throughout  Greece,  acquiring 
occasionally  objects  of  great  value  and  beauty,  espe- 
cially at  Janina  in  Thessaly.  Some  of  these  he  ceded 
to  Payne  Knight,  and  a  few  he  retained  at  a  house, 
Bignor  Park,  which  he  purchased  for  himself  in  Sussex. 

John  Bacon  Sawrey  Morritt  inherited  at  the  age  Morritt  of 
of  nineteen  the  estate  at  Rokeby,  which  his  father  had  R°keh- 
purchased  from  a  former  member  of  the  Society  of 
Dilettanti,  Sir  Thomas  Robinson.  His  own  name 
has  been  made  memorable  through  his  intimate 
and  affectionate  friendship  with  Sir  Walter  Scott,  as 
has  that  of  his  home  through  Scott's  poem,  to  which 
it  gives  the  title  and  of  which  it  is  the  scene. 
After  taking  his  B.A.  degree  at  Cambridge  in 
1794,  Morritt  travelled  for  two  years  in  Greece 
and  Asia  Minor,  accompanied  by  the  Rev.  James 
Dallaway,  the  art  historian,  and  others.  He  made 
a  special  study  of  the  plain  of  Troy  and  the 
various  localities  connected  with  the  Iliad,  and, 
having  been  at  Athens  in  179?,  was  thereafter  a 
consistent  supporter  of  Lord  Elgin,  both  on  account 
of  his  high  opinion  of  the  Parthenon  Marbles  as 
works  of  art,  and  of  Lord  Elgin's  wise  policy  in 
removing  them  from  the  risks  to  which  they  were 

146  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

Hope  of 





Earl  of 


exposed  in  their  original  situation.  Morritt  was 
elected  a  member  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  on 
June  2, 1799,  and  became  one  of  the  leading  and  most 
popular  spirits  of  the  Society.  He  was  also  one  of 
the  foundation  members  of  the  Travellers'  Club. 

Thomas  Hope  was  a  member  of  a  rich  family  of 
bankers  at  Amsterdam,  which  contributed  more  than 
one  amateur  to  the  ranks  of  art.  Nurtured  in  his 
father's  house  at  Haarlem  on  a  superb  collection  of 
pictures,  Hope  travelled  for  eight  years  early  in  life 
in  Egypt,  Greece,  and  the  East,  mainly  for  the  pur- 
pose of  architectural  study,  and  on  his  return  settled 
in  England.  He  acquired  a  valuable  collection  of 
marbles,  which  was  at  first  deposited  in  his  London 
house  in  Duchess  Street,  Cavendish  Square,  and  later 
removed  to  his  seat  at  Deepdene,  near  Dorking. 
Hope  was  an  enthusiastic  amateur  of  the  fine  arts,  of 
classical  antiquities,  and  of  literature,  his  taste  for 
furniture  causing  him  to  be  dubbed  by  Sidney  Smith 
as  cthe  man  of  chairs  and  tables,  the  gentleman  of 
sofas.'  These  tastes  were  illustrated  in  his  two  well- 
known  works,  On  the  Costume  of  the  Ancients,  and 
Anastasius,  or  Memoirs  of  a  Greek.  Hope  was  elected 
a  member  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  in  1800.  His 
younger  brother,  Henry  Philip  Hope,  was  elected  in 
1807,  and  the  family  connexion  was  kept  up  by  the 
election  of  his  two  sons — Henry  Thomas  Hope  in 
1834,  and  Alexander  J.  B.  Beresford-Hope  in  1857. 

George  Howard,  Lord  Morpeth,  afterwards  sixth 
Earl  of  Carlisle — eldest  son  of  the  well-known 
amateur  and  collector,  the  fifth  earl,  and  grandson 
of  the  fourth  earl,  who  had  formed  a  collection  of 
marbles  at  Castle  Howard — was  better  known  in 
political  than  in  artistic  circles,  but  he  continued  the 
family  tradition  of  interest  in  art  and  antiquities, 


History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  147 

and  eventually  became  a  trustee  of  the  British 
Museum.  Sir  John  Rushout,  afterwards  Lord 
Northwick,  was  noted  for  a  very  remarkable  collec- 
tion of  Greek  coins  and  for  a  fine  collection  (since 
dispersed)  of  paintings  by  the  old  masters.  George 
Hamilton- Gordon,  fourth  Earl  of  Aberdeen,  after 
succeeding  to  the  title  in  1801,  travelled  for 
some  years  on  the  Continent,  spending  a  long  time 
in  Greece.  So  imbued  was  Aberdeen  with  his 
Hellenic  studies,  that  on  his  return  to  England 
he  founded  a  society  known  as  the  * Athenian 
Society.'  He  formed  a  small  collection  of  marbles 
and  bronzes,  which  were  afterwards  presented  by 
his  son  to  the  British  Museum,  and  was  electee! 
a  member  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  on  March  9, 
1 8  06.  Aberdeen,  who  was  satirized  by  Byron  as 
cThe  travell'd  thane,  Athenian  Aberdeen/ 

was  a  friend  and  strong  supporter  of  Payne  Knight, 
and  did  not  escape  from  the  influence  of 
D'Hancarville.  Into  his  subsequent  career  as 
Foreign  Secretary  and  Prime  Minister,  it  is  un- 
necessary to  enter  here.  A  portrait  of  Aberdeen, 
painted  by  Partridge  and  now  in  the  National 
Portrait  Gallery,  shows  him  engaged  in  his  favourite 
pursuits  as  a  student  of  Hellenic  art. 

William  Wilkins,  the  architect,  after  graduating  wilklns, 
as  sixth  wrangler  at  Cambridge,  travelled  in  Italy  Leake,  Gell. 
and  Greece  as  a  student  of  architecture.  He  is  well 
known  for  the  numerous  buildings  designed  by  him 
in  the  c  Grecian  •  style,  although  he  seldom  had 
a  free  hand  in  completing  them  after  his  original 
design.  Wilkins  published  several  works  on  classical 
architecture.  He  was  elected  a  fellow  of  the  Society 
of  Dilettanti  on  April  2,  1809,  and  was,  as  a  pro- 
fessional man,  a  member  whose  word  carried  much 

L    2 

14-8  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

weight  with  the  Society.  Another  distinguished 
traveller  and  collector  was  Captain  (afterwards 
Lieut-Colonel)  William  Martin  Leake,  who,  being 
sent  on  a  mission  to  Turkey  for  military  purposes, 
took  the  opportunity  of  travelling  in  and  ex- 
ploring Asia  Minor.  He  was  associated  with  William 
Richard  Hamilton  in  conveying  the  Elgin  Marbles 
to  England.  Leake  had  a  special  genius,  as  well  as 
an  indefatigable  zeal,  for  topographical  research, 
and  in  spite  of  the  multifarious  researches  of  later 
scholars,  his  works  relating  to  his  explorations  in 
Greece  and  Asia  Minor,  and  to  classical  topography 
in  general,  still  retain  their  position  as  standard 
authorities.  He  had  a  small  collection  of  marbles, 
which  he  presented  to  the  British  Museum,  and  one 
of  bronzes,  vases,  gems,  and  coins,  which  were  pur- 
chased by  the  University  of  Cambridge  and  are 
now  in  the  Fitzwilliam  Museum.  He  was  elected 
a  member  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  in  1 8 14.  On 
March  1,  1807,  the  Society  elected  Mr.  William 
Gell,  proposed  by  Sir  Henry  Englefield  and  seconded 
by  Lord  Northwick.  Born  in  Derbyshire  and 
educated  at  Cambridge,  Gell  had  in  18  01  visited 
the  Troad,  of  which,  in  1804,  he  published  an 
account  as  the  Topography  of  Troy.  According  to 
Byron,  who  satirized  him  in  the  '  English  Bards '  as 

c  Of  Dardan  tours  let  dilettanti  tell, 
I  leave  topography  to  classic  Gell, 

Gell c  topographized  and  typographized  King  Priam's 
dominions  in  three  days.'  In  1803  Gell  was  sent  on 
a  diplomatic  mission  to  the  Ionian  Islands,  for  his 
conduct  of  which  he  was  knighted l,  and  from  1 8  04 
to   i8otf  was  travelling  in  Greece  and  the  neigh- 

1  It  would  appear  that  GelFs  knighthood  was  of  foreign  bestowal, 
since  for  years  afterwards  he  was  commonly  spoken  of  as  c  Mr.  Gell/ 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  149 

bouring  islands.     It  was   on  his  return  from  this 
journey  that  he  was  elected  to  the  Dilettanti. 

In  the  summer  of  1 8 1 1  the  Dilettanti  found  them-  New  Ionian 
selves  possessed  of  sufficient  funds  in  hand  to  enable  committee. 
them  to  continue  their  much-cherished  schemes  for 
a  further  expedition  for  archaeological  research, 
directed  especially  towards  the  remains  of  classical 
architecture  in  Greece  and  the  Levant.  In  April 
of  that  year  a  committee  had  been  appointed  to 
report  on  the  condition  of  the  Society's  two  great 
portrait-groups  by  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds  (see  below, 
p.  227)  j  and  on  June  2,  1811,  it  was  moved  by 
the  Secretary  and  seconded  by  Mr.  Knight, 

cThat  the  Committee  of  Painting  appointed  on  April  7,  18 11, 
shall  in  conjunction  with  the  Committee  of  Publication  be  a 
Committee  empowered  to  take  measures  for  sending  persons  into 
Greece  or  Asia  Minor,  should  an  opportunity  offer,  &  that  the 
Committee  shall  be  empowered  to  engage  for  payment  to  such 
persons  in  any  sum  not  exceeding  ^"iooo  &  that  four  members  be 
a  quorum/ 

The  opportunity  offered  itself  at  once,  Mr.  Gell  its  report 
being  both  willing  and  anxious  to  start  on  a  third  m  Gell>s 
expedition.      A   full  and  succinct   account   of  the  ^edition. 
arrangements  for  this  new  c  Ionian  Mission '  is  to 
be  found  in   the   minutes  of  the  joint   committee 
appointed  as  above  recorded  (and  thereafter  known 
as  the  Ionian  Committee)  under  date  January  ?,  1 8 1 2. 

c  The  Committee  report  that  soon  after  their  appointment  they 
made  enquiry  relative  to  some  Gentlemen  already  in  the  Turkish 
Dominions,  and  employed  in  Architectural  Pursuits,  whose  co- 
operation with  the  views  of  the  Society  it  was  hoped  might  have 
been  obtained ;  but  their  Enquiries  in  this  line  proved  fruitless. 
Early  in  the  month  of  August  William  GELL  Esq6,  a  member  of  this 
Society  whose  learned  Researches  in  different  parts  of  Greece, 
the  fruits  of  two  Voyages  into  those  countries,  are  already  well 
known  to  the  public,  informed  the  Secretary  that  he  was  desirous 
to  make  a  third  voyage  into  any  part  of  Greece  or  Asia  Minor 
which  might  suit  the  views  of  the  Society,  should  they  honour  him 

ISO   History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

with  their  confidence.  Those  of  the  Committee  who  could  be 
assembled  were  called  together  without  loss  of  time,  and  those 
who  were  too  far  distant  were  informed  of  Mr.  Gell's  proposal. 
They  were  unanimous  in  their  wish  that  a  person  so  eminently 
qualified  for  the  Undertaking  should  be  without  delay  enabled  to 
proceed  upon  this  business-  and  the  Committee  having  agreed 
with  Mr.  Gell  as  to  the  pecuniary  arrangements  which  will  be 
hereafter  specified,  proceeded  to  chuse  Draftsmen  to  accompany 
him.  Mr.  Wilkins  whose  professional  Skill  rendered  him  a  most 
perfect  Judge  of  the  qualifications  of  the  numerous  Artists,  who 
offered  themselves,  kindly  gave  his  assistance  to  the  other  members 
of  the  Committee,  and  Mr.  Francis  Bedford  was  selected  as 
Draftsman ;  but  Mr.  John  Gandy,  brother  to  the  eminent  Drafts- 
man &  architect,  &  who  himself  is  a  Draftsman  of  great  excellence; 
having  expressed  a  great  wish  to  be  of  the  Party,  your  Committee 
thought  that  it  would  be  for  the  evident  adva  ntage  of  the  Mission 
to  employ  him,  and  as  two  artists  were  sent  on  the  former  Voyage, 
they  had  that  precedent  to  guide  them  on  the  present  occasion. 

cThe  Committee  confided  the  whole  and  uncontroul'd  command  of 
the  details  of  the  Expedition  to  Mr.  Gell,  in  whom  they  can  place  the 
most  entire  confidence.  The  whole  Expenditure  is  entrusted  to  him, 
and  he  is  to  receive  as  a  Salary  over  &  above  his  expenses  the  very 
moderate  sum  of  fifty  pounds  per  month.  Each  of  the  Artists  is  to 
receive  ;£zoo  per  annum — all  his  expenses  being  paid.  Mr.  Gell  is 
empowered  to  draw  from  time  to  time  on  the  Society  for  such  monies 
as  he  may  want,  and  will  keep  an  account  of  the  whole  Expenditure. 

'It  is  expressly  stipulated  with  the  Artists  that  everything  they 
do,  whether  as  to  Journal  notes  or  Drawings,  of  every  kind,  is  to 
be  the  sole  property  of  the  Society,  and  they  are  desired  to  keep 
Journals  of  all  that  appears  worthy  of  their  notice. 

c  The  Mission  besides  all  instruments  and  materials  requisite  for 
Drawing  and  Measuring,  are  likewise  furnished  with  Instruments 
proper  for  Geographical  Observations,  and  it  is  hoped  that  much 
valuable  Information  may  be  obtained  in  that  line,  though  it  is 
not  the  primary  object  of  their  Researches  :  They  will  also  not  be 
unmindful  of  the  Natural  History  of  the  Countries  they  visit. 

c  Mr.  Gell  also  suggested  the  propriety  of  carrying  out  with  him  an 
assortment  of  such  Articles  as  would  be  acceptable  to  the  men  in 
authority  in  the  countries  they  were  about  to  visit.  Bacchish  under 
different  names  has  a  great  degree  of  influence  in  every  country 
yet  known,  but  in  the  East  it  is  indispensable,  as  it  would  be  an 
actual  affront  to  appear  before  a  Superior  empty  handed.  Presents 
therefore  if  not  provided  beforehand  must  have  been  purchased 
in  the  Country  at  an  advanced  price,  &  inferior  in  quality;  a 
circumstance,  which  the  Turks  now  well  know  how  to  appreciate. 

History  of  the  Society  of  'Dilettanti    iyi 

c  Telescopes,  Pistol  barrels  and  Locks,  some  articles  of  cut  Glass, 
and  some  Shawls  of  British  Manufacture,  compose  the  assortment,  and 
it  may  be  observed,  that  the  articles  carried,  are  such  as  may  be  at 
any  time  sold  to  advantage,  should  they  not  be  wanted  as  presents. 

cIt  is  to  be  considered  as  a  fortunate  circumstance,  that  an 
intimate  friend  of  Mr.  Gell's,  the  Hon.  Keppell  Craven,  ac- 
companies the  mission  at  his  own  expense.  In  case  of  any 
Accident,  whether  by  illness  or  other  misfortune,  the  addition  of 
a  man  zealous  in  the  pursuit  of  knowledge  and  of  the  most  amiable 
manner  must  be  at  great  advantage,  and  at  all  time  his  co-operation 
may  be  depended  on. 

*  Fortunately  for  the  expedition  a  Turkish  Ship  of  War  com- 
manded by  a  Man  of  Science  far  superior  to  most  of  his  countrymen, 
had  last  year  arrived  in  the  Thames,  and  had  been  there  completely 
refitted  at  the  expense  of  the  English  Government,  in  the  best 
style  of  a  Sloop  of  War  of  24  guns.  Her  commander  Captain 
Ismael  Gibraltar  was  particularly  well  known  to  Mr.  Gell,  and 
on  hearing  of  his  Intention,  immediately  offered  a  passage  to 
Rhodes  to  himself  &  his  party  in  the  handsomest  Manner.  It 
would  have  ill  suited  the  Dignity  of  the  Society  to  have  accepted 
this  offer  without  some  Retribution;  the  Artists  and  Mr.  Gell's 
servant  were  to  pay  the  Sum  usually  taken  by  the  Packets  to  Malta, 
&  Mr.  Gell  makes  him  a  present  nearly  of  the  same  value.  It 
may  be  observed  that  by  this  mode  of  conveyance,  the  party  is  for 
the  same  expense  carried  over  700  miles  further ;  and  as  Captain 
Gibraltar  is  a  native  of  Rhodes  &  is  extremely  well  acquainted 
with  the  contiguous  parts  of  Asia  Minor,  he  cannot  only  furnish 
information,  but  valuable  Recommendations  to  the  Travellers. 

c  His  Majesty's  Ministers,  who  were  applied  to  for  letters  to  the 
British  Ministers  and  Consuls,  most  readily  forwarded  the  Views 
of  the  Society,  and  Mr.  Liston,  just  now  appointed  Ambassador  to 
the  Porte,  gives  every  assistance  in  his  power. 

'Our  venerable  Father  Lord  Dundas  ever  desirous  to  promote 
the  Interests  of  Science  and  Art  in  general,  and  actuated  by 
paternal  Affection  for  this  Society,  stated  the  circumstance  of  our 
Mission  to  His  Royal  Highness  the  Prince  Regent,  who  with  his 
well  known  love  for  the  fine  arts,  and  his  constant  desire  to 
promote  their  progress  in  this  Country,  honoured  the  Undertaking 
by  every  attention,  which  it  was  in  his  power  to  show. 

6  The  written  Instructions  delivered  to  Mr.  Gell  were  principally 
drawn  up  by  the  Earl  of  Aberdeen,  following  as  far  as  appeared 
desirable  those  which  had  been  formerly  given  to  Dr.  Chandler. 
A  copy  of  them  is  annexed. 

c  Under  these  favourable  Auspices  the  party  went  on  board  the 
Turkish  frigate  "The  Africa  "  the  5-th  day  of  October  181 1,  and 

I5*x   History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

reached  Portsmouth  on  the  8th.  An  unusual  continuance  of 
westerly  winds  and  stormy  weather  detained  them  after  two 
fruitless  attempts  to  sail,  till  the  20th  of  November,  when  in 
company  with  near  400  sail  they  left  the  Mother  Bank. 

£  A  letter  received  from  Mr.  Gell  on  the  i<St.h  of  January 
announces  the  safe  arrival  of  the  party  at  Gibraltar  on  the  first 
of  December — His  letter  bears  date  the  2nd  of  that  month,  and 
states  that  as  cc  the  Africa  "  was  to  touch  at  Sicily  on  her  way  to 
Malta,  he  proposed  to  obtain,  if  possible,  measures  of  the  Temple 
of  Jupiter  Olympius  at  Agrigentum  of  which  recent  Excavations 
have  discovered  many  curious  parts  hitherto  unknown ;  and  also 
to  measure,  if  time  would  permit,  that  Temple  at  Selinus,  which  is 
not  given  by  Mr.  Wilkins. 

'For  the  ultimate  Success  of  an  Expedition  like  this,  no  human 
prudence  or  foresight  can  answer.  Pestilence  may  render  the 
access  to  many  places  too  dangerous  to  be  attempted ;  Insurrection, 
so  common  in  the  countries  subject  to  the  Sway  of  the  Porte  may 
completely  shut  up  at  once  a  great  tract  of  country ;  but  it  appears 
that  the  present  Ruler  of  Asia  Minor,  principally  the  object  of  our 
Researches,  Kara  Osman  Ogli,  is  a  man  of  great  talents  and 
singular  probity — and  possessing  an  authority  far  beyond  what  the 
Pashas  generally  have.  He  has  also  been  considered  as  very 
friendly  to  the  English  nation,  and  as  we  may  be  assured  that  the 
Spirit1  and  perseverance  of  Mr.  Gell  are  such  as  no  common 
difficulties  or  dangers  will  terrify,  or  subdue,  we  may  indulge  the 
fair  hope  that  he  may  return  to  Ms  brethren  fraught  with  such 
Information  as  may  at  once  be  a  Honour  to  the  Society,  and  an 
Advantage  to  the  Country/ 

instructions  The  instructions  referred  to  by  the  committee  in 
to  the  their  report  were  drawn  up  by  the  Earl  of  Aberdeen, 

Expe  ttton.    an(j  forwarded  to  Sir  Henry  Englefield,  the  Secretary 

to  the  Society,  on  September  if,  18 u.     They  were 

as  follows : — 

e  Instructions  for  Mr.  Gell,  Mr.  Gandy  and  Mr.  Bedford. 

c  Whereas  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  have  resolved  that  a  person 
or  persons  properly  qualified  be  sent  with  sufficient  appointments 
to  some  parts  of  the  East,  in  order  to  collect  information,  and  to 
make  observations  relative  to  the  ancient  state  of  these  countries, 
and  to  such  Monuments  of  antiquity  as  are  still  remaining,  we  the 
Committee,  intrusted  by  the  Society  with  the  care  and  management 
of  this  scheme,  have  agreed  upon  the  following  instructions  for 
your  direction  in  the  discharge  of  that  duty  to  which  you  are 
appointed : — 

History  of  the  Society  of  "Dilettanti    15-3 

CI.  You  are  forthwith  to  embark  on  board  such  ship  as  may  be 
found  most  eligible  for  your  purpose,  and  to  proceed  to  Smyrna. 
Our  principal  object  at  present  is,  that  fixing  upon  Smyrna  as  your 
head-quarters,  you  do  from  thence  make  excursions  to  the  several 
Remains  of  antiquity  in  that  neighbourhood,  at  such  different  times 
and  in  such  manner  as  you  shall,  from  the  information  collected 
on  the  spot,  judge  most  safe  and  convenient;  and  that  you  do 
procure  the  exactest  plans  and  measures  possible  of  the  Buildings 
you  shall  find,  making  accurate  drawings  of  the  basreliefs  and 
ornaments,  and  taking  such  views  as  you  shall  judge  proper, 
copying  all  the  inscriptions  you  shall  meet  with,  and  remarking 
such  circumstances  as  they  contribute  towards  giving  the  best  idea 
of  the  ancient  and  present  state  of  those  places. 

1  z.  As  circumstances,  best  learnt  upon  the  spot,  must  decide  the 
order  in  which  you  shall  proceed  in  the  execution  of  the  foregoing 
article,  we  shall  not  confine  you  in  that  respect,  but  shall  only 
enumerate,  for  your  information,  the  principal  objects  of  your 
research  in  the  order  in  which  they  are  most  interesting  to  the 
Society : — Samos,  Sardes,  Aphrodisias,  Hierapolis,  Tralles,  Laodicea, 
Telmessus,  Patara,  Cnidus. 

'3.  We  cannot  too  strongly  urge  you  to  exercise  the  utmost 
accuracy  of  detail  in  your  architectural  measurements ;  recollecting 
always  that  it  is  the  chief  object  of  the  Society  to  promote  the 
progress  of  architecture  by  affording  practical  assistance  to  the 
architects  of  this  country,  as  well  as  to  gratify  a  general  curiosity 
respecting  the  interesting  monuments  of  antiquity  still  remaining 
in  those  parts. 

'4.  You  are  hereby  requested  to  correspond  with  the  Secretary 
of  the  Society,  stating  at  length  from  time  to  time,  your  own 
proceedings;  and  although  the  principal  view  of  the  Society  is 
directed  towards  the  ancient  state  of  those  countries,  it  is  not 
intended  to  confine  you  to  that  province ;  on  the  contrary,  it  is 
expected  that  you  transmit  together  with  such  drawings  as  you 
shall  have  made  (all  of  which  shall  be  considered  as  the  property 
of  the  Society),  a  full  narrative  of  occurrences,  with  all  the  in- 
formation you  may  be  able  to  obtain,  accompanied  by  such 
observations  as  you  may  consider  to  be  worthy  the  perusal  of  the 

c  f.  Having  entire  confidence  in  the  knowledge  and  zeal  of 
Mr.  Gell,  we  hereby  declare  that  the  direction  of  the  whole  of  the 
expedition  is  intrusted  to  his  care,  and  state  implicitly,  that  it  is 
our  intention  he  should  be  vested  with  the  sole  management  of 
the  undertaking  as  well  in  the  necessary  expenses  to  be  incurred 
as  in  the  manner  and  time  of  carrying  into  effect  the  general 
objects  of  the  Society. 

15*4  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

at  Eleusis. 

Work  at 


c  6.  In  addition  to  the  expense  of  the  undertaking  (the  accounts 
of  which  Mr.  Gell  will  from  time  to  time  transmit  to  the  Secretary) 
the  Society  engages  to  pay  to  Mr.  Gell  the  sum  of  £50  per  month, 
which  in  case  of  his  decease,  shall  be  paid  up  to  the  time  of  his 
death  to  such  person  or  persons  as  he  may  appoint  to  receive  it. 
The  Society  further  engages  to  pay  both  to  Mr.  Gandy  and  to 
Mr.  Bedford  the  sum  of  ^xoo  per  annum,  on  condition  that  they 
shall  accompany  Mr.  Gell  and  follow  his  directions  and  instructions 
relative  to  the  objects  of  the  mission. 

(Signed)     Aberdeen.  Hardwicke. 

Benj.  West.  Thos.  Lawrence. 

H.  C.  Englefield,  Secretary.' 

These   conditions   were   accepted    by   Mr.    Gell   as 

follows : — 

CI,  William  Gell,  accept  the  conditions  specified  in  the  six 
preceding  articles,  and  engage  to  fulfil  to  the  utmost  of  my  powers 
the  instructions  contained  therein,  and  generally  to  act  in  such 
a  manner  as  in  my  judgment  shall  most  conduce  to  accomplish  the 
purposes  of  the  Society.  (Signed)    William  Gell/ 

From  an  abstract  of  this  voyage  it  appears  that 
the  party  arrived  early  in  1 8 1 2  at  Zante,  from  whence 
they  repaired  to  Athens,  and  being  there  delayed  by 
the  difficulty  of  procuring  a  safe  passage  to  Smyrna, 
they  employed  themselves  in  excavations  at  Eleusis, 
where  the  temples,  although  of  a  high  importance, 
had  never  yet  been  examined  by  reason  of  the 
depth  of  soil  under  which  their  ruins  were  buried. 
The  result  of  their  labours  was  the  discovery  of 
the  great  mystic  temple  of  Demeter,  consisting 
of  a  cella  about  180  feet  square,  with  a  portico 
of  twelve  magnificent  Doric  columns  of  white 
marble  more  than  six  feet  in  diameter. 

From  Athens  the  mission  proceeded  to  Asia.  The 
plague,  the  most  dangerous  enemy  to  explorers,  pre- 
vented them  from  exploring  the  temple  at  Sardis. 
June,  1 8 12,  was  spent  in  examining  the  temple  of 
Juno  at  Samos  and  other  remains  of  classical  buildings 
in  that  island.     From  thence  they  proceeded  to  the 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    15-5- 

temple  of  Apollo  Didymaeus,  near  Miletus,  and  added 
some  valuable  information  to  that  already  published 
in  the  Ionian  Antiquities.  They  then  proceeded  by 
Halicarnassus  to  Cnidus,  where  they  explored  and 
measured  the  principal  buildings  of  classical  date. 
From  Cnidus  they  visited  Telmessus,  and  thence  to 
Patara.  In  Lycia  they  visited  the  cities  of  Myra 
and  Antiphellus.  The  plague  proved  an  insur- 
mountable obstacle  to  their  visiting  Laodicea  and 
Hierapolis,  but  they  made  a  successful  exploration 
of  Aphrodisias,  which  produced  valuable  results. 
They  measured  the  temple  of  Diana  Leucophryne 
at  Magnesia,  which  had  been  discovered  by  Mr. 
W.  R.  Hamilton  in  1803,  and  they  also  visited  Priene. 
They  thoroughly  surveyed  the  regions  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Maeander. 

From   Asia   Minor   the   expedition   returned    to  Work  at 
Athens  about  the  end  of  1 8 1 2,  and  during  a  second  Rh^ui> 
delay  there  excavated  and  measured  the  temple  of  a„j  senium. 
Nemesis  at  Rhamnus,  and  examined  Thoricus  and 
the    promontory    of    Sunium.      During    all    these 
researches  Gell  carried  out  his  instructions  to  the 
entire   satisfaction   of   the   Society,   sending  home 
regular  letters  and  batches  of  drawings. 

c  The  plans  and  elevations,'  as  the  subsequent  report  says,  c  of 
all  the  Edifices  were  correctly  ascertained  and  detailed  in  the  most 
elegant  Drawings  by  the  Artists  of  the  Mission,  it  being  the 
Intention  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  to  Engrave  and  offer  them 
to  the  Public  for  the  Improvement  of  National  Taste/ 

On  May  17,  1 8 1 2,  it  was  resolved  T*>e  Aegna 

c  That  the  Earl  of  Hardwicke  be  requested  to  lay  the  letter  and  Marbles. 
Drawings  sent  by  Mr.  Gell  relative  to  the  Aeginetan  Marbles 
before  the  Trustees  of  the  British  Museum  &  to  inform   them 
of  the  wish  of  the  Society  to  encourage  by  any  means  in  their 
power  the  acquisition  of  the  same  for  the  Publick  V 

1  The  letter  here  referred  to,  together  with  tracings  of  the  draw- 
ings (which  are  by  Foster),  is  preserved  in  the  British  Museum. 


i$6   History  of  the  Society  of  'Dilettanti 

The  temple  of  Aegina  had  been  just  excavated  in 
1 8 1 1  by  an  expedition  including  Barons  Stackelberg,, 
Haller,  Kestner,  Mr.  Linckk,  and  the  zealous  young 
English  architect  and  explorer,  Charles  R.  Cockerell. 
Negotiations  were  at  once  commenced  through 
Mr.  W.  R.  Hamilton  to  secure  the  admirable  archaic 
sculptures  of  the  pediments  for  England;  but  the 
German  authorities  succeeded  in  outwitting  the 
British  Government,  and  the  marbles  were  purchased 
at  Zante  by  the  Crown  Prince  of  Bavaria,  who 
deposited  them  at  Munich. 
Risks  from  On  September  17,  1 8 1 2,  at  a  meeting  of  the  Ionian 
pirates  and  Committee  a  letter  was  read  from  Mr.  Gell  dated 
Smyrna,  May  1 4,  setting  forth  the  risk  the  mission  ran 
from  privateers  and  pirates  in  the  seas  near  Asia 
Minor,  and  praying  for  an  application  to  Government 
for  assistance.  The  Earl  of  Hardwicke  accordingly 
drew  up  a  letter  to  the  Secretary  of  the  Admiralty, 
which  being  signed  by  the  members  present  was  by 
the  Earl  of  Hardwicke  transmitted  to  the  Admiralty, 
together  with  a  note  from  his  lordship  to  the  First 
Lord,  and.  a  note  from  the  Secretary  to  Mr.  Barrow, 
Secretary  of  the  Admiralty,  enclosing  Mr.  GelPs 
letter.  In  May,  1 8 1 2,  a  further  credit  of  £iyfOo  was 
required  for  the  mission,  in  connexion  with  which 
an  interesting  incident  is  worth  recording. 

£Jan.  3,  18 13.  Upon  a  letter  being  read  from  Sir  Henry 
Charles  Englefield  to  Lord  Dundas  as  well  as  another  from  the 
same  to  the  President  of  the  day  Mr.  Dickenson  expressing  that 
he  had  received  from  Mr.  Gell  some  time  since  a  draft  for  between 
nine  hundred  and  a  thousand  pounds  and  being  at  that  time  in  the 
country  and  not  being  certain  of  the  amount  of  the  balance  of 
the  money  belonging  to  the  Society  in  the  Bankers  hands  he  had 
paid  this  draft  from  his  own  pocket.  The  whole  Society  appeared 
extremely  sensible  of  the  handsome  proceeding  on  his  part  and 
Lord  Morpeth  immediately  got  up  and  moved  that  the  thanks 
of  the  Society  be    given  to   Sir   Henry   Charles   Englefield  our 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    15-7 

Secretary  for  his  liberal  conduct,  which  motion  being  seconded  by 
Mr.  William  Spencer  was  carried  unanimously  and  with  applause. 
c  A  vote  of  the  further  credit  of  £1^00  was  moved  and  carried. 
It  was  also  ordered  that  the  first  payment  from  that  sum  should  be 
employed  in  repaying  Sir  H.  C.  Englefield  the  sum  he  had  so 
liberally  and  kindly  advanced.' 

The  first  instalment  of  drawings  and  measurements 
sent  home  by  Mr.  Gell,  comprising  the  antiquities 
of  Eleusis,  was  put  in  hand  for  engraving  at  once. 

The  travellers  returned  in  the  summer  of  1 8 1 3 ;  and  Return  of 
the  Dilettanti  at  their  next  meeting,  on  February  tf,  wisnm, 
1 8 14,  unanimously  voted  their  thanks  to  Mr.  Gell 
for  his  great  services  to  the  Society  and  to  learning 
in  general  during  his  late  voyage.     It  was  further 
moved  by  Mr.  Knight,  seconded  by  Mr.  Wilbraham, 

c  That  the  Secretary  do  direct  Mr.  Lawrence  painter  to  the 
Society  forthwith  to  paint  the  picture  of  Mr.  Gell  at  the  expence 
of  the  Society  and  that  the  picture  when  finished  be  hung  up 
in  the  Room  of  the  Society/ 

The  thanks  of  the  Society  were  also  voted  to 
Messrs.  Gandy  and  Bedford,  draughtsmen  to  the 
Society,  for  their  constant  attention  to  the  objects  of 
the  mission  and  their  very  meritorious  exertions 
of  skill  and  talent  in  making  measures  and  drawings 
of  the  several  remains  of  antiquity  met  with  in  the 
course  of  their  voyage.  It  was  ordered,  on  the 
motion  of  Mr.  Gell, 

'That  the  Secretary  do  enquire  what  mark  of  the  sense  the 
Society  entertain  of  their  Merits  as  an  honorary  memorial  of  their 
sentiment  would  be  most  agreeable  to  Messrs.  Gandy  and  Bedford 
&  that  the  Ionian  Committee  do  prepare  such  present  to  be 
presented  to  them/ 

At  a  committee  of  the  Ionian  Committee  on 
March  14,  18 14,  it  was  ordered 

c  That  50  Pounds  be  given  to  the  two  Draftsmen  of  the  Society 
Mr.  Gandy  and  Bedford  viz.  £x<)  to  each  of  them  &  that  they 
shall  lay  out  the  same  in  the  purchase  each  of  them  of  a  piece  of  Plate 

15*8    History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

John  "Peter 

as  to 

tions to 
members  of 

according  to  their  own  wishes,  on  which  shall  be  engraven  an 
Inscription  to  be  furnished  to  them  by  the  Committee  expressive  of 
the  satisfaction  the  Society  feels  at  their  successful  and  laborious 
exertions  during  their  late  voyage/ 

John  Peter  Gandy,  one  of  the  draughtsmen  in 
question,  was  a  younger  brother  of  Joseph  Michael 
Gandy,  a  well-known  architect.  On  his  return  from 
Greece  he  was  patronized  by  Lord  Elgin,  and 
afterwards  associated  in  further  works  by  Gell  and 
Wilkins.  He  inherited  from  a  friend,  a  Mr.  Deering, 
an  estate  in  Buckinghamshire,  and  assumed  his  name. 
He  became  M.P.  for  Aylesbury,  and  was  elected 
a  member  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  in  May,  1830. 

The  expenses  of  this  mission  to  Ionia  had  proved 
rather  heavy,  and  as  it  was  not  the  only  matter  which 
the  Society  had  in  hand,  the  funds  available  for  the 
purpose  of  publication  proved  insufficient.  It  became 
necessary  therefore  to  appeal  to  the  liberality  of  the 
members  to  further  this  important  sequel  to  the 
mission.     It  was  resolved  by  the  joint  Committee 

c  1.  That  it  will  be  impossible  to  proceed  with  any  despatch  in 
the  publication  of  the  Drawings  Measures  &  Inscriptions,  collected 
by  the  Gentlemen  employed  by  the  Society  in  the  late  expedition  to 
Greece  &  Asia  Minor,  without  some  aid  from  the  members  of  the 

'  2.  That  it  will  be  proper  to  print  for  the  use  of  The  Members 
(and  the  information  of  the  public)  A  short  report  of  the  proceedings 
of  the  Mission. 

'3.  That  this  report  do  consist — i.  of  the  Abstract  of  their 
Journies  published  by  them  in  the  Zante  Newspaper  &  z1?  of 
a  List  of  the  Drawings  plans  and  maps  made  by  the  Mission,  3rd 
of  the  Report  drawn  up  by  Mr.  Wilkins  on  the  value  &  importance 
of  these  Drawings,  4?  of  a  general  Estimate  of  the  expenses 
necessary  for  the  publication  in  a  manner  worthy  of  them,  &  suitable 
to  the  honour  of  The  Society;  5?  Of  the  Report  read  by  the 
Secretary  at  the  last  meeting  of  the  Society  on  that  subject.' 

It  was  further  resolved  by  the  said  committee  (or 
Ionian  Committee)  at  a  meeting  in  1 8 1 4,  at  which 
Mr.  William  Gell  was  present, 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    15-9 

'  That  the  Committee  do  most  sincerely  congratulate  the  Society 
of  Dilettanti  on  the  Result  of  the  Ionian  Mission,  which  owing  to 
the  Talents  of  the  Artists  employed,  and  the  Judicious  measures 
of  the  Leader,  who  so  ably  directed  their  Researches,  has  been 
successful  beyond  their  most  sanguine  Expectations. 

'  That  every  Individual  Member  of  the  Ionian  Mission  is  entitled 
to  the  warmest  Approbation  of  the  Society,  for  the  Enthusiasm 
displayed,  and  the  diligence  exerted  by  each  in  his  separate  capacity  • 
by  which  more  numerous  and  important  Documents,  relating  to 
Grecian  Architecture,  have  come  into  the  possession  of  the  Society, 
than  have  been  produced  by  the  united  efforts  of  all  Europe  for 
the  last  forty  years. 

'That  the  elaborate  and  accurate  Drawings  from  the  Buildings 
of  Attica  alone,  hitherto  unknown,  and  brought  to  light  thro'  the 
exertions  of  the  Ionian  Mission,  are  abundantly  sufficient  to  form 
a  volume ;  which  in  point  of  Interest,  would  be  surpassed  by  no 
Architecture  publication  extant  and  equalled  only  by  the  second 
volume  of  the  "  Antiquities  of  Athens,"  which  derives  no  incon- 
siderable portion  of  its  interest  from  the  contributions  of  the 
Society  of  Dilettanti. 

'  But  the  Excavations  of  the  Eleusinian  territory,  made  by  the 
Agents  of  the  Society  at  a  very  considerable  Expence,  and  upon 
a  scale  of  unrivalled  extent,  have  afforded  facilities  of  investigation 
to  the  Travellers  of  every  European  Nation-  amongst  whom 
some  one  might  be  found,  who  jealous  of  the  honor  resulting 
to  the  English  Nation  from  the  Spirit  &  Enterprize  of  the  Society 
of  Dilettanti,  might  endeavour  to  anticipate  the  appearance  of  the 
publication,  already  in  progress,  if  it  be  not  pursued  with  prompti- 
tude and  vigour,  that  the  apprehension  of  Anticipation  is  founded 
on  the  fact  of  the  actual  publication  of  the  work  of  Le  Roy,  which 
was  undertaken  with  the  view  of  claiming  for  his  nation  the  merit 
of  having  been  the  foremost  in  making  known  to  the  world  the 
beauties  of  the  Grecian  Architecture,  before  the  pre-conceived  & 
published  Intentions  of  Revett  and  Stuart  could  be  carried  into  effect. 

'That  the  Cause  of  Grecian  Architecture,  no  less  than  the 
Vindication  of  the  Claim  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  to  the  honor 
of  the  important  Discoveries  lately  made,  demand  that  no  delay 
should  occur  in  publishing  the  beautiful  Drawings,  already  laid 


before  them,  in  a  manner  equally  splendid  with  the  former  publi- 
cations of  the  Society/ 

The  work  was  accordingly  put  in  hand  early  in  Details  of 
1 8 14.     On  February  2  the  Ionian  Committee  passed  scheme. 
a  series  of  resolutions  approving  of  the  plates  of  the 

160   History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

Temple  of  Eleusis  engraved  under  the  superintendence 
of  Mr.  Wilkins,  and  ordering  other  drawings  of 
Eleusis  to  be  put  in  hand  under  the  superintendence 
of  Mr.  Wilkins  and  Sir  H.  C.  Englefield,  and  that  this 
section  of  the  work,  viz.  that  on  Eleusis, c  as  soon  as 
completed  shall  be  offered  to  the  Publick  under  the 
title  of  Antiquities  of  Eleusis*  Mr.  Wilkins  under- 
took to  give  a  written  explanation  of  the  archi- 
tectural plates,  Mr.  Knight  to  draw  up  an  account 
of  the  mysteries  at  Eleusis,  and  Mr.  Gell  to  give  an 
account  of  the  mission  and  their  transactions  at 
Eleusis.  On  June  3  Mr.  Knight  undertook  to  draw 
up  an  abstract  of  the  voyage  and  mission  to  be  pre- 
fixed to  the  publication  of  the  Antiquities  of  Jttica, 
Lord  Aberdeen  to  examine  and  correct  the  account 
of  the  Sacred  Way  by  Mr.  Gell,  and  Mr.  Wilkins 
to  superintend  the  description  of  the  plates,  and  to 
obtain  from  the  artists  full  accounts  of  the  circum- 
stances attending  the  excavations  made  at  Eleusis  and 
elsewhere  in  Attica.  Of  these  projected  essays  only 
one  by  Mr.  Wilkins  on  the  Sacred  Way  was  com- 
plete^, and  that  in  a  greatly  condensed  form. 

Acting  further  under  the  influence  of  the  financial 
EngllTeld's  apprehensions  expressed  in  the  resolution  already 
Appeal.  quoted,  the  committee  instructed  the  Secretary, 
Sir  Henry  Englefield,  to  draw  up  the  follow- 
ing appeal  to  the  Society,  the  terms  of  which 
are  interesting  as  giving  a  resume  of  the  position 
which  the  Society  claimed  to  hold  with  regard  to  the 
promotion  of  the  study  of  classical  architecture : — 

'Resolved,  That  the  valuable  and  extensive  Collection  of 
Measures  and  Drawings  of  Ancient  Buildings  in  Greece  and 
Asia  Minor,  brought  to  this  country  by  Mr.  Gell  in  his  late 
voyage,  undertaken  by  him  under  the  auspices  of  the  Society 
of  Dilettanti,  cannot  be  given  to  the  public  without  a  very 
considerable  further  expense,  of  which,  though  the  sale  of  the  works, 

History  of  the  Society  of  'Dilettanti   161 

if  published,  may  be  expected  to  repay  a  part,  yet  an  entire 
reimbursement  can  scarcely  be  hoped  for;  and,  at  all  events,  such 
money  must  be  laid  out  before  any  return  can  be  made.  It  is, 
however,  by  thus  incurring  risk  of  ultimate  loss  in  giving  to  the 
world  valuable  information,  that  the  Society  render  themselves 
most  useful  to  the  cause  of  literature.  Individuals  cannot  in 
general  incur  the  expense  necessary  for  the  publication  of  great 
works  on  the  arts ;  and  persons  engaged  in  publication  in  the  way 
of  trade  are  not  to  be  expected  to  publish,  without  pretty  nearly 
a  certainty  of  profit.  It  has  been  highly  to  the  honour  of  this 
Society,  that  without  any  support  from  the  public,  or  any  funds  but 
what  have  arisen  from  the  liberality  of  its  Members,  the  only  two 
literary  expeditions  which,  during  a  period  of  eighteen  years,  have 
been  sent  from  England  for  the  purpose  of  investigating  the 
remains  of  Grecian  taste  and  splendour,  have  sailed  at  their 

*  Whilst,  however,  we  justly  claim  to  ourselves  great  merit  from 
this,  we  ought  not  totally  to  forget,  that,  although  this  employment 
of  our  funds  is  highly  creditable  to  ourselves,  we  are  in  fact  merely 
disposing  of  what  we  have  had  very  little  share  in  collecting,  and 
that  the  spirited  liberality  of  our  predecessors,  and  the  fortunate 
purchase  and  re-sale  of  a  piece  of  ground  in  Cavendish  Square, 
have  put  it  in  our  power  to  do  what  perhaps  has  not  ever  been 
done  by  any  private  society  of  individuals  in  Europe. 

c  As  the  Society  now  stands,  we  can  scarcely  be  said  to  have  given 
anything  towards  the  Promotion  of  these  noble  ends.  Our  annual 
subscriptions  just  defray  our  annual  expenses.  No  one  has  paid 
more  than  ,£io  ioj.  as  his  contribution  on  admission,  the  great 
majority  only  ,£5"  ^s :  and  the  guinea  which  most  of  us  pay  as  face 
money  is  all  that  can  properly  be  said  to  be  our  annual  contribution 
to  the  promotion  of  the  arts ;  except  the  occasional  contributions 
on  marriage  or  increase  of  income,  which  form  a  very  inconsider- 
able branch  of  our  revenue.  Is  not  this  the  moment  to  do  something 
more  ?  The  African  Association,  the  Palestine  Association,  have 
had  the  Merit  of  contributing  essentially  to  the  great  cause  of 
literature  by  the  annual  contributions  of  their  Members,  and  it 
would  be  a  sort  of  insult  to  this  most  respectable  and  illustiious 
Society  to  doubt  of  their  readiness  to  complete  the  work,  of  which 
the  most  difficult  part  is  already  so  happily  done,  and  diffuse  the 
information  now  in  our  own  private  possession.  It  must  also  be 
remembered,  that,  as  life  is  frail,  if  we  neglect  to  employ  and 
arrange  what  has  thus  been  collected,  the  common  lot  of  mortality 
may  deprive  us  of  those  distinguished  talents,  so  absolutely  necessary 
to  their  being  reduced  to  a  complete  readiness  for  publication ;  and 
that,  if  that  publication  be  as  slow  as  without  further  aid  from 


161  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

ourselves  it  must  necessarily  be,  few  of  us  can  hope  to  have  the 
honour  and  credit,  which  will  certainly  result  to  us  from  their  being 
spread  over  Europe. 

cThe  Committee  docs  therefore  unanimously  recommend  to 
the  Society  that  they  do  annually  subscribe  ten  guineas  each  for  the 
next  five  years,  for  the  purpose  of  promoting  the  publication  of 
the  drawings  collected  by  the  Ionian  Mission,  over  and  above  the 
other  payments  made  to  the  Society ;  and  further,  that  any  Member 
choosing  to  pay  the  whole  fifty  guineas  in  one  payment,  shall 
receive  from  the  Society  his  copy  of  the  works  published  within  the 
five  years,  with  the  plates  taken  off  on  Indian  paper;  and  that 
should  any  Member  having  so  subscribed  his  fifty  guineas  die  before 
the  expiration  of  the  five  years,  his  heir,  or  any  person  appointed 
by  him,  shall  receive  the  work  in  the  same  manner  as  he  would 
himself  have  received  it,  if  he  were  still  living. 

'The  Committee  also  beg  leave  to  inform  the  Society,  that  the 
First  Part  of  the  Antiquities  of  Eleusis,  containing  general  views 
and  plans,  and  the  details  of  the  Temple  of  Diana  Propylaea,  are 
so  far  advanced,  that  it  will  be  ready  for  delivery  to  the  Members 
early  in  the  next  winter ;  and  that  the  Second  Part,  which  will  give  the 
details  of  the  Doric  and  Ionic  Propylaea,  is  in  hand,  and  consider- 
ably advanced ;  and  they  beg  leave  to  observe,  that  it  is  important 
that  the  engravers  engaged  by  them  should  be,  as  far  as  is  possible, 
kept  constantly  employed,  or  otherwise  they  may  be  induced  to 
seek  other  engagements,  which  may  materially  delay  the  publications 
of  the  Society/ 

its  results.  This  earnest  appeal  to  the  memory  of  former 
achievements,  with  its  reflections  on  mortality  and 
the  effects  of  procrastination,  seems  to  have  produced 
a  deep  effect  on  the  members  of  the  Society.  On 
May  i,  1 8 14,  it  is  recorded 

*  That  the  Report  of  the  Ionian  Committee  drawn  up  &  printed 
&  distributed  to  the  Members  in  consequence  of  the  Orders  of  the 
Meeting  on  March  6  was  read  &  taken  into  consideration.  It 
was  unanimously  agreed  by  the  x6  members  present  that  the 
proposed  subscription  of  ten  guineas  each  for  five  years  certain 
for  the  purpose  of  forwarding  the  publications  of  the  Society  be 
adopted.  Eleven  votes  by  letter  or  Proxy  were  also  given  in  favour 
of  this  measure  making  on  the  whole  37  affirmatives,  and  only  one 
negative  letter  has  been  received.  The  thanks  of  the  Society 
were  voted  to  the  Duke  of  Somerset  for  his  Grace's  proposed 
donation  of  fifty  pounds  made  previous  to  the  proposal  of  the 
subscription  now  voted,  to  which  he  has  added  his  assent  to  the 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  16 1 

proposed  Annual  Subscription  and  the  Secretary  was  ordered  to 
communicate  the  same  to  his  Grace.' 

Later  it  was  ordered  that  the  payment  of  ten 
guineas  annually  should  begin  with  the  year  18 14, 
any  member  being  entitled  to  pay  the  fifty  guineas 
down  at  once  if  he  chose.  This  order  was  to  apply 
to  all  members  elected  within  the  five  years,  who 
would  thereby  be  entitled  to  the  publications  j  and 
the  proposals  of  the  committee  with  regard  to 
members  who  might  die  during  this  period  of  their 
subscription  were  adopted.  The  portion  of  the 
work  in  hand  was  then  continued.  During  its 
progress  the  idea  of  a  separate  publication  of  the 
discoveries  at  Eleusis  was  abandoned,  and  it  was 
resolved  to  incorporate  the  whole  in  one  volume, 
which  should  include  also  the  other  Attic  sites 
of  Rhamnus,  Sunium,  and  Thoricus. 

On    March    8,    i8itf,   Mr.   Wilkins,   into   whose  <rhe 
hands   as  editor  had  in  the   end   been  placed  all  Unedited 
the  drawings,  journals,  measurements,  &c,  prepared  'fl^VrV 
during  the  expedition,  reported   to  the  committee  ^ 
that  the  plates  were  ready,  but  that  the  booksellers 
would    not   engage    for   the   publication.      It    was 
therefore  decided  that  the  committee  should  print 
the  work  themselves,  in  a  volume  of  the  same  size 
as    the   Ionian    Antiquities,   employing    Mr.    Bulmer 
as  printer  of  the  text  and  Mr.  Cox  of  the  plates, 
300    copies   to   be    printed,    100    being    on    India 
paper  for  the  use  of  the  Society,  and  200  on  white 
paper  for  the  public.     The  copies  on  India  paper 
were,  however,  never   executed.     And   the  volume 
did  not  reach  its  final  form  until   18 17,  when  it 
was  issued  to  members  and  to  the  public  as  The 
^Unedited  Antiquities  of  Attica ;  comprising  the  Archi- 
tectural   Remains    of  Eleusis,    Rhamnus,    Sunium, 

M    2 

164  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

and  Thoricus.  By  the  Society  of  Dilettanti. 
London :  Printed  by  W.  Bulmer  and  Co.  Cleve- 
land-Row, St.  James's.  Published  by  Longman, 
Hurst,  Rees,  Orme,  and  Brown,  Paternoster-Row ; 
and  John  Murray,  Albemarle-Street.  mdcccxvii.' 
The  book  was  reported  to  the  Society  as  ready  for 
delivery  to  the  members  on  April  13,  18 17.  Copies 
were  presented  to  H.R.H.  the  Prince  Regent,  the 
Duke  of  Somerset,  the  heirs  of  the  late  Mr.  Horner, 
the  Honourable  Mr.  Trevor  (late  a  member),  and 
Mr.  Drummond  (late  a  member).  The  copy  pre- 
sented to  Mr.  Horner's  family  bore  the  inscription,'* 

( Franciscum  Horner,  integrum,  humanum,  clarum 

Quern  fatis  asperis  abreptum 

Senatus  populusque  Britannus 

Maestitia  et  honore  unanimi  decoraverunt, 

Et  Chorus  (f)i\ofj,ov<Tti>v  amissum  deflens 

Pietate  fratris  superstitis  Leonardi  Horner 

Hoc  desiderio  mnemosynon  committit. 

H.  C.  Englefield.' 

New  edition      As  a  collateral  result  of  Gell's  expedition,  it  should 

of 'Ionian  ^  be  stated  that  with  the  help  of  the  new  material 

ntiqutties.   bought  nome  by  him  and  his  colleagues,  the  first 

volume  of  the  Ionian  Antiquities,  originally  published 

in  1769,  was  by-and-by  entirely  revised  and  re-edited, 

the  new  edition  being  issued   to  the  members   of 

the  Society  in  1821.     The  remainder  of  the  results 

relating  to  Ionia  were  put  in  hand  for  a  third  part 

of  the  same  publication,  which  did  not,  however, 

see  the  light  until  1840. 

Further  During  the  years  thus  occupied  by  the  labours  of 

activities:     tne  New  Ionian  Committee,  the  expedition  of  Sir 

volumeofthe  William  Gell,  and  the  publication  of  the  'Unedited 

'Specimens:  Antiquities  of  Attica,  the  Society  had  been  further 

busied  in  a  desultory  way,  under  the  direction  of 

Payne   Knight,  with    the  preparation   of  a    second 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    165 

volume  of  Select  Specimens  of  Antient  Sculpture.  Some 
of  the  plates,  as  has  been  mentioned,  had  even  been 
executed  before  the  issue  of  the  first  volume.  Part  of 
the  proceeds  of  the  augmented  or  Ionian  subscription 
was  diverted  to  the  purpose  of  this  publication.  But 
the  work  made  very  slow  progress,  and  was  not 
completed  by  1 8  24,  when  the  death  of  Payne  Knight 
interposed  new  delays.  He  had  not  only  been  its 
principal  editor  and  promoter,  but  many  of  the  plates 
and  drawings  remained  in  his  possession,  and  it 
yas  many  months  therefore  before  the  Society  could 
recover  them  from  among  his  effects.  Before  the 
volume  was  ready,  not  only  Townley's  collection, 
but  Knight's  also,  passed  into  the  British  Museum. 
Stimulated  by  the  success  of  the  Dilettanti  publica- 
tions, the  authorities  of  that  institution  had  com- 
menced a  rival  publication  of  their  own,  the  well- 
known  British  Museum  Marbles,  described  by  Taylor 
Combe,  Cockerell,  and  E.  Hawkins,  and  engraved 
by  Corbould  and  others.  This  was  a  formidable 
rival  to  the  publication  of  the  Dilettanti,  and  its 
appearance  may  perhaps  have  helped  to  account  for 
the  want  of  success  which  attended  the  candidature  of 
Taylor  Combe,  the  Keeper  of  the  Antiquities  in  the 
British  Museum,  for  membership  of  the  Society. 

At  last  the  projected  number  of  plates,  fifty-six,  for  Difficulties 
the  new  volume  of  Specimens  was  completed,  the  text  and  delays. 
provided,  and  the  ornamental  engravings  chosen. 
Then  the  Society  wished  to  prefix  to  the  volume  an 
essay  on  Classical  Art.  For  this  purpose  Payne  Knight 
had  prepared  'An  Inquiry  into  the  Symbolical 
Language  of  Ancient  Arts  and  Mythology':  tired, 
however,  of  waiting,  he  had  published  the  essay  in 
a  different  form  ;  and  had  then  quitted  the  scene 
himself.    The  Society  next   invited  an  essay  from 

i66  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

among  its  own  members.  Two  responded  to  the 
invitation,  namely,  Mr.  Morritt  and  Mr.  James 
Christie,  the  latter  an  antiquary  of  cultivated  taste, 
and  second  of  the  name  in  the  great  house  of 
auctioneers  irr*  St.  James's.  Both  these  gentlemen 
prepared  essays,  and  the  Committee  of  Publication 
had  great  difficulty  in  deciding  which  of  the  two 
to  accept.  In  the  end  they  preferred  that  of  Mr. 
Morritt,  as  'the  least  liable  to  any  objection  that 
might  arise  from  the  individual  sentiments  of  the 
several  members  of  the  Society,  and  from  the  con- 
sideration that  in  a  Society  large  and  constituted  as 
this  is,  it  is  desirable  rather  to  promulgate  and 
illustrate  general  notions  than  to  attach  their  name 
to  any  particular  hypothesis ' ;  a  somewhat  ambiguous 
way  of  expressing  that  they  thought  Mr.  Morritt's 
essay  better  than  Mr.  Christie's.  Mr.  Christie's 
essay  was  privately  printed  after  his  death  by  his 
son.  Finally  in  March,  1833,  the  Committee  of 
Publication  decided  after  all  to  add  Payne  Knight's 
essay,  in  spite  of  its  having  already  appeared  in  two 
different  forms.  The  difficulties  in  producing  the 
volume  were  not,  however,  at  an  end,  for  the  publish- 
ing trade  were  unwilling  to  enter  into  any  arrange- 
ment such  as  that  made  with  Messrs.  Payne  and 
White  concerning  the  first  volume  of  Select  Specimens. 
Then  the  copperplate  printer,  Mr.  Barnett,  became 
bankrupt,  and  the  Dilettanti  had  great  difficulty  in 
recovering  their  property  from  the  lawyers'  hands. 
They  had  therefore  to  print  and  publish  the 
volume  at  their  own  expense,  and  did  not  succeed 
in  bringing  it  out  until  1 8  3  ? . 
Mode  of  The   annual   subscription   known   as   the   Ionian 

meetmg        subscription  having  lapsed  at  the  close  of  the  pre- 
scribed period  in  18 19,  it  became  necessary  to  review 


History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  167 

the  funds  of  the  Society  available  for  the  completion 
of  the  second  volume  of  the  Specimens^  the  second 
edition  of  the  Ionian  Antiquities,  and  a  proposed 
third  volume  of  the  latter  which  was  recommended 
by  the  Committee  of  Publication,  and  which,  says 
the  report, 

'Will  embrace  a  Variety  of  new  and  highly  interesting  matter; 
consisting  of  the  Antiquities  of  Cnidus,  Patara,  Myra,  and  the 
Coast  of  Caramania ;  amongst  which  are  the  excavated  and 
insulated  Tombs  at  Myra  and  Telmessus,  hitherto  unnoticed,  as  we 
believe,  by  any  traveller.' 

At  a  meeting  of  the  Society  on  April  2y,  1819,  the 
following  resolutions  were  adopted : — 

c  1.  That  the  Annual  Subscription  for  Dinners  be  increased 
from  Four  Guineas  to  Five. 

c  2.  That  an  Annual  Subscription  of  Five  Guineas  be  collected 
from  each  Member  to  be  exclusively  applied  to  the  purposes  of 
publishing  the  Collection  of  Drawings  in  possession  of  the  Society, 
or  other  works  connected  with  Literature  and  the  Arts. 

'3.  That  in  future  every  new  member  do  pay  a  contribution 
of  Sixty  Guineas  on  his  admission. 

'4.  That  every  future  Member  do  receive  a  copy  of  the  Anti- 
quities of  Attica,  and  the  two  volumes  of  Ionian  Antiquities, 
so  long  as  any  copies  of  either  or  both  of  the  said  publications 
remain  at  the  disposal  of  the  Society. 

'  5T.  That  every  Member  of  the  present  Society  who  has  been 
admitted  since  the  publication  of  the  Second  Volume  of  the  Ionian 
Antiquities,  or  since  that  of  the  Antiquities  of  Attica,  be  presented 
with  a  copy  of  either  or  both  works,  on  payment  of  all  arrears  due 
to  the  Society,  provided  he  has  not  already  received  them/ 

At  this  same  meeting  it  was  proposed  by  Lord 
Dundas,  and  seconded  by  Mr.  Symmons,  that  the 
Society  of  Dilettanti  shall  not  exceed  the  number 
of  seventy  members,  which  was  ordered  at  the  next 
meeting  of  the  Society  on  May  30,  18 19.  In 
May,  1824,  the  Committee  of  Publication  reported 
that  there  was  ample  means  at  the  disposal  of  the 
Society  for  completing  the  works  in  progress.     The 

1(58  History  of  the  Society  of  'Dilettanti 

Society  therefore  resolved  to  abolish  the  special 
Ionian  subscription,  and  to  revert  to  the  ordinary 
annual  subscription,  limiting  the  fee  on  the  admission 
of  new  members  to  ten  guineas.  It  was  also  resolved 
to  accept  an  offer  from  Messrs.  Priestley  and  Weale 
to  purchase  the  remaining  copies  of  the  ^Unedited 
Antiquities  of  Attica  for  seven  pounds  a  volume. 
As  stated  before,  however,  the  second  volume  of 
the  Specimens  did  not  see  the  light  until  1835-,  while 
the  publication  of  the  third  volume  of  the  Ionian 
Antiquities  was  delayed  until  1840 ;  partly  owing  to 
the  illness  and  eventually  the  death  of  Mr.  Wilkins, 
one  of  the  principal  editors  of  the  text,  and  to  the 
absence  from  England  of  Colonel  Leake,  who  also 
had  a  large  share  in  superintending  the  work.  To 
meet  the  expenses  of  this  volume  the  admission  fee 
was  again  increased  from  ten  guineas  to  twenty. 
Deaths  of  Reverting  to  the  general  history  of  the  Society : 
EvglefeU  \n  March,  1822,  the  members  suffered  a  great 
wht^  l°ss  kv  the  death  of  their  genial,  learned,  and  in- 
defatigable Secretary,  Sir  Henry  Englefield,  whose 
zeal  for  the  Society's  affairs  had  been  unremitting. 
His  intimate  friend,  William  Sotheby,  a  cultivated 
scholar  and  poet  of  society,  and  one  of  the  most 
enthusiastic  of  the  Dilettanti,  read  a  panegyric 
on  Englefield  at  the  first  meeting  held  after  his 
death,  which  was  subsequently  printed  and  dedicated 
to  the  Society.     In  this  Sotheby  says — 

'The  functions  exercised  by  him  were  virtually  those  of  a 
perpetual  President ;  not  restricted  solely  to  methodise  the  plans, 
and  regulate  the  proceedings  of  others,  but  eminently  calculated  to 
enlighten  and  lead,  and  (as  we  have  frequently  experienced),  to 
originate  measures  which  have  made  the  elegant  pursuits  of 
a  private  society  important  to  the  State,  by  promoting  the  cultiva- 
tion of  Arts,  eventually  connected  with  the  Improvement  of 
Manufactures,  and  tending  to  the   refinement  and  elevation  of 



History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  169 

morals  by  multiplying  the  sources  of  intellectual  pleasure,  by 
supplying  adequate  objects  for  the  excitement  of  talent  and 
rational  gratification  for  the  superfluity  of  wealth/ 

This  passage,  though  merely  an  extract  from  a 
personal  panegyric,  seems  to  give  the  Society  of 
Dilettanti  some  claim  to  have  anticipated,  and 
even  initiated,  that  impetus  of  public  taste  and 
opinion  which  led  on  to  the  Great  International 
Exhibition  of  i8yi,  and  to  all  its  consequences  in 
connexion  with  the  application  of  the  fine  arts  to 
the  industry  of  the  kingdom.  Englefield's  death 
was  followed  by  that  of  Payne  Knight  in  1824. 
Each  of  these  two  had  been  for  more  than  forty 
years  a  member  of  the  Society,  and  during  successive 
periods  each  had  been  conspicuous,  as  our  narrative 
will  have  shown,  as  its  most  prominent  and  most 
characteristic  figure. 

Englefield   was    succeeded    as   Secretary   by    Sir  sir  T. 
Thomas  Lawrence,  the  famous  portrait-painter  and  Lawrence 
President  of  the  Royal  Academy,  who  spared  what  as  ecretary- 
he  could  of  his  time  from  his  profession  and  his 
manifold  engagements  to  administer  the  affairs  of 
the  Society.    During  the  latter  part  of  his  secretary- 
ship, a   large   part   of  the   administration   of  the 
Society's   affairs  was  carried  out  by   Mr.   Wilkins, 
R.A.,  who  was  afterwards  presented  by  the  Society 
with  a  silver  inkstand  bearing  an  inscription  recording 
their  gratitude  for  his  various  services. 

In  1825-  an  unexpected  tribute  to  the  work  of  the  a  German 
Society  of  Dilettanti  was  paid  by  Dr.  F.  C.  H.  Kruse,  sch°lar's 
Professor  of  History  and  Geography  at  the  Uni- 
versities of  Halle  and  Wittenberg  in  Germany, 
who  in  a  work  entitled  Hellas^  or  Geographical  and 
Antiquarian  Researches  into  the  State  of  Ancient 
Greece    and    her    Colonies^    with     special    Reference    to 

170  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

Modern  Discoveries,  divided  his  history  into  five 
periods — the  first  period  being  from  the  earliest  days 
to  the  conquest  of  the  Romans ;  the  second,  that  of 
the  Dominion  of  the  Romans ;  the  third,  that  of  the 
Byzantine  Empire  and  the  conquest  of  the  Turks ; 
the  fourth,  from  the  fall  of  Constantinople  to  the 
foundation  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  ;  and  the 
fifth,  from  that  event  to  the  date  of  publication. 
With  the  foundation  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti, 
says  the  learned  historian,  *  begins  a  new  period  of 
the  discovery  of  Greece,  in  which  the  greatest 
geographical  and  topographical  accuracy  was  com- 
bined with  the  most  accurate  measurements  of  the 
antient  buildings,'  and  he  proceeds  to  eulogize 
many  of  the  members  of  the  Society  by  name  *. 
Dht'm-  Among  members   of  special    literary,  social,  or 

gmshed  political  distinction  elected  during  the  secretaryships 
of  Englefield  and  Lawrence,  whose  names  have 
not  hitherto  been  mentioned,  or  only  mentioned  in 
passing,  may  be  cited  the  brilliant  scholar,  poet,  and 
diplomatist,  John  Hookham  Frere,  6  KakoKayaOos  6 
^iAoAcaXoy,  as  Coleridge  styled  him;  John  Nicholas 
Fazakerly,  a  well-known  amateur ;  Henry  Gaily 
Knight,  who  published  poems  now  justly  forgotten, 
as  well  as  works,  which  still  have  their  value,  on  the 
architecture  and  history  of  the  Normans ;  George 
Watson-Taylor,  whose  collection  of  pictures  was 
afterwards  famous ;  Henry  Hallam,  the  historian  ; 
William  John  Bankes,  of  Kingston  Lacy;  Francis 
Horner,  the  well-known  politician  and  economist ; 
Sir  Robert  Peel,  afterwards  Prime  Minister ;  Richard 
Heber,  the  celebrated  book-collector ;  Sir  Richard 

1  A  correspondence  between  Kruse  and  Gell  referring  to  these 
matters  is  preserved  in  the  Department  of  Greek  and  Roman 
Antiquities  at  the  British  Museum. 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    171 

Westmacott,  the  sculptor ;  George  Vi  Hie  rs,  afterwards 
famous  as  Earl  of  Clarendon  and  Foreign  Secretary ; 
Frederick  Robinson,  better  known  as  Lord  Goderich 
and  eventually  Earl  of  Ripon  ;  and  the  Dukes  of 
Norfolk,  Sutherland,  and  Bedford.  It  may  be  noted 
that  at  one  time  during  the  period  under  consideration 
there  belonged  to  the  Society  members  representing 
three  generations  of  one  family — Lord  Dundas,  for 
many  years  the  venerable  father  of  the  Society ;  his 
son,  Sir  Lawrence  Dundas;  and  his  grandson, 
Mr.  Thomas  Dundas,  afterwards  Earl  of  Zetland. 
The  limitation  of  the  Society  to  seventy  members  was 
now  adhered  to,  and  a  few  well-known  personages 
failed  to  gain  admission.  The  repeated  rejection  of 
Sir  Francis  Chantrey,  R.A.,  was  due  probably  to  the 
desire  of  the  Society  to  avoid  an  excess  of  the  pro- 
fessional element  at  their  board,  their  list  already 
numbering  three  members  from  the  Royal  Academy, 
Wilkins,  Westmacott,  and  Shee.  A  similar  reason, 
as  has  been  said,  apparently  helped  to  cause  the 
exclusion  of  Taylor  Combe,  the  Keeper  of  the 
Antiquities  at  the  British  Museum ;  and  the  question 
of  nationality  was  probably  fatal  to  the  claims  of 
the  well-known  Prince  Esterhazy. 


Secretaryship  of W.  T{.  Hamilton — 'Reparation  to  Lord  Elgin 
— Correspondents  abroad:  the  Hon.  W.  7^  Spencer — 
Sir  W.  Gell — Mr.  Edward  Dawkins — The  Chevalier 
Brbndsted — The  Bronzes  of  Siris — Subscription  for 
their  purchase — Proposed  continuation  of  'Ionian 
Antiquities ' — Application  from  Mr.  Penrose — Mr. 
Penrose  supported  by  the  Society — 'Investigations  of 
Athenian  Architecture' — Latter  years  of  Hamilton  s 
secretaryship — Members  elected  under  his  regime : 
Shee,  Mountstuart  Elphinstone,  Hobhouse,  (3c. — East- 
lake,  I^yan,  Munro  of  Novar,  &c. — Mr.  Penrose, 
Monckton  Milnes,  Watkiss  Lloyd,  Panhyfa  Cockcrell, 
&c. — C.  T  Newton :  his  correspondence  from  Syra 
and  Mitylene — The  Mausoleum  of  Halicarnassus — 
Proposal  from  the  Arundel  Society — Dedications 
of  Cockcrell's  volumes. 

secret^-      O  IR  THOMAS  LAWRENCE  died  in  1830,  and 
ship  of         ^^     Was    succeeded    in    the    office    of   Secretary 

Hamilton  to  the  Dilettanti  hY  Mr-  W.  R.  Hamilton, 

the  friend  and  former  secretary  to  Lord  Elgin. 
Hamilton  had  served  the  State  from  1809  to  1822 
as  Permanent  Under-Secretary  for  Foreign  Affairs, 
and  from  1822  to  1825-  had  resided  as  Minister 
at  the  Court  of  Naples.  His  share  in  the  proceedings 
which  led  up  to  the  acquisition  of  the  Elgin  Marbles 
by  the  nation  has  already  been  described.     It  is  also 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti   173 

to  his  credit  that  during  his  tenure  of  office  he 
took  a  considerable  part  in  compelling  Louis  XVIII 
to  return  to  Italy  the  treasures  of  art  of  which 
that  country  had  been  despoiled  by  Napoleon. 
His  combination  of  antiquarian  with  diplomatic  ex- 
perience enabled  him  to  be  of  good  service  to  the 
Dilettanti  in  the  period  of  upwards  of  a  quarter  of 
a  century  during  which  he  had  the  chief  management 
of  their  affairs,  although  the  period  was,  it  must  be 
admitted,  not  a  very  eventful  one  in  their  annals. 

In  the  year  following  Hamilton's  election  (18  31),  Reparation 
we  find  the  Dilettanti,  no  doubt  under  his  influence,  *  If* 
offering  to  Lord  Elgin  a  tardy  reparation  for  their  E  &*• 
past  misjudgement  by  conferring  on  him  the  unsought 
honour  of  election  to  their  body.     In  the  following 
letter  dated  from  Leamington,  July  25-,  1831,  Elgin 
declined   the  compliment   in  words  which,  strictly 
polite  as  they  are,  can  hardly  have  failed  to  recall 
to  the  Society  bitter  remembrances  of  the  error  into 
which  they  had  been  led  by  Payne  Knight,  and  for 
which  they  now  sought  to  make  amends  : — 

c  On  coming  here  on  the  score  of  health,  I  have  been  obliged  to 
abstain  from  any  business  which  I  could  possibly  defer  •  and  among 
the  rest,  1  am  sorry  to  have  to  acknowledge,  is  my  answer  to  the 
communication  you  made  me,  of  the  Dilettanti  Society  having 
been  pleased,  in  the  most  agreeable  manner,  to  propose  that 
I  should  be  admitted  as  one  of  their  members.  I  have  been 
a  good  deal  embarrassed  by  this  communication  ;  I  have  a  peculiar 
interest  in  the  pursuits  cf  the  Society,  and  feel  much  gratified  by 
this  act  of  kindness  from  many  to  whom  I  look  with  friendship  and 
respect.  But  my  case  is  this  :  no  one  knows  more  intimately  than 
you  do,  that  the  impulses  which  led  me  to  the  exertions  I  made  in 
Greece  were  wholly  for  the  purpose  of  securing  to  Great  Britain, 
and  through  it  to  Europe  in  general,  the  most  effectual  possible 
knowledge,  and  means  of  improving,  by  the  excellence  of  Grecian 
art  in  sculpture  and  architecture.  My  success,  to  the  vast  extent 
it  was  effected,  will  never  cease  to  be  a  matter  of  the  utmost 
gratification  to  me.     If,  when  it  was  made  known  to  the  public, 

174  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

the  Hon. 
W.  R. 

twenty-five  years  ago,  or  at  any  reasonable  time  afterwards,  it  had 
been  thought  that  the  same  energy  would  be  considered  useful  to 
the  Dilettanti  Society,  most  happy  should  I  have  been  to  have 
contributed  every  aid  in  my  power.  But  as  such  expectation  has 
long  since  past,  I  really  do  not  apprehend  that  I  shall  be  thought 
fastidious  if  I  decline  the  honour  now  proposed  to  me  at  this  my 
eleventh  hour/ 

Lord  Elgin,  though  his  health  had  already  begun 
to  fail,  survived  for  ten  years  the  date  of  this  letter, 
and,  dying  in  1841,  was  succeeded  by  his  second  son, 
the  eighth  earl,  afterwards  successively  Governor  of 
Canada  and  Governor-General  of  India. 

Two  of  the  leading  members  of  the  Society  had 
about  1820  taken  up  their  residence  permanently 
on  the  Continent,  but  were  in  the  sequel  persuaded 
to  remain  honorary  and  corresponding  members  of 
the  Society.  One  of  these,  the  Honourable  William 
Robert  Spencer,  who  settled  in  Paris,  was  among  the 
most  refined  and  cultivated  men  in  the  society  of  his 
day ;  and  of  his  many  poems,  which  were  at  one  time 
highly  esteemed  in  fashionable  circles,  a  few  have 
survived  with  hopes  of  permanency,  such  as  his 
pathetic  verses  of  <  Beth  Gelert,'  * The  Emigrant's 
Grave,'  &c.  On  July  4,  1830,  a  resolution  was 
passed  by  the  Society 

'  That  it  be  notified  to  Mr.  Spencer  that  in  consideration  of  his 
able  and  distinguished  conduct  during  the  time  that  he  had  attended 
the  Meetings  of  the  Society,  he  be  released  from  all  annual  pay- 
ments to  the  Society  during  the  time  that  he  shall  continue  his 
Residence  abroad,  that  he  be  requested  to  communicate  to  the 
Secretary  from  time  to  time  such  matters  of  Information,  as  may 
fall  under  his  notice,  wherever  he  may  be  resident,  as  he  may 
judge  likely  to  interest  the  Society  or  contribute  in  any  way  to 
promote  the  general  purposes  of  the  Society/ 

sir  w.  Gell.  The  other  exile  was  Sir  William  Gell,  who 
settled  in  Italy  in  1820,  residing  partly  in  Rome, 
but  chiefly,  and  in  the  end  permanently,  at  Naples. 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti   175- 

Here  he  became  a  worthy  successor  of  Sir  William 
Hamilton,  without,  however,  the  brilliant  glamour 
and  romance  which  surrounded  his  predecessor's 
name.  He  devoted  himself  especially  to  the  newly 
discovered  antiquities  at  Pompeii,  and  his  book,  the 
Pompeiana,  in  which  he  was  aided  by  J.  P.  Gandy, 
his  fellow-traveller,  remains  a  standard  work  upon 
the  subject.  In  the  year  1830,  when  there  took  place 
a  complete  revision  of  the  Society's  rules,  a  special 
reservation  was  made  in  favour  of  Gell  in  the 
following  terms : — 

'That  the  Secretary  be  directed  to  write  to  Sir  William  Gell 
that  in  consideration  of  his  long  residence  in  Italy,  for  the  benefit 
of  his  health,  and  of  his  former  distinguished  service  to  the  Society 
of  Dilettanti,  they  have  been  graciously  pleased  to  appoint  him 
their  Resident  Plenipotentiary  in  Italy ;  and  that  in  virtue  of  that 
appointment  he  be  enjoined  to  keep  the  Society  regularly  informed, 
by  letters  addressed  to  the  Secretary,  of  such  discoveries  of  literary 
or  archaeological  interest  as  may  be  made  from  time  to  time  in  the 
vicinity  of  his  residence,  whether  relating  to  objects  of  ancient  art, 
or  serving  to  illustrate  the  ancient  history  or  topography  of  Italy ; 
and  that  Sir  William  Gell  be  relieved  from  all  payments  to  the 
Society,  in  consequence  of  his  being  thus  employed  on  the  public 

To  this  invitation  Sir  William  Gell  responded 
with  great  readiness,  and  he  regularly  corresponded 
with  the  Secretary  until  within  a  short  time  of  his 
death,  giving  an  account  of  the  archaeological 
researches  on  which  he  or  his  friend,  Mr.  Dodwell, 
was  continually  engaged.  These  letters,  copies  of 
which  have  been  preserved,  are  exceedingly  interest- 
ing from  their  relation  of  the  discoveries  of  classical 
art,  especially  Etruscan  and  Pompeian,  during  the  few 
years  which  preceded  Gell's  death  in  1834.  One 
result  of  the  correspondence  of  the  Society  with  Gell 
was  that  they  agreed  to  assist  him  in  the  publication 
of  a  valuable  work  on  the  topography  of  Rome, 

176  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

a  kind  of  a  gazetteer  accompanied  by  a  map  l.  The 
Society  had  this  map  re-engraved  in  England  at  their 
expense,  voted  him  ^200  as  a  gift  towards  his  ex- 
penses, and  finally  arranged  for  the  publication  of 
the  work  by  Messrs.  Saunders  and  Otley,  and  for  the 
sale  of  the  copyright  of  the  book  and  map  to  the 
publishers  for  £300,  to  be  paid  to  Sir  William  Cell. 
Mr. Edward  In  1 8  3  3  the  Society,  having  received  some 
Danvk'ms.  valuable  communications  from  Mr.  Edward  Dawkins, 
the  British  Minister  at  Athens,  resolved 

c  That  it  is  the  opinion  of  this  meeting  that  it  would  tend  to 
add  considerably  to  the  Interest  of  the  Meetings  of  this  Society, 
if  means  could  be  found  to  establish  regular  correspondence  with 
some  Persons  at  Athens  and  at  Rome  or  Naples  from  whom  the 
Society  might  receive  regular  monthly  communications  of  the 
nature  of  these  just  read,  but  more  in  details  and  comprehending 
a  consecutive  Report  of  all  such  Events  occurring  there,  as  would 
interest  the  Lovers  of  Antient  Art  and  Archaeology — That  an 
application  be  forthwith  made  to  Sir  W.  Gell  to  invite  him  to  do 
his  utmost  to  meet  the  Views  of  the  Society  by  writing  at  regular 
Intervals  from  Rome  or  from  Naples  &  that  a  similar  suggestion 
be  made  to  Mr.  Dawkins — or  some  other  Person  at  present  residing 
or  travelling  in  Greece  or  who  may  be  about  to  proceed  thither. 
That  such  an  arrangement  would  be  entirely  within  the  objects  for 
which  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  was  originally  formed,  and  which 
have  never  ceased  to  occupy  their  attention.  The  purport  of  this 
Resolution  be  at  an  early  period  brought  before  the  Committee  of 
Publication  and  that  they  do  advise  such  measures  as  may  seem  to 
them  most  expedient  for  carrying  this  Resolution  into  effect/ 

The  Society  thereupon  wrote  to  Mr.  Crowe,  the 
British  Consul  at  Patras,  and  to  Baron  Bunsen  at 
Rome.  Nothing  however  came  of  it,  for  Gell,  who 
had  been  corresponding  with  the  Society  on  the  lines 
here  laid  down,  as  stated  above,  died  in  the  following 
year,  and  Mr.  Dawkins,  leaving  the  Greek  legation, 
soon  after  returned  to  England.  He  was  elected  a 
member  of  the  Society  in  1 8  3  c» . 

1  The  Topography  of  Rome  and  its  vicinity :  2.  vols.,  with  separate 
map;  London,  1834. 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  177 

Hamilton,  from  his  former  residence  at  Naples  and  The  che- 
his  work  as  Under-Secretary  for  Foreign  Affairs,  was  v*lier, 
in  communication  with  many  correspondents  abroad, 
especially  on  subjects  connected  with  classical  archae- 
ology; among  his  correspondents  was  Chevalier  Philip 
Oluf  Brondsted,  Counsellor  of  State  to  H.M.  the  King 
of  Denmark.     Brondsted  had  been  for  many  years 
a  devoted  student  of  ancient  Greek  architecture,  and 
had  published  a  volume  of  Travels  and  Researches  in 
Greece.     On  February  tf,  18  31,  he  forwarded  a  copy 
of  his  work  as  a  present  to  the  Society.     On  May  4 
following,  Hamilton  called  attention  to   this   gift, 
and  to  the  fact  that  Brondsted  was  contemplating  the 
publication  of  an  essay  on  the  sculptures   of  the 
Parthenon,  of  which  he  had  made  a  special  study. 
It  was  suggested  that  this  work  was  worthy  of  the 
patronage   of  the   Society,   and  that   it   might  be 
published  separately  or  included  as  an  appendix  to 
the  prefatory  note  in  the  still  uncompleted  second 
volume  of  the  Select  Specimens.     The  Committee  of 
Publication   agreed  to   recommend   the  Society  to 
purchase  and  publish  Brondsted's  memoir,  and  to  pay 
the  cost  of  engraving  the  six  plates  to  accompany  the 
work.     Brondsted  continued  to  correspond  with  the 
Dilettanti.     On  February  y,  1832,  he  forwarded  as 
a  gift  to  them  a  copy  of  a  memoir  on  Panathenaic 
vases  and  the  holy  oil  given  as  prize  to  the  victors 
in  those  games.     On  March  4,  1832,   the   Society 
exhibited  a  Greek  Etruscan  vase,  the  property  of 
the  Chevalier  Brondsted,  in  the  form  of  a  y^vKr-qp^ 
or  double  vessel  for  cooling  wine  or  other  liquor, 
and  read  a  description  of  the  same,  written  by  the 
owner  of  the  vase  for  the  information  of  the  Society. 

Among  the  various  objects  acquired  by  the  Che-  The  Bronzes 
valier  Brondsted  were  two  beautiful  bronzes  which  °fsir's- 

178  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

had  been  found  in  1820  near  the  river  Siris  in 
Lucania.  They  consist  of  two  groups,  repousses  and 
chased  in  high  relief,  each  representing  a  combat 
between  a  Greek  and  an  Amazon.  They  had  served 
as  the  shoulder-ornaments  of  a  cuirass,  and  are  now 
generally  accepted  as  the  finest  Greek  bronze  work 
of  the  fourth  century  b.  c,  although  at  first  they 
were  supposed  to  be  relics  of  the  first  battle  of 
Pyrrhus  against  the  Romans,  which  took  place  near 
the  spot  where  they  were  found.  These  exquisite 
specimens,  afterwards  justly  extolled  by  Thorwaldsen 
and  other  artists, were  put  up  to  public  auction  in  1 8  3  2, 
but  found  no  purchaser.  They  were  then  offered  to 
the  Society  of  Dilettanti,  and  were  deposited  at  the 
Secretary's  house  at  22  Grafton  Street.  On  March  2, 
1833,  the  Committee  of  Publication  recorded  that 

c  A  Proposal  from  the  Chevalier  Bronsted  respecting  the  purchase 
of  his  Bronzes  found  on  the  banks  of  the  Siris  in  Magna  Graecia 
together  with  his  description  and  Historical  Essay  and  engraved 
copper  plates  of  them,  being  brought  before  the  consideration 
of  the  Committee — It  was  resolved  that  the  Committee  of  Pub- 
lication do  not  recommend  to  the  Society  the  effecting  such 
a  purchase  on  the  terms  proposed  by  him — nor  indeed  on  any  terms 
likely  to  be  accepted  by  him — by  the  Society  as  a  Body — But  as  it 
was  certainly  a  very  desirable  object  that  the  Bronzes  in  question, 
which  are  undoubtedly  of  the  highest  Interest,  as  works  of  Greek 
Art,  should  if  possible  be  preserved  to  this  country — It  may  be 
worth  while  to  make  some  exertions  to  effect  this  purpose — and 
the  Committee  were  therefore  of  opinion,  that  an  Arrangement 
might  be  attempted,  by  which  the  Government  could  be  induced  to 
give  as  far  as  ^500  towards  their  purchase  for  the  British  Museum ; 
(there  being  good  Reason  for  believing  that  an  offer  to  at  least  that 
Amount  was  made  on  the  part  of  the  Museum,  when  they  were  put 
up  to  public  auction  last  year) — if  a  subscription  to  be  set  on  foot 
among  the  late  and  present  Members  of  this  Society  could  raise  such 
additional  sum,  as  might  induce  the  Chevalier  to  part  with  them. 
It  being  understood  that  in  case  of  the  purchase  being  thus  effected 
the  Bronzes  would  become  the  property  of  the  Trustees  of  the 
British  Museum,  and  the  Plates  and  Essay  reserved  to  the  Society 
— these  to  be  forthwith  published  by  the  Society  together  with  that 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  179 

Gentleman's  Memoir  on  the  Marb'es  of  the  Pediments  of  the 
Parthenon  for  which  the  Society  are  already  under  an  engage- 
ment with  him/ 

The    Dilettanti,    having     ascertained    that     the  Subscription 
authorities  of  the  British  Museum  could  not  provide  f" their 
a  sum  of  £6  00  or  £700,  but  were  willing  to  contribute  furc  ase' 
£jo  to  such  a  subscription  as  they  proposed,  deter- 
mined to  set  it  on  foot,  their  intention  being  accelerated 
by  a  letter  from  Brondsted,  in  which  he  said  that 
although  he  was  anxious  for  the  bronzes  to  remain 
in  England,  one-half  of  the  purchase-money  (£fo&\ 
must  be  paid  during  the  ensuing  June,  as  he  could 
get    2^,000    francs   for  them  in  Paris  any   day  he 
might   choose   to   bring   them   over.      During   the 
progress  of  the  subscription  the  Society  agreed  as 
a  body  to  deposit  a  sufficient   sum    of  money,   if 
possible,  as  a  guarantee  to  ensure  the  bronzes  not 
going  out  of  England.     When  the  subscription  was 
started,  it  was  responded  to  by  thirty-four  members 
of  the   Society,   whose   contributions   amounted  to 
nearly  ^yoo.     The  Society  then  printed  a  circular 
and  distributed   it   among  'the  friends   of  Virtu.' 
During  the   remainder   of  1835   the   subscriptions 
amounted  to  over  £800,  and  at    their   meeting  on 
February    2,    1834,    the    Secretary    was    able    to 
announce    to    the    Society    that    the    £1,000    had 
been   completed   by   the  contribution  of  £200  on 
behalf  of  the  British  Museum.     The  sum  of  £1000 
was  thereupon  paid  over  to  the  Chevalier  Erondsted, 
and  the  bronzes  were  handed  over  to  the  trustees  of 
the  British  Museum,  where  they  had  been  deposited 
on  September  1  o,  1 8  3  3.     A  sum  of  £23  4/.  6d.^  which 
remained   over,  was   devoted   to   the   purchase   of 
a    suitable   case   in  which   to  exhibit   them.     The 
credit  of  this  subscription  must  be  given  entirely  to 

N   1 

180  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

the  Society  of  Dilettanti.  The  Society  then  pro- 
ceeded to  acquire  the  memoir  written  by  Chevalier 
Brondsted  upon  the  bronzes  and  the  copperplates 
engraved  for  the  publication.  They  printed  the 
work  and  issued  it  at  their  expense  in  1836.  The 
memoir  on  the  pediments  of  the  Parthenon  was 
never  completed  by  Brondsted,  who  in  April,  1840, 
asked  to  be  allowed  to  resume  possession  of  the  two 
copperplates  which  had  been  prepared  to  illustrate 
it,  in  return  for  his  engagement  to  deliver  to  each 
member  of  the  Society  one  copy  of  the  work  in 
question.  The  Society  acceded  to  this  request,  but 
Brondsted  died  in  1842,  without  having  received  the 
plates  from  H.  Corbould  the  engraver  (who  died 
about  the  same  time). 
Proposed  When  the  third  volume  of  the  Ionian  Antiquities  was 

continuation  at  length  published  (see  above,  p.  16 81  the  Society  of 
Annuities'  Dilettanti  had  already  in  contemplation  a  fourth 
volume  of  the  same  series,  for  which  some  of  the  plates 
were  actually  ready.  The  death  of  Mr.  Wilkins,  R.A., 
who  was  to  have  been  responsible  for  the  text,  put 
a  stop  to  further  progress  with  the  volume. 
Application  On  June  7,  1846,  a  fresh  opportunity  presented 
from  Mr.  itself  to  the  Society,  when  the  Secretary  read  to  the 
meeting  a  paper  prepared  by  Mr.  Penrose,  architect, 
which  had  been  previously  submitted  to  the  trustees 
of  the  British  Museum.  The  object  of  this  com- 
munication was  to  explain  that  the  author,  during 
a  recent  visit  to  Athens,  had  ascertained  the  existence 
of  certain  alleged  anomalies  in  the  construction  of 
the  Parthenon,  but  had  not  been  able  for  want  of 
adequate  means  to  particularize  their  precise  extent 
and  purpose  with  the  mathematical  accuracy 
which  was  desirable.  He  now  made  known  to  the 
Society  his  readiness  to  repair  again  to  that  city, 


History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti   181 

and  apply  himself  to  verifying  these  irregularities 
with  the  utmost  precision  which  circumstances  would 
allow:  for  which  object  Mr.  Penrose  requested  the 
countenance  of  the  Society,  an  advance  or  credit 
to  the  amount  of  £?o  for  the  scaffolding  which 
would  be  required,  and  an  official  introduction  to 
Sir  Edmund  Lyons,  our  Minister  to  the  Greek 
Government,  which  might  ensure  him  facilities  in  the 
prosecution  of  this  very  desirable  object.  Mr.  Deering 
having  intimated  his  conviction  that  his  colleague 
in  the  Ionian  mission,  Mr.  Francis  Bedford,  had 
already  sufficiently  ascertained  the  bearings  of  this 
question,  and  having  represented  that  it  might  be  ad- 
visable to  refer  to  that  gentleman  for  his  notes  on  the 
subject,  the  Secretary  further  explained  the  particular 
scope  of  Mr.  Penrose's  proposed  investigations. 

At  their  next  meeting,  on  July  5-,  1 846,  the  Society  Mr.  Penrose 
unanimously  agreed  supported  by 

£  That  application  should  be  made  to  the  Secretary  of  State  for 
foreign  Affairs  for  a  letter  of  Introduction  &  Recommendation  to 
our  Minister  at  Athens,  with  a  view  to  facilitating  Mr.  Penrose's 
operations,  particularly  permission  to  erect  a  scaffolding  against 
the  Walls  or  Columns  of  the  Temple,  and  that  the  Society  should 
contribute  ^"^o  towards  the  Expense  of  such  scaffolding — that  if 
within  these  limits  Mr.  P.  was  enabled  to  extend  his  operations  to 
the  Temple  of  Theseus  also  &  other  buildings  at  Athens  of  that 
age,  he  would  be  at  liberty  to  do  so/ 

Application  was  therefore  made  to  Lord 
Palmerston,  who  furnished  Mr.  Penrose  with  the 
requisite  letter  for  Sir  E.  Lyons,  and  on  February 
7,  1847,  the  Secretary  was  able  to  report  that 
Mr.  Penrose  had  already  commenced  his  operations. 
Mr.  Penrose  communicated  the  results  of  his  investi- 
gations in  letters  to  the  Society,  and  after  his  return, 
towards  the  close  of  the  same  year,  a  portfolio 
of  drawings  was  submitted  to  the  Society,  which 

the  Society. 

i8i  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

Mr.  Penrose  was  willing  to  place  at  the  disposal 
of  the  members,  if  they  should  be  inclined  to  publish 
'invest}-  The  Committee  of  Publication  reported  on  March 

gations  6     lg48 

of  Athenian      '        T    ' 

Architec-  c  That  they  have  examined  in  company  with  Mr.  Penrose  the 

ture.'  plans  6c  working  Drawings  made  by  that  Gentleman  at  Athens 

and  since  he  left  that  City  which  were  submitted  to  the  Society  at 
their  last  meeting,  and  which  related  to  certain  recently  verified 
principles  in  the  construction  of  the  Parthenon,  &  other  Greek 
buildings,  to  which  subject  his  attention  had  been  drawn  by  the 
Society  when  he  left  England  last  summer. 

'That  they  have  been  much  gratified  by  the  evidence,  which  these 
Drawings  offered  of  the  labour  and  zeal,  which  Mr.  Penrose  has 
applied  to  the  object  of  his  Researches,  and  he  seems  to  them  to  have 
satisfactorily  proved  his  positions  by  the  accuracy  of  his  observations, 
&  by  mathematical  calculation.  That  they  are  of  opinion  that  it 
will  reflect  honour  and  credit  on  the  Society,  if  they  undertake  the 
publication  of  these  Drawings,  or  a  sufficient  portion  of  them,  which 
Mr.  Penrose  has  very  liberally  placed  at  the  disposal  of  the  Society. 

cIf  the  Society  should  adopt  their  proposals  the  Committee 
recommend  that  the  List  of  Drawings  appended  to  this  Report, 
should  be  selected  for  publication. 

c  That  each  of  these  Drawings  should  be  accompanied  by  a  page 
or  half-page  of  letterpress  explanatory  of  its  contents,  and 
Mr.  Penrose  could  prepare  a  short  account  of  his  proceedings 
during  the  progress  of  his  labours  on  the  Parthenon  and  the  few 
difficulties  he  had  to  surmount,  the  facilities  supplied  to  him,  and 
any  particular  details,  which  occurred  at  the  time,  illustrative  of 
the  subject  he  had  in  hand,  &  which  may  serve  to  give  to  the 
Public  a  more  comprehensive  View  of  the  Construction  of  Greek 
Temples  in  the  most  flourishing  period  of  the  arts  in  Greece, 
especially  in  reference  to  the  newly  advanced  principles  which  have 
been  more  or  less  alluded  to,  or  obscurely  indicated  by  antient  writers. 

c  The  Committee  have  been  given  to  understand  that  the  prepared 
Plates  being  twenty-six  in  number,  may  be  engraved  on  an  average 
expense  of  from  six  to  ten  pounds  each :  the  letterpress  would 
comprize  about  thirty  pages  of  the  usual  size  of  the  Society's 
publications :  Say  nine  sheets  at  £5  15"  o  per  sheet,  paper  included, 
i.e.  £51  ij  0/ 

The  Society  unanimously  resolved  that  the  above 
report  be  approved  and  adopted.     A  notice  of  the 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti   183 

proposed  publication  was  therefore  printed  and 
distributed  to  the  members  of  the  Society.  The 
work  was  at  once  put  in  hand,  and  was  originally 
intended  to  form  a  second  volume  to  the  ^Unedited 
Antiquities  of  Attica.  This  idea  was  however  aban- 
doned, and  in  May,  18^0,  it  was  decided  to  issue 
the  work  as  a  separate  volume,  under  the  title  of 
Investigations  of  Athenian  Architecture.  Proofs  of  the 
plates  and  text  were  laid  on  the  table  at  various 
meetings  of  the  Society,  and  in  February,  1872,  the 
volume  itself  was  at  last  laid  on  the  table.  The 
usual  number  of  presentation  copies  was  distributed, 
and  each  member  received  a  copy  with  an  accom- 
panying portfolio  of  prints,  the  remaining  copies 
being  offered  to  the  public  at  £4,  afterwards  raised 
to  £f  $s.  od.  apiece. 

After  the  publication  of  Mr.  Penrose's  work,,  the  Latter 
energies  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  slackened  for  %?*£  , 

°  T  .  ,     J  ,  ,  ,  .     n .      .  Hamilton  s 

some  years.  It  would  seem  that  the  repeated  infliction  secretary. 
of  additional  subscriptions,  in  order  to  defray  the  ship. 
expense  of  successive  publications,  not  only  proved 
irksome  to  members,  even  when  they  bore  their 
share  ungrudgingly,  but  also  had  a  deterrent  effect 
on  obtaining  fresh  candidates,  as  the  members  of 
the  Society  from  this  time  fell  far  short  of  the 
seventy  to  which  number  its  circle  had  been  limited. 
The  Secretary,  Mr.  W.  R.  Hamilton,  occupied  some  of 
the  leisure  of  his  declining  years  in  compiling  a  list 
of  the  members  of  the  Society  from  its  foundation, 
which  was  finished  in  18^4  and  printed  for  the 
use  of  members  shortly  afterwards,  as  well  as  a  com- 
pendious history  of  the  Society,  which  was  completed 
and  distributed  to  members  in  185-5-,  under  the 
title  c  Historical  Notices  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti. 
Printed   for  Private  Circulation  only.     Seria  Ludo. 

184  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

7ro\\ol  8e  fie/xvavrai,  KaXov  el  tl  7rovaOfj.  Pindar,  01. 
vi.'  To  this  work,  which  was  printed  by  John 
Bowyer  Nichols  of  Parliament  Street,  a  portrait 
of  tfie  author,  lithographed  by  R.  J.  Lane,  A.R.A., 
from  a  portrait  by  H.  Phillips,  was  prefixed  by 
order  of  the  Society.  The  present  work  is  based 
upon  Hamilton's  brief  history,  largely  supplemented 
and  amplified  from  a  study  of  the  original  records 
of  the  Society  and  its  committees.  Hamilton,  in 
spite  of  repeated  offers  to  resign  owing  to  his  in- 
creasing age,  continued  to  act  as  Secretary  to  the 
Society  until  the  month  before  his  death,  which 
took  place  in  June,  185-9.  Sir  Edward  Ryan  at 
once  took  over  the  management  of  the  Society's 
affairs,  but  at  first  only  in  the  capacity  of  acting 
Secretary,  and  it  was  not  till  the  beginning  of  1863 
that  he  was  finally  confirmed  in  the  appointment. 
Members  During  Hamilton's  regime  of  all  but  thirty  years, 

elected  under  fa*  personnel  of  the  Society  had  naturally  undergone 
skeee&mei  many  changes.  The  new  members  elected  in  the 
Mountstuart  first  years  of  his  secretaryship  included  Mr.,  after- 
Elphin-  wards  Sir,  Martin  Archer  Shee,  P.R.A.,  who  succeeded 
f?2j  Sir  Thomas  Lawrence  as  titular  Painter  to  the  Society; 

fa  '  the  Hon.  Mountstuart  Elphinstone,  one  of  the  most 
gifted  and  far-seeing  of  the  great  succession  of  Indian 
commanders  and  administrators  under  the  Company, 
who  on  his  return  home  from  office  as  Governor 
of  the  Bombay  Presidency  in  1829  had  travelled 
and  studied  to  good  purpose  in  Greece  and  Italy ; 
Lord  Burghersh,  afterwards  Earl  of  Westmorland, 
H.B.M.'s  ambassador  to  Berlin  and  Vienna ;  the 
Marquess  of  Northampton,  afterwards  President  of 
the  Royal  Society  and  the  Society  of  Antiquaries ; 
Sir  Alexander  Baring,  afterwards  Lord  Ashburton, 
the  well-known  politician,  diplomatist,  and  amateur 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti   185* 

of  art  j  Lord  Heytesbury,  another  diplomatist  of 
varied  experience  who  was  also  an  amateur  and 
collector  ;  the  aforesaid  Mr.  Edward  Dawkins,  fresh 
from  the  legation  at  Athens  ;  and  Sir  John  Cam 
Hobhouse,  well  known  as  the  intimate  friend  and 
companion  of  Lord  Byron.  Hobhouse's  incautious 
expression  of  his  radical  opinions  in  politics  once 
brought  him  within  the  gates  of  Newgate ;  but 
he  afterwards  served  his  country  honourably  in 
successive  cabinets  as  Secretary  of  War  and  President 
of  the  Board  of  Control,  and  eventually  entered 
a  haven  of  repose  by  being  called  up  to  the  House 
of  Lords  as  Lord  Broughton  of  GyfFord  in  i8yi. 
Hobhouse  was  elected  in  1 8  3  9,  and  continued  for 
many  years  to  be  a  leading  spirit  among  the 
Dilettanti.  The  next  ten  years  were  a  period  of 
quietude  in  the  history  of  the  Society,  only  broken 
by  the  publication  of  Mr.  Penrose's  important  work 
on  the  Principles  of  Athenian  Architecture.  Among 
the  few  members  elected  some  well-known  amateurs 
and  collectors  found  a  place,  such  as  Sir  John 
Hippisley,  M.P.,  and  Beriah  Botfield,  M.P.,  the 
bibliographer  and  antiquary,  who  was  for  some 
years  one  of  the  most  regular  attendants  at  the 
Society's  meetings. 

In  1848  the  post  of  Painter  to  the  Dilettanti  again  East/ake, 
fell  vacant,  through  the  death  of  Sir  Martin  A.  Shee,  fy"h 
and  descended  to  the  next  holder  of  the  presidential  J£j£  *£. 
chair   at    the    Royal   Academy,   Sir   Charles   Lock 
Eastlake.      In   the   same   year   the    Society   gained 
a  valuable  recruit  in  the  person  of  Sir  Edward  Ryan, 
lately  returned  from  his  position  as  Chief  Justice 
of  Bengal,  and  about  to  serve  his  country  still  more 
usefully  as  head  of  the  Civil  Service  Commission 
during  a  prolonged  period  of  transition  and  reform. 

i86  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

During  the  fifties  there  came  in  a  number  of  wealthy 
amateurs    and    picture-collectors    (the    fashion     of 
forming  private  collections  of  ancient  marbles  had 
by  this  time  passed  away),  foremost  among  whom  were 
Mr.  R.  S.  Holford ;  Mr.  H.  A.  Johnstone  Munro,  of 
Novar ;  Mr.  William  Stirling,  afterwards  Sir  William 
Stirling-Maxwell,  of  Keir;  Mr.  Henry  Danby  Seymour, 
of  Knoyle,  M.P.  j  Mr.  George  Tomline,  M.P.,  of  Orwell 
Park ;     the    Hon.   Francis    Charteris,   best   known 
for  many  years  as  Lord  Elcho,  now  Earl  of  Wemyss  \ 
Mr.    Wells    of   Redleaf;    and    the   Hon.    Charles 
Hardinge,  afterwards  Viscount  Hardinge,  in  later  life 
an    active    trustee    of    the   National   Gallery   and 
National   Portrait   Gallery.      Some    of  these   long 
remained  active  members  of  the  Society  ;  others  re- 
signed (the  word  c  abdicated '  had  by  this  time  fallen 
out  of  use)  within  a  few  years  of  their  election. 
Mr. Penrose,       In   185-2  the  Dilettanti  were  joined   by  a  pro- 
Monckton      fessional  member,  Mr.  F.  C.  Penrose  the  architect, 
Watkils       whose  labours  in  elucidating  the  subtler  principles 
Uoyd,         of    Athenian    architecture    they   had    already    en- 
Pamzzi,       couraged  and  given  to  the  world,  as  above  narrated, 
cockerell,      ancj  W^Q  g^jjj  survives  as  father  of  the  Society  (1897). 

In  the  same  year  the  Society  elected  Mr.  Richard 
Monckton  Milnes,  afterwards  so  well  known  as  Lord 
Houghton,  the  most  genial  and  accomplished  of  men 
of  society,  politicians,  and  poets,  than  whom  few 
men  have  ever  seen  more  varieties  of  life,  or  taken 
their  experiences  with  a  gayer  curiosity  and  zest.  In 
185-7  Monckton  Milnes  contributed  to  the  Edinburgh 
Review  an  article  on  Hamilton's  Historical  Notices  of 
the  Society,  and  up  to  the  time  of  his  death  in 
1885-  remained  one  of  its  most  active  and  devoted 
members.  The  more  strictly  scholarly  group  of 
Dilettanti  was  increased  in  185-4  by  the  election  of 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti   187 

Mr.  William  Watkiss  Lloyd,  a  gentleman  of  means 
who  enthusiastically  devoted  his  life  to  the  study  of 
ancient  art,  antiquities,  and  literature,  and  was  the 
author  of  a  large  number  of  treatises,  published  and 
unpublished,  on  these  and  cognate  subjects,  as  well  as 
of  two  remarkable  historical  works,  the  Age  of  Pericles 
and  the  History  of  Sicily.  Until  his  death  in  1893 
Mr.  Lloyd  was  one  of  the  principal  guides  and  advisers 
of  the  Dilettanti  in  their  archaeological  undertakings. 
Subsequently  to  the  publication  of  Mr.  Penrose's 
book  on  Athenian  Architecture,  he  elaborated  and 
published  a  Theory  of  the  Proportions  of  Archi- 
tecture as  used  by  the  Ancients,  which  was  adopted 
by  Mr.  Penrose  in  his  revised  edition  of  the  above 
work.  The  year  185-7  was  marked  by  the  election 
of  Baron  Marochetti,  the  Parisianized  Piedmontese 
sculptor  who  in  those  days  enjoyed  in  England 
a  reputation  and  a  practice  beyond  what  now  seem 
to  us  his  deserts;  of  the  naturalized  Italian  exile 
Panizzi,  a  man  whose  gifts  of  organization,  force 
of  character,  and  subtlety  of  brain  might  have  made 
him  the  equal  of  the  foremost  statesmen  of  his  time, 
but  whom  the  chances  of  life  caused  to  devote  his 
extraordinary  powers  to  the  service  of  the  British 
Museum,  of  which  he  had  just  been  appointed 
Principal  Librarian ;  and,  finally,  of  a  member  still 
living,  Sir  William  Augustus  Fraser,  afterwards  M.P., 
author  of  Poems  of  the  Kjiight  of  Morar,  Disraeli  and 
his  Day  ^  Hie  ettl)bique3  &c,  &c,  and  compiler  of  a  list 
of  members  of  the  Society  down  to  1874,  copies  of 
which  he  presented  to  the  existing  members  at  that 
date.  In  i8y8  was  elected  another  member  who  is 
still  active,  Mr.  W.  Cornwallis  Cartwright,  long  M.P. 
for  Oxfordshire:  and  in  the  same  year  a  veteran 
among  professional  architects  and  archaeologists  in 

i88  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

the  person  of  Charles  Robert  Cockerell,  R.A. 
Thirty-seven  years  earlier  Cockerell  had  been  one  of 
the  most  enterprising  of  students  and  travellers  on 
classic  soil,  and  had  taken  an  active  part  in  the 
expedition  of  Stackelberg,  Haller,  and  the  rest,  for 
exploring  the  temples  of  Aegina  and  Phigaleia, 
by  the  results  of  which  the  museums  of  Munich 
and  London  respectively  have  been  so  memorably 
enriched  (see  above,  p.  i?6).  It  was  only  now,  after 
a  professional  career  of  great  activity  and  success, 
that  Cockerell  found  leisure  to  prepare  for  publica- 
tion an  account  of  those  explorations  of  his  youth. 
c.  T.  New-  Meanwhile  a  comparatively  young  archaeologist, 
ton :  his  destined  for  many  years  to  be  the  most  distinguished 
c&rrespon-      Q£  ^  cauing.  in  England,  had  entered  into  relations 

dence  from  .  o  .  ©  .   .     '  ..  . 

Syra  and      with  the    Society ,   without  as   yet   having   become 
Mitylene.      a  member.     At  the  meeting  held  on  February   5-, 
185-4,  it  is  recorded  that 

'Mention  having  been  made  of  the  very  exemplary  zeal, 
activity  and  intelligence  in  the  Study  and  Investigation  of  Greek 
Antiquities  in  various  parts  of  the  Levant  shown  by  Mr.  Charles 
T.  Newton,  lately  an  Assistant  in  the  Department  of  Antiquities 
in  the  British  Museum,  and  who  is  now  Her  Majesty's  Vice 
Consul  at  Mitylene,  &  has  lately  been  Resident  at  Rhodes  as 
H.  M.  acting  Consul  &  Reference  having  been  made  to  a  corre- 
spondence between  the  Society  and  the  late  Sir  Wm.  Gell  whilst 
residing  at  Rome.  .  .  It  was  unanimously  Resolved  on  the  motion 
of  Mr.  R.  M.  Milnes  seconded  by  the  Secretary,  that  Mr.  C.  T. 
Newton  be  requested  to  allow  himself  to  be  named  a  correspondent 
of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  in  the  Archipelago,  and  in  the  Hellenic 
Cities  bordering  on  the  Coasts  of  that  Sea ;  and  that  the  Secretary 
do  acquaint  him  that  the  Society  will  be  extremely  gratified  if  he 
will  have  the  kindness  from  time  to  time  to  address  to  them  thro5  the 
Secretary,  such  notices  of  Archaeological  Research,  as  he  may  be  of 
opinion  will  be  interesting  and  welcome  to  the  Society ;  and  that 
these  communications  be  read  to  the  Society  at  their  Meetings/ 

This  invitation  was  gladly  accepted  by  Mr.  Newton. 
On  July  2,  1 8  5-4,  the  Secretary  laid  on  the  table  a 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  189 

letter  from  Mr.  C.  Newton  dated  Syra,  June  8  pre- 
ceding, and  reported  to  the  Society  the  general 
contents  of  the  same,  relating  to  the  Museums  of 
Classical  Antiquities  which  the  writer  had  visited  at 
Paris,  Nimes,  and  Aries.  On  May  d,  185-5-,  another 
letter  was  read  from  Mr.  Charles  Newton,  dated 
Mitylene,  March  22,  in  which  he  gave  an  account 
of  the  excavations  which  he  had  been  carrying 
on  for  Lord  Stratford  de  Redcliffe  among  the 
ancient  tombs  in  the  island  of  Calymnos.  A  further 
communication  was  received  on  May  u,  18 5-6,  from 
Mr.  Newton,  dated  Budrum,  February  1 ,  announcing 
his  discovery  of  the  remains  of  the  ancient  city  of 
Lagina,  mentioned  by  Strabo,  with  a  temple  of  Hecate, 
at  Mughlah.  On  February  1,  185-7,  the  Secretary  re- 
ported that  in  consequence  of  Mr.  Charles  Newton, 
Vice-Consul  at  Mitylene,  having  been  deputed  by  the 
Government  to  conduct  several  archaeological  re- 
searches in  the  Levant,  and  particularly  on  the  coast 
of  Asia  Minor,  such  researches  being  almost  identical 
with  those  which  had  engaged  for  so  many  years 
the  attention  of  this  Society,  he  had  taken  upon 
himself  to  present  to  that  gentleman,  in  the  name  of 
the  Society,  a  copy  of  the  Society's  publications, 
which  Mr.  Newton  considered  would  be  of  great 
use  to  him  in  the  prosecution  of  his  researches. 
The  Society  were  pleased  to  approve  of  what  the 
Secretary  had  done  in  their  name. 

In  another  letter  dated  Budrum,  March  19,  185-7,  The 
and  read  May,  185-7,  Mr.  Newton  communicated  to  Mausoleum 
the  Societv  the  progress  of  his  important  operations  °fHai~ 
in  excavating  the  site  of  the  Mausoleum  at  Hali- 
carnassus.  The  result  of  these  operations  was,  as  is  well 
known,  not  only  to  solve  a  topographical  and  artistic 
problem  of  the  highest  interest,  but  at  the  same  time 

ipo  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

to  enrich  the  British  Museum  with  the  most  important 
series  of  original  Greek  marbles  which  had  been 
recovered  from  any  ancient  site  since  the  Phigaleian 
explorations  of  1811-12.  The  consideration  of 
Mr.  Newton's  letter  led  to  an  important  step  on  the 
part  of  the  Society,  for  on  July  y  following, 

c  Mr.  Penrose  represented  to  the  meeting  that  in  consequence 
of  the  very  interesting  &  impoitant  Discoveries  lately  made  by 
Mr.  C.  Newton  at  Halicarnassus,  by  which  the  real  site  &  general 
Disposition  of  the  Mausoleum  had  been  ascertained  and  several 
specimens  of  antient  art  belonging  to  that  monument  had  been 
brought  to  light,  It  seemed  to  be  an  object  well  worthy  of  the 
character  of  the  Society,  and  strictly  consonant  to  its  former  pursuits, 
To  send  to  Budrum  a  qualified  Architect,  with  Instructions  to 
note  such  designs  &  ornaments  (sculptural  as  well  as  archi- 
tectural) as  would  be  sufficient  to  illustrate  the  Art  of  the  period 
and  to  make  out  a  perfect  plan  &  elevation  of  this  celebrated 
Structure.  After  some  discussion,  it  was  Resolved  that  the 
subject  be  forthwith  refened  to  the  Committee  of  Publication 
for  their  consideration  &  inquiry.  Resolved  also  that  considering 
the  period  of  the  year  and  that  no  meeting  of  the  Society  would 
take  place  before  next  Febiuary,  That  if  the  Committee  should 
decide  that  such  a  measure  was  under  all  circumstances  expedient 
&  desirable,  they  have  full  authority  to  take  steps  to  put  it  into 
immediate  execution. 

1  Resolved  also  that  the  said  Committee  be  instructed  to  limit 
the  whole  expense  of  the  proposed  Mission  to  a  Sum  not  exceeding 
£i<$o.  Resolved  also  that  the  Committee  do  furnish  the  Architect 
so  to  be  appointed,  with  full  and  proper  Instructions  for  the 
guidance  of  his  conduct/ 

When  the  Society  reassembled  in  February,  185-8, 
the  Secretary  reported  that  an  architect  had  been 
sent  out  by  H.  M.  Government  to  assist  Mr.  Newton 
in  his  work  at  Halicarnassus,  and  that  this  architect 
was  Mr.  Pullan,  the  very  man  whom  Mr.  Penrose 
was  prepared  to  recommend  to  the  Society,  so  that 
there  was  no  need  for  any  expenditure  on  the  part 
of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  for  that  particular  object. 
Proposal  The  next  question  which  occupied  the  attention 

from  the       0f  the  Society  was  an  invitation  made  to  the  Society 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti   ipi 

in  March,  18^9,  by  the  Arundel  Society  through  Sir  Arundel 
Coutts  Lindsay,  Bart.,  to  co-operate  in  a  scheme  for  &»**/• 
making  reduced  copies  of  the  Elgin  Marbles  and 
other  works  of  Greek  sculpture,  in  order  to  facili- 
tate their  acquisition  by  artists  and  others,  and  to 
promote  the  study  ana  appreciation  of  the  finest 
works  of  Greek  sculpture.  Although  the  Society 
showed  a  disposition  to  assist  in  the  matter,  the 
scheme  of  joint  action  appears  to  have  been 
abandoned  by  the  Arundel  Society. 

On    June    3,    i860,   the    acting    Secretary    (Sir  Dedica- 
E.  Ryan)   called   the  attention  of  the   Society  to  tionsk°^ir 
Mr.  CockerelPs   work   on   the   temples    at   Aegina  tf^wrff 
and  Bassae,  then  on  the   eve  of  publication,  and 
Mr.  Penrose  read  to  the  members  a  description  of 
its    contents.     In    this    important   work    the    first 
part  was  dedicated  to  the  Society's  late  Secretary, 
Mr.  W.  R.  Hamilton,  and  the  second  to  the  Society 
itself,   a   sufficient   tribute    to    the   importance    of 
the  work   done   by  the  Dilettanti  in  the  domain 
of  archaeological  exploration.     The  Society  agreed 
to  purchase  seventy  copies  of  Mr.  Cockerell's  work, 
distributing  a  copy  to  each  present  member  of  the 
Society  and  retaining  the  rest  for  the  use  of  future 
members,  and  wrote  to  Mr.  Cockerell 

c  That  this  tribute  to  the  Memory  of  their  late  Secretary  whom 
the  Society  so  highly  valued  &  whose  loss  they  so  deeply  deplored 
was  most  grateful  to  the  feelings  of  the  Society — That  the  Society 
most  cordially  accepted  the  honor  of  having  the  second  Part  of  the 
work  dedicated  to  them — That  it  is  so  perfectly  in  harmony  with 
their  own  publications  that  they  are  anxious  in  some  degree  to 
identify  themselves  with  this  most  valuable  work,  and  are  desirous 
of  becoming  subscribers  for  seventy  copies,  &  if  not  attended  with 
any  inconvenience  would  be  glad  to  have  the  names  of  the  present 
members  of  the  Society  inserted  after  the  dedication  to  the 


Removals :  new  Thatched  House  Tavern  j  Willis  s  Rooms 
— State  of  the  Society — Sir  C.  T.  Newton,  Sir  F. 
Leighton,  fiSr. — Art  collectors  and  amateurs  $  country 
gentry,  &c.  s  Bar  and  Bench — Pollock,  Venables, 
Bovoen  —  Learning  $  the  Civil  Service  ;  Foreign 
Diplomacy — New  antiquarian  enterprise :  Mr.  Pullan 
and  the  Temple  of  Teos — The  Smintheum — Temple 
of  Priene — '  Ionian  Antiquities,'  vol.  iv — Time  and 
mode  of  publication — Penrose's  c  Athenian  Archi- 
tecture','  new  edition — Appeals  from  various  quarters: 
Temple  of  Ephesus ;  British  School  at  Athens — 
Changes  and  removals  since  1 8  8  8 — New  members — 
Discussions  and  resolutions — Retrospect:  changed 
conditions  of  archaeological  study — Decline  of  classical 
enthusiasm  in  England — The  Archaeological  Institute 
of  Rome ;  various  foreign  schools  at  Athens — 
Revival  of  the  study  in  England,  but  in  another 
shape — Part  taken,  or  to  be  taken,  by  the  Dilettanti 
— Conclusion. 

'Removals-.       r^vURING    the    secretaryship    of   Mr.    W.    R. 
n<T  hd  I     Hamilton  the  Dilettanti  had  been  obliged 

„„,„.  D 

House ga       "^"^      to    shift    their    quarter    as   the   premises 

Tavern -y       occupied    by    Mr.    Willis    at    the    old    Thatched 

House    Tavern   were    disposed    of  in    1842-3    to 

make  room  for  the  Conservative  Club.     Mr.  Willis, 

however,  merely   transferred    his    quarters   to    the 


History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    193 

house  next  door,  hitherto  occupied  by  the  Albion 
Club,  taking  the  name  of  the  Thatched  House 
with  him.  There,  in  the  new  Thatched  House 
Tavern,  the  Society  was  lodged  for  nearly  a  score 
more  years  until  i8di,  when  Mr.  Willis  disposed 
of  these  premises,  and  the  Society  was  obliged  to 
move  elsewhere.  A  proposal  made  in  i860  that 
a  large  room  should  be  rented  from  the  Bank  of 
England  in  Burlington  Street  at  ^100  a  year  was 
negatived  on  account  of  expense.  As  Mr.  Willis  was 
able  to  provide  at  his  other  premises  in  King  Street, 
St.  James's,  a  room  suitable  for  the  meetings  of  the 
Dilettanti,  their  pictures  and  other  effects  were  there- 
fore transported  thither.  These  premises,  formerly 
famous  as c  Almack's,'  and  by  this  time  only  less  famous 
as c  Willis's,'  continued  to  be  the  meeting-place  of  the 
Society,as  of  so  many  other  of  the  chief  dining  societies 
and  clubs  of  London,  until  they  were  finally  closed 
in  1 8  8 9.  The  premises  then,  through  the  foreclosure 
of  a  mortgage,  passed  into  the  hands  of  the  executors 
of  Lady  Willoughby  d'Eresby  ;  they  have  since  been 
reconstructed,  and  are  divided,  as  readers  are  aware, 
between  a  new  restaurant  bearing  the  old  name  and 
the  auction-rooms  of  Messrs.  Robinson  and  Fisher. 

During  the  first  part  of  what  may  be  called  the  state  oftke 
Willis's  Rooms  period  of  the  Society's  history,  Soctety- 
the  management  of  its  affairs  remained  in  the  hands 
of  Sir  Edward  Ryan  (acting  Secretary  18  5-9-6  3, 
Secretary  1863-75-);  during  the  second  part, 
1876-88,  in  those  of  his  successor,  Sir  W.  F. 
(known  as  Sir  Frederick)  Pollock.  Owing  to 
causes  to  be  mentioned  later,  the  old  energetic  lead 
taken  by  the  Dilettanti  in  the  promotion  and  publi- 
cation of  classical  researches  had  by  this  time  to 
a  great  extent  passed  out  of  their  hands.     Neverthe- 

194-   History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

less,  as  will  be  seen,  they  were  not  idle.  Socially, 
they  did  not  cease  to  flourish ;  and  their  ranks 
continued,  as  of  old,  to  be  recruited  from  every 
section  of  English  cultivated  society.  They  were 
also  opened  for  the  first  time  to  distinguished 
members  of  the  foreign  diplomatic  body,  of  whom 
the  earliest  representative  was  Massimo  d'Azeglio, 
elected  in  i%6i. 
sir  c.t.  In  1 8  6 1  the  election  of  Mr.  C.  T.  Newton,  already 

Newton,  since  185-4  a  valued  correspondent  of  the  Society, 
Zef'hton  Save  new  strength  to  the  learned  element  in  its  ranks, 
&Cm  '  and  at  the  same  time  knitted  closer  the  ties  by  which 
the  Dilettanti  had  long  been  connected  with  the 
British  Museum.  For  nearly  thirty  years,  until 
the  complete  breakdown  of  his  health,  Mr.  (after- 
wards Sir  Charles)  Newton  filled  at  the  meetings  and 
in  the  business  of  the  Society  the  place  naturally  due 
to  his  position  and  attainments.  To  the  founda- 
tions laid  at  Shrewsbury  and  Christchurch  he  had 
added  a  unique  experience  of  life  and  exploration 
in  the  Levant ;  and  now,  since  his  appointment 
as  Keeper  of  the  Greek  and  Roman  Antiquities 
in*  the  British  Museum,  stood  as  the  acknowledged 
head  of  the  practical  archaeologists,  epigraphers, 
and  antiquarian  excavators  of  Europe.  Distinguished 
alike  as  a  scholar  and  a  man  of  the  world,  and 
in  looks  resembling  some  rather  weather-worn 
antique  Jupiter  from  among  his  own  marbles,  his 
demeanour  to  strangers  was  marked  by  a  touch 
of  suspicious  caution  and  reserve  which  caused 
him  sometimes  to  be  misunderstood ;  but  to  his 
friends  no  man  bore  a  warmer  heart,  and  in  con- 
genial society  few  had  a  greater  charm,  derived 
alike  from  scholarly  breeding  and  a  ripe  and 
humorous  experience  of  men  and  things.     In  18^5- 

SIR    EDWARD    RYAN.     K.C. 

History  of  the  Society  of  'Dilettanti   195- 

he  gained  a  powerful  ally  within  the  Society  by  the 
election  of  Mr.  Frederic  Leighton,  afterwards 
President  of  the  Royal  Academy,  who  as  Lord 
Leighton  passed  away  but  two  years  ago,  to  the 
universal  sorrow  of  his  countrymen.  Leighton's 
brilliant  artistic  and  social  accomplishments,  his 
enthusiasm  for  classical  traditions  and  classical  ideals, 
made  him  naturally  a  leading  figure  in  the  councils 
and  at  the  board  of  the  Dilettanti,  until  in  his  latter 
years  the  constantly  increasing  pressure  of  engagements 
made  his  appearances  more  rare.  Occupying  the  chair 
at  one  of  the  last  of  these,  at  the  time  when  Sir 
Charles  Newton  had  just  been  made  K.C.B.  on  his 
retirement  from  the  British  Museum,  Leighton  paid  a 
characteristic  compliment  to  his  old  friend  by  spe- 
cially coupling  his  name  (contrary  to  all  regulation 
and  precedent)  with  one  of  the  standing  toasts  of  the 
Society, «  Grecian  Taste  and  Roman  Spirit.'  Other 
members  elected  during  the  same  period  (1860-88) 
who  were  professionally  connected  with  the  practice 
of  art  or  the  direction  of  art  collections  were 
Mr.  James  Fergusson,  the  learned  traveller,  architect, 
and  historian  of  architecture  ;  Sir  F.  W.  Burton, 
Director  of  the  National  Gallery,  who  was  appointed 
Painter  to  the  Society  when  Leighton  elected  to 
become  its  Sculptor ;  and  Mr.  Sidney  Colvin. 

During  the  same  period  there  came  in,  from  the  Art  collec- 
ranks  of  art  amateurs  and  collectors,  the  late  Earl  tors  and 
Somers,   the   late   Earl   of  Warwick,  Mr.   Brinsley  iaw/jr/J 
Marlay,  Sir   Coutts    Lindsay,  Mr.  Reginald   Choi-  gentry,  &.-.; 
mondeley,  Mr.  George  Howard  (now  Earl  of  Carlisle),  Bar  and 
Lord    Powerscourt,    Mr.    Stewart    Hodgson,    and  Bench' 
Mr.  Cyril  Flower  (now  Lord  Battersea) ;   from  those 
of    country   gentry   and    politicians,   Sir    Matthew 
White     Ridley,     M.P.,     father     of    the     present 

o  1 

196   History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

Home  Secretary,  Mr.  (now  the  Right  Hon.  Sir 
Richard)  Paget,  M.P.,  Mr.  Milnes  Gaskell,  and 
Sir  Robert  Cunliffe ;  from  the  army,  Colonel  (now- 
General  Sir  George)  Higginson;  from  diplomacy, 
Lord  Dalling  and  Lord  Lytton;  from  the  law, 
a  profession  hitherto  scantily  represented  in  the 
Society's  ranks,  a  strong  contingent,  including  Sir 
W.  F.  Pollock,  Sir  W.  J.  Farrer,  Mr.  George 
Venables,  QX.,  Mr.  Pember,  QX.,  Mr.  Charles 
Bowen  (afterwards  Lord  Bowen),  Mr.  Elton,  QJC, 
the  learned  antiquarian  and  historian  of  his  country's 
origins,  Sir  Robert  Collier  (afterwards  Lord  Monks- 
well),  almost  as  proficient  in  landscape-painting  as  he 
was  distinguished  at  the  bar  and  in  politics,  Sir  Horace 
Davey  (now  Lord  Davey),  and  Sir  Joseph  Chitty. 
Pollock,  Among  this  legal  group,  three  at  least  of  those 

Venables,  who  are  with  us  no  more  must  claim  from  their 
survivors  among  the  Dilettanti  a  special  tribute 
of  remembrance  and  regret.  Sir  Frederick  Pollock, 
who  filled  for  many  years  the  office  of  Queen's 
Remembrancer,  was  not  the  least  distinguished 
of  a  distinguished  family.  From  Cambridge  days 
and  always  an  attached,  friend  of  Tennyson,  of 
Edward  Fitzgerald,  of  James  Spedding,  and  of 
W.  H.  Thompson,  late  Master  of  Trinity,  he 
lived  all  his  life  in  intimate  relations  with  the 
best  spirits  of  his  time,  and  was  accustomed  to 
hear  pleasantries  of  his  own — attributed  often  to 
far  more  famous  wits — pass  current  in  familiar 
quotation.  He  was  one  of  the  most  instructed  of 
Dante  scholars,  as  his  exact  blank-verse  rendering 
of  the  Divine  Comedy  testifies,  and  as  editor  of  the 
Reminiscences  of  Macready  and  author  of  Personal 
Remembrances  has  left  some  interesting  impressions  of 
social  experience.     From  the  death  of  Sir  Edward 


History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti   197 

Ryan  in  1875-  until  a  few  months  before  his  own 
in  1888,  Pollock  served  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 
as  Secretary,  conducting  its  affairs  with  tact  and 
zeal,  and  keeping  up  its  forms  and  ceremonials 
with  the  due  mixture  of  solemnity  and  humour. 
Another  Cambridge  man,  of  a  few  years'  senior 
standing  to  Pollock,  was  George  Venables,  the  early 
and  life-long  friend  of  Thackeray,  and  reputed 
original  of  the  c  Stunning  Warrington  '  of  Pendennis. 
A  first-class  classic  of  the  famous  year  of  Lushington 
and  Thompson,  Venables  combined  with  successful 
parliamentary  practice  the  industry  and  versatility 
of  a  brilliant  journalist,  and  was  one  of  the  pillars 
of  the  Saturday  Review  throughout  its  best  days,  but 
never  by  acknowledged  authorship  sought  recognition 
for  his  remarkable  literary  powers.  His  vigorous  vein 
of  conversation  had  something  of  a  cynical  quality, 
which  imperfectly  disguised  the  native  kindliness  of 
his  heart.  These  two  passed  away  in  the  fullness  of 
age ;  while  Bowen,  a  greater  lawyer  belonging  to  the 
sister  University  and  to  a  younger  generation,  went 
prematurely,  but  lives,  as  the  wittiest  of  the  wise 
and  the  kindest  of  the  just,  in  the  affectionate 
remembrance  of  many  as  well  as  in  the  pages  of  one 
of  the  most  judicious  of  recent  biographies.  The 
Dilettanti  have  in  latter  years  had  among  them  no 
personality  more  remarkable  than  his,  with  his 
athletic  figure  and  countenance  boyish  to  the  end, 
and  the  serene  utterance  with  which  his  modest 
and  humorous,  but  none  the  less  weighty,  oracles 
were  delivered. 

Historical  and  classical  learning  were  in  the  same  Learning } 
days  represented  respectively  by  Lord  Acton  and  Pro-  the  c!vl1 
fessor  Jebb  \  the  Civil  Service,  of  which  Sir  Edward  Rw^J 
Ryan  was  himself  so  distinguished  a  member,  by  the  Diplomacy. 

198   History  of  the  Society  of  "Dilettanti 

Hon.  Edward  Twistleton  (Landor's  f  kind  and  accom- 

plisht  Twisleton '),  and  later  by  Sir  Reginald  Welby 

(nowLord  Welby),  and  the  Hon.  R.  H.  Meade;  politics, 

learning,  and  literature  in  combination  by  Sir  Mount- 

stuart  Grant-Duff;  travel  and  botanical  andgeographical 

science,  with  a  tincture  of  early  political  experience, 

by  Mr.  John  Ball,  F.R.S.     The  House  of  Lords  sent 

for  a  time  two  who  were  destined   to  be   among 

the  most  distinguished  of  its  members,  Lord  Rosebery 

and    Lord    Lansdowne.     The   United    States   were 

represented  by  two  successive  ambassadors,  Mr.  J.  R. 

Lowell  and  Mr.  Phelps,  the  former  also  a  famous 

man  of  letters :  both  of  these  were  among  the  most 

constant  and  welcome   attendants  of  the  Society's 

meetings,  and  a  letter  of  farewell  from  Mr.  Lowell 

is  among  the  more  treasured  of  its  recent  archives. 

New  anti-        Turning  now  to  such  activities  as  the  Dilettanti 

quarian        were  at  this  time  able  to  exercise  in  the  antiquarian 

^£r///*     field,  in  1 86 1   an  opportunity  presented  itself  for 

and  the        the  completion,  in  fulfilment  of  the  original  mten- 

Temple  of     tions  of  the  Society,  of  the  long-looked- for  fourth 

Teos.  volume  of  Ionian    Antiquities.     On  May   5-  of  that 

year  it  was  proposed  by  Mr.  Cockerell  and  resolved 

1  That  a  Committee  be  appointed  to  inquire  &  report  upon  the 
practicability  of  further  explorations  in  the  Temples  of  Teos, 
Branchidae  and  Priene,  and  that  the  Committee  do  consist  of 
Lord  Broughton,  Mr.  Thomas  Baring,  Mr.  Panizzi,  Mr.  Cockerell, 
Mr.  Penrose,  and  Mr.  Lloyd.5 

This  committee  met  on  June  tf,  and  considered 
a  proposition  from  Mr.  R.  P.  Pullan,  the  architect 
who  had  been  sent  out  by  the  Government  to  assist 
Mr.  Newton  at  Budrum,  to  visit  and  examine  the 
sites  of  Teos,  Branchidae,  and  Priene,  receiving  for 
four  months'  work  ^iyo,  or  for  six  months'  £200. 
The  committee  recommended  and   the  Society  re- 

History  of  the  Society  of  "Dilettanti   199 

solved  that  £*jo  should  be  advanced  to  Mr.  Pullan 
for  this  purpose,  and  that  instructions  should  be 
drawn  up  for  his  guidance.  The  committee  reported 
the  instructions  prepared  by  them  in  February,  1862; 
and  extracts  from  letters  addressed  to  Mr.  Lloyd  by 
Mr.  Pullan  were  read  at  the  next  meeting,  when 
£200  were  advanced  for  his  six  months'  work. 
Mr.  Pullan  had  arrived  in  Smyrna  in  August,  1861, 
and  had  visited  the  ancient  sites  of  the  Smintheum 
in  the  Troad,  Assos,  Ephesus,  Priene,  Magnesia  ad 
Maeandrum,  Heraclea,  and  other  cities.  It  was  then 
decided  that  Mr.  Pullan  should  be  authorized  to 
explore  the  temple  of  Bacchus  at  Teos  at  a  cost 
not  exceeding  .£yoo.  A  report  of  these  explora- 
tions was  presented  to  the  Society  at  their  meeting 
on  February  8,  1863,  when  it  was  resolved 

c  That  Mr.  Lloyd  &  Mr.  Penrose  be  requested  to  report  upon 
the  proposal  of  Mr.  Pullan  to  prepare  exact  reductions  &  drawings 
requisite  for  illustration  of  the  discoveries  on  the  scale  of  the 
Society's  previous  publications  and  suitable  for  engraving,  together 
with  whatever  notes  may  be  thought  desirable  to  accompany  the 
same,  and  to  state  which  would  be  the  best  mode  of  publishing 
the  same  and  what  would  be  the  cost  thereof/ 

On  February  7,  1864,  a  portfolio  of  Mr.  Pullan's 
drawings  was  placed  upon  the  table.  On  the  same 
date  Mr.  Lloyd  states  that  in  his  opinion  the  result  of 
the  enterprise  has  been  most  satisfactory,  inasmuch 
as  it  amounts  to  the  recovery  of  a  fine  Greek  design 
that  was  celebrated  in  antiquity,  and  proves  to  be 
both  beautiful  and  original,  and  that  it  must  take 
its  place  when  published  in  all  illustrations  of  the 
History  and  Theory  of  Greek  Architecture.  Mr. 
Pullan  also  brought  home  two  fragments  of  the 
sculptured  frieze  and  an  inscribed  stele,  which  were 
afterwards  presented  by  the  Society  to  the  British 
Museum.     Thanks  were  returned  to  Mr.  Crampton, 

xoo   History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

the  constructor  of  the  Smyrna  railway,  and  to  Vice- 
Consul  Bruce  for  assistance  given  during  these 
excavations.  In  1864  Mr.  Pullan's  candidature  for 
the  post  of  Vice-Consul  near  Smyrna  was  supported 
by  an  acknowledgement  of  his  services  to  the  Society 
of  Dilettanti. 
The  On  May  tf,  1  8tftf,  it  was  moved  by  Lord  Houghton 

Smintheum.    ancj  seconded  by  Sir  Charles  Nicholson 

c  That  Mr.  Pullan  be  invited  to  dine  with  the  Society  at  the 
meeting  in  June,  for  the  purpose  of  communicating  with  them  on 
the  proposed  excavations  of  the  Temples  of  Apollo  Smintheus  and 
of  Minerva  at  Priene ' — 

on  which  an  amendment  was   moved,  and  carried 

by  nine  to  three,  that 

c  It  is  contrary  to  the  custom  of  this  Society  to  invite  Strangers 
to  dinner  V 

The  services  of  Mr.  Pullan  were,  however,  again 
employed  by  the  Society,  and  he  was  dispatched 
to  Asia  Minor,  the  Foreign  Office  being  requested 
to  obtain  firmans  and  to  assist  Mr.  Pullan  in  his 
work.  £s00  was  Paid  to  Mr.  Pullan  for  his  work 
in  excavating  the  temple  of  Apollo  Smintheus  in 
the  Troad;  and  in  March,  1 868,  he  was  authorized 
to  prepare  drawings  similar  in  scale  and  style  to 
those  already  prepared  before  by  him  of  the  temple 
at  Teos.  In  the  report  on  their  proceedings,  the 
Publication  Committee  stated  that  though,  in  conse- 
quence of  the  great  destruction  of  the  marbles  of  the 
Smintheum,  the  data  for  its  restoration  are  not  so 
exact  or  so  complete  as  the  evidence  obtained  by 
Mr.  Pullan  on  the  site  of  the  temple  at  Teos,  still  the 
results  of  his  researches  in  the  Troad  are  a  valuable 
contribution  to  the  History  of  Greek  Architecture. 
Temple  of         As  the  materials  collected  at  Teos  and  the  Smin- 


1  But  see  page  6j  as  to  the  admission  of  J.  Russell,  R.A. 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti   xoi 

theum  did  not  seem  sufficient  to  compose  a  volume  on 
a  scale  with  the  previous  publications  of  the  Society, 
on  May  3,  1868,  a  further  proposal  was  made  with 
regard  to  a  renewed  examination  of  the  temple  of 
Athene  Polias  at  Priene,  Mr.  Pullan  being  present 
at  the  meeting.  It  was  shown  that  the  temple 
had  not  been  thoroughly  investigated  by  the  earlier 
missions  sent  out  by  the  Society.  After  some  dis- 
cussion at  this  and  the  next  meetings,  the  Society 
adopted  the  report  of  the  Committee — 

c  That  the  Secretary  was  authorized  to  accept  Mr.  Pullan's  offer 
of  making  a  complete  Survey  6c  of  carrying  out  the  Excavations 
at  Priene  on  the  same  system  as  was  adopted  at  Teos,  within 
a  year  from  the  present  date  and  for  the  sum  of  ^500/ 

This  work  was  completed  in  the  spring  of  1869, 
and  was  assisted  by  a  donation  of  ^200  from  an 
anonymous  lover  of  Art.  On  Mr.  Pullan's  return 
he  was  requested  to  prepare  drawings  similar  to 
those  made  for  the  temple  at  Teos  and  the  Smin- 
theum.  The  Society  were  also,  through  Mr.  Pullan's 
agency,  enabled  to  obtain  a  number  of  marbles  and 
inscriptions  from  Priene,  which  were  safely  conveyed 
to  England,  and  in  March,  1870,  presented  by  the 
Society  to  the  British  Museum.  From  a  report 
made  by  Mr.  Clarke  of  Sokoi,  who  visited  the  ruins 
at  Priene  and  had  assisted  Mr.  Pullan  throughout, 
great  destruction  took  place  at  the  temple  after 
Mr.  Pullan's  departure,  so  that  the  removal  of  these 
marbles  may  be  credited  to  the  Society  of  Dilettanti. 

In  May,  1870,  the  Publication  Committee,  which  c  Ionian 
then    consisted  of  Earl   Somers,   Lord    Houghton,  Antiquities  ty 
Mr.  Watkiss  Lloyd,  Mr.  Penrose,  Mr.    Cartwright,  v0'lv- 
Mr.  Frederic  Leighton,  R.A.,  and  Mr.  C.  T.  Newton, 
carefully   considered    the   drawings    made   by   Mr. 
Pullan,  and  other  details,  and  finally  recommended 

lox   History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

their  publication  in  a  style  worthy  of  the  earlier 
volumes  of  the  Ionian  Antiquities.  Mr.  Leighton 
further  offered  to  redraw  the  sculpture  or  some  of 
the  friezes,  and  Lord  Somers  to  prepare  the  land- 
scape illustrations.  Considerable  difficulties,  however, 
presented  themselves  to  the  Society.  They  had 
expended  nearly  all  their  available  funds  on  Mr. 
Pullan's  missions,  so  that  the  ordinary  funds  of  the 
Society  were  insufficient  to  defray  the  cost  of 
publication.  An  extra  subscription,  such  as  the 
former  Ionian  subscriptions,  was  unpalatable  to 
the  members,  and  likely  to  prove  injurious  to  the 
Society's  vitality.  The  state  of  the  engravers'  pro- 
fession in  England  at  this  date  rendered  it  difficult 
to  find  artists  as  excellent,  laborious,  and  accurate 
in  their  work  as  those  who  had  been  engaged  on 
the  previous  publications  of  the  Society.  Such 
work  was  only  to  be  obtained  in  France,  and  the 
convulsions  in  that  country,  ensuing  on  the  outbreak 
of  the  Franco-German  War  in  1870,  rendered  it 
impossible  to  place  any  work  with  security  for 
execution  in  Paris,  where  alone  at  that  date  could 
engravers  be  found  on  whom  reliance  could  be 
placed  for  accurate  and  intelligent  work. 
Time  and  In  July,  1 8  74,  the  Publication  Committee  presented 
mode  of  a  report,  in  which  thev  estimated  the  cost  of  pro- 
ducmg  one  hundred  copies  of  a  volume,  equal  in 
bulk  to  the  first  volume  of  the  Ionian  Antiquities, 
at  £810.  It  was  not  found  possible,  however,  to 
raise  the  necessary  funds,  so  on  April  4,  1875-,  a. 
special  minute  was  drawn  up,  printed  and  circulated 
among  the  members,  calling  their  attention  to  the 
danger  of  abandoning  the  publication  in  question, 
after  expending  nearly  £2,000  in  obtaining  the 
drawings  and  letterpress.     A  special  subscription  was 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  203 

therefore  invited,  and  Sir  Frederic  Leighton  was 
unremitting  in  his  efforts  to  secure  the  execution  of 
the  work  of  engraving  and  publication  in  a  manner 
consonant  with  the  honour  and  dignity  of  the 
Society,  and  at  the  same  time  at  the  most  reasonable 
expense.  Sufficient  response  was  made  to  this  appeal 
to  enable  the  work  in  question  to  be  put  in  hand,  and 
on  February  1,  1877,  it  was  announced  that  the  work 
had  been  entrusted  to  M.  le  Chevalier  Chevignard 
of  Paris,  and  had  actually  been  commenced.  In 
April,  1879, tne  Publication  Committee,  represented 
by  Mr.  James  Fergusson,  Mr.  Watkiss  Lloyd,  Mr. 
Knight  Watson,  Mr.  Penrose,  and  Sir  Frederick 
Pollock,  reported  to  the  Society  that  the  whole  of 
the  artistic  work  had  been  brought  to  completion  in 
Paris,  the  plates  having  been  engraved  by  M.  Pennei 
under  the  superintendence  of  M.  le  Chevalier  Chevi- 
gnard, and  that  the  letterpress  alone  remained  for 
completion.  Over  /tfoo  had  been  subscribed  by 
members  of  the  Society,  but  a  further  sum  was 
needed.  In  February,  1880, the  Committee  reported 
great  progress  with  the  completion  of  the  letterpress, 
and  that  negotiations  had  been  commenced  with 
Messrs.  Macmillan  &  Co.,  who  were  willing  to 
undertake  the  publication  of  the  work.  On  June 
28,  188 1,  the  Committee  were  enabled  to  announce 
that  the  work  had  been  completed  and  arrangements 
made  for  its  publication.  The  final  expenses  were 
assisted  by  a  generous  gift  from  Mr.  Ruskin,  and 
by  the  sale  of  the  remaining  stock  of  the  Society's 
previous  publications.  Each  member  received  a 
copy  gratis,  and  each  of  the  thirty  subscribers  to 
the  special  fund  a  second  copy,  if  applied  for ; 
additional  copies  were  to  be  supplied  to  future 
members   at   two   guineas,   and   the    price    to    the 

104-  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

'  Athenian 
ture? nevj 

general  public  through  Messrs.  Macmillan  &  Co. 
to  be  three  and  a  half  guineas.  Copies  were 
presented  to  the  Royal  Institution,  in  whose  rooms 
the  Publication  Committee  had  been  allowed  to 
meet,  the  Institut  des  Beaux  Arts  at  Paris,  the 
French  and  German  Schools  of  Archaeology  at 
Athens,  the  Istituto  di  Corrispondenza  Archeologica 
at  Rome,  and  the  Department  of  Antiquities  in  the 
British  Museum.  Also  to  Mr.  Ruskin,  Baron  Heath 
the  younger,  M.  le  Chevalier  Chevignard,  Mr.  Clarke 
of  Sokoi  near  Smyrna  (who  had  presented  ,to  the 
Society  a  valuable  coin  of  Orofernes,  King  of 
Cappadocia,  found  on  the  site  at  Priene),  to  Mr. 
Falkener,  architect,  who  had  prepared  a  careful 
plan  of  the  site  of  the  temple  at  Priene,  to  Mr. 
Pullan,  and  to  M.  Waddington  of  Paris. 

In  June,  1883,  it  was  proposed  to  reprint  Mr. 
Penrose's  treatise  on  The  Principles  of  Athenian 
Architecture^  and  Mr.  Penrose  undertook  to  revisit 
Athens  in  order  to  obtain  fresh  material.  In 
addition  to  the  new  Theory  of  Proportion  advanced 
by  Mr.  Watkiss  Lloyd  and  adopted  by  Mr.  Penrose, 
successive  visits  of  Mr.  Penrose  to  Athens  produced 
so  much  fresh  material  for  the  revision  of  the  work 
that  it  was  not  until  May,  1887,  that  the  Publication 
Committee  were  in  a  position  to  report  to  the  Society 
that  Messrs.  Macmillan  had  the  material  in  hand  for 
publication,  and  to  invite  fresh  special  subscriptions 
to  defray  the  expense  of  the  work.  This  was 
readily  responded  to,  and  Mr.  Penrose  was  able 
to  lay  a  specimen  copy  of  the  new  edition  of  his 
work  on  the  table  at  the  meeting  of  the  Society  on 
July  1,  1888,  although  it  was  some  time  before  the 
Society's  account  with  Messrs.  Macmillan  for  the 
expenses  of  publication  could  be  defrayed. 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti   205- 

While  engaged  on  the  two  publications  in  question,  Appeals 
the  Society  found  it  impossible  to  respond  to  various  from. 
appeals  made  to  their  generosity  in  furtherance  of  9tmi9rf. 
schemes  in  which  they  took  a  deep   and   genuine  Temple  of 
interest.      One   of  these,  which   seriously  engaged  Ephesusi 
the  attention  of  the  Society,  was  the  important  and  ?jK! 
valuable  series  of  excavations  carried  out  by  Mr.  Athens. 
J.  Turtle  Wood  on  the  site  of  the  temple  of  Diana 
at  Ephesus  in  1869-72.    In  the  latter  year  the  Pub- 
lication Committee  circulated  a  report  on  this  subject, 
but  in  view  of  the  limited  resources  of  the  Society 
they  were  unable  to  do  more  than  address  a  memorial 
to  Her  Majesty's  Government  in  favour  of  a  further 
resumption    and    support    of   Mr.    Wood's    work. 
Another   important   scheme,   the   origin   of   which 
may  fairly  be  attributed  to  the   past  influence  of 
the  work   done  by  the  Society  of  Dilettanti,  was 
the  establishment  of  the  British  School  of  Archaeo- 
logy at  Athens  in  1883.     On  July  1  of  that  year 
the  Secretary  reported   that   he   had  been  invited 
to  attend  the  meeting  held  at  Marlborough  House, 
under  the  Presidency  of  the  Prince  of  Wales,  on 
June  2J-,  to  promote  the  establishment  of  a  British 
School  of  Art  and  Archaeology  at  Athens,  and  it 
was  resolved 

'That  the  Society  cordially  welcomes  the  announcement  of 
a  scheme  for  a  permanent  institution  on  the  soil  of  Greece  for 
the  promotion  of  objects  so  entirely  in  harmony  with  the  best 
work  and  traditions  of  the  Dilettanti  Society.' 

In  June,  1885",  in  response  to  an  appeal  from  the 
British  School  at  Athens  for  the  assistance  of  the 
Dilettanti  Society,  the  Society  was  compelled  to 

c  That  the  Secretary  be  desired  to  express,  in  reply,  the  deep 
interest  taken  by  the  members  of  the  Dilettanti  Society  in  the 
success  of  the  new  institution  of  the  British  School  of  Archaeology 

zo6   History  of  the  Society  of  "Dilettanti 

at  Athens,  in  promoting  the  same  objects  as  those  for  which  the 
Dilettanti  Society  has  so  long  been  at  work,  and  their  regret, 
that  for  the  present  they  are  unable  to  undertake  to  offer  any 
pecuniary  support,  the  funds  at  their  disposal  being  required  for 
the  preparation  of  the  new  edition  of  Mr.  Penrose's  Athenian 
Architecture^  upon  which  the  Society  is  now  engaged.' 

changes  and  The  new  edition,  therefore,  of  Mr.  Penrose's  work 
removals  remains  the  last  work  which,  in  this  id  3rd  year  of 
the  Society's  existence,  it  has  been  able  to  carry 
through.  The  years  succeeding  its  publication  have 
been  years  of  unsettlement  and  change,  both  in 
regard  to  the  officers  having  charge  of  the  Society's 
affairs  and  to  the  places  appointed  for  its  meeting. 
In  the  spring  of  1888  Sir  Frederick  Pollock  was 
disabled  by  ill  health,  and  died  about  Christmas 
in  the  same  year;  Mr.  Watkiss  Lloyd  officiating 
temporarily  as  Secretary  and  Treasurer  in  his  place 
until  March,  1889,  when  tne  Earl  of  Strafford  was 
formally  elected  to  those  offices.  Resigning  in 
February,  1891,  Lord  Strafford  was  succeeded  by 
Mr.  Sidney  Colvin,  who  held  the  double  office  alone 
until  March,  1893,  and  afterwards  in  conjunction  with 
Mr.  E.  H.  Pember,  Q^C .,  until  February,  1 8  96  ;  when 
Mr.  Colvin  resigned,  and  Lord  Welby  was  appointed 
joint  Secretary  and  Treasurer  with  Mr.  Pember.  At 
the  beginning  of  these  changes,  in  1889,  the  well- 
known  establishment  known  as  c Willis's  Rooms' 
was  closed,  the  building  soon  afterwards  changing 
ownership,  as  above  narrated ;  and  the  Dilettanti 
were  obliged  to  look  for  quarters  elsewhere.  In 
February,  1 8  9  o,  their  meeting  was  held  at  Limmers' 
Hotel,  and  subsequently  for  upwards  of  three 
years  they  met  at  the  Grand  Hotel.  Various 
places  of  meeting  were  suggested,  Sir  Charles  Newton 
generously  offering  the  use  of  his  house  in  Montague 
Place,  Bloomsbury.     The  pictures  belonging  to  the 

History  of  the  Society  of  "Dilettanti   207 

Society  were,  with  the  exception  of  the  two  great 
groups  by  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds,  deposited  under  the 
care  of  one  of  the  members,  Sir  William  J.  Farrer, 
at  66  Lincoln's  Inn  Fields,  W.C.  At  last  the  erection 
of  the  new  Grafton  Galleries  in  Grafton  Street, 
Bond  Street,  afforded  the  Dilettanti  exactly  the  home 
which  they  required,  a  large  banqueting-room,  con- 
venient both  for  their  meetings  and  the  display  of 
their  pictures,  having  been  constructed  in  that 
building.  It  was  unanimously  decided  to  make  of 
this  their  new  home,  and  all  the  portraits  belonging 
to  the  Society  were  hung  there,  including  the  two 
groups  by  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds ;  a  special  vote  of 
thanks  being  passed  to  the  trustees  of  the  National 
Gallery  for  the  care  which  they  had  taken  of 

Meanwhile  the  flow  of  new  members  has  continued  New 
as  usual.  In  1889  was  elected  M.  Waddington,  "■*»« 
the  Ambassador  of  France,  who  had  been  a  Rugby 
and  Cambridge  scholar  before  he  elected  to  adopt 
the  French  nationality,  and  was  in  later  life  a  master 
of  archaeological  and  numismatic  science ;  as  well  as 
Lord  Savile,  an  English  diplomatist  who  revived 
the  traditions  of  the  eighteenth  century  by  his  love 
of  art  and  antiquities,  and  his  prosecution  of 
excavations  on  Italian  soil.  In  the  same  and  the 
next  following  years  the  public  service  sent  Mr. 
Spencer  Walpole,  Sir  Ralph  Thompson,  Sir  Nigel 
Kingscote,  Sir  Colin  Scott  Moncrietf",  Sir  Charles 
Fremantle,  and  Lord  Loch ;  the  British  Museum 
furnished  two  new  representatives  in  the  persons  of 
its  chief,  Sir  E.  M.  Thompson,  and  one  of  its  family 
trustees,  Mr.  George  Cavendish  Bentinck ;  the  Bench 
and  Bar  contributed  Sir  Francis  Jeune,  Mr.  Under- 
down,  Q£.,  and  Mr.  Darling,  Q^C.,  now  Judge ;  the 

io8   History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

and  resolu- 


Army,  Sir  Francis  Grenfell ;  the  Navy,  Sir  Anthony 
Hoskins ;  the  House  of  Commons,  Sir  Stafford 
Northcote;  Sir  F.  W.  Burton  was  succeeded  as 
Painter  to  the  Society  by  Sir  E.  J.  Poynter,  P.R.A., 
and  from  the  ranks  of  amateur  artists  and  art-lovers 
came  Mr.  Heseltine  and  Mr.  Arthur  Lucas ;  while 
airs  from  the  Alps,  the  Caucasus,  and  the  Himalayas 
were  brought  by  two  distinguished  mountaineers 
and  explorers  who  are  also  lovers  and  students 
of  art,  Sir  Martin  Conway  and  Mr.  Douglas  Fresh- 

The  state  of  their  income  and  the  uncertainty  of 
their  future  have  prevented  the  Dilettanti  during 
these  last  years  from  doing  any  active  work.  In 
July,  1 89 1,  a  proposal  was  made  to  raise  a  fund  to 
aid  the  work  of  archaeological  research  at  Salamis, 
in  the  island  of  Cyprus,  but  without  success. 
In  May,  1 891,  Mr.  Penrose  reported  to  the  Society 
the  result  of  further  investigations  made  by  him  at 
Athens,  especially  in  regard  to  the  ancient  Heca- 
tompedon;  and  in  1896  the  Society  displayed  a  proper 
solicitude  as  to  the  effect  of  a  somewhat  alarming 
earthquake  at  Athens.  In  1894  the  Dilettanti  took 
a  prominent  part  in  opposing  the  scheme  for 
effecting  the  barrage  of  the  river  Nile  at  Philae. 
In  the  same  year  the  Secretary  was  instructed,  in 
the  name  of  the  Society,  to  sign  the  memorial  to 
the  Government  of  India  on  behalf  of  the  better 
preservation  of  the  ancient  buildings  and  historic 
monuments  of  India.  In  June,  1895-,  the  Society 
added  what  support  they  could  to  a  renewed 
appeal,  destined  this  time  to  be  successful,  for  State 
assistance  to  the  British  School  at  Athens. 

Such  has  been  the  past  history  of  the  Society  of 
Dilettanti,  and  such  is  its  present  position.     In  any 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti   209 

speculations  as  to  its  future,  regard  must  be  had  to  conditions  of 
the  greatly  changed  conditions  under  which  the  archaeol°gi- 
work  of  archaeological  research  is  now  carried  on,  ea  y' 
as  compared  with  those  which  prevailed  in  the  days 
when  the  Dilettanti  were  its  first  pioneers.  Foreign 
nations,  especially  the  German,  in  course  of  time 
took  up  the  cause  of  classical  archaeology,  and 
carried  on  the  scientific  and  speculative  parts  of 
the  pursuit,  if  not  its  practical  and  exploratory 
parts,  with  more  system  and  more  enthusiasm  than 
the  English.  Partly  the  posthumous  fame  of 
Winckelmann  (who  died  in  1768),  partly  the 
attractions  of  the  Eternal  City  itself,  together 
with  its  importance  as  a  diplomatic  centre,  caused 
Rome  to  become  the  seat  of  a  learned  and  culti- 
vated cosmopolitan  society,  the  members  of  which 
devoted  themselves  enthusiastically  to  the  revival  of 
the  classic  past  in  the  light  of  antiquarian  research. 
This  state  of  things  continued  through  the  last 
quarter  of  the  past  and  during  a  great  part  of  the 
present  century.  Winckelmann's  immediate  suc- 
cessors, and  the  continuators  of  his  work  at  Rome, 
were  the  Italian  Ennio  Quirino  Visconti  and  the 
Dane  Zoega,  soon  after  whose  death  appeared 
another  Dane,  the  afore-mentioned  Chevalier  Brond- 
sted.  From  among  the  group  who  in  1811-12, 
with  the  young  Cockerell  in  their  company,  ex- 
plored the  temples  of  Aegina  and  Bassae — Stackel- 
berg,  Haller,  and  Kestner — several  took  up  their 
residence  for  some  time  at  Rome,  and  the  last 
named  for  many  years  held  there  the  diplomatic 
post  of  Hanoverian  representative.  The  kingdom 
of  Prussia  was  represented  at  the  Vatican  by  three 
great  scholars  and  historians  successively,  Wilhelm 
von   Humboldt,  Niebuhr,  and    Bunsen,  and   about 

no  History  of  the  Society  of  "Dilettanti 

these  the  learned  men  of  their  country  gathered. 
Welcker,  Gerhard,  and  Panofka  were  among  the 
more  famous  German  scholars  the  greater  part  of 
whose  life-work  was  done  at  Rome.  At  the  same 
time  the  illustrious  Bockh  was  strenuously  con- 
tending on  behalf  of  a  comprehensive  or  encyclo- 
paedic method  in  the  study  of  the  classic  past, 
which  should  give  the  researches  of  the  archaeologist 
and  the  epigrapher  their  place  beside  those  of  the 
literary  critic,  the  philologist,  and  the  historian. 
The  result  of  his  teaching  was  shown  in  the  con- 
ception of  classical  learning  formed  by  such  men 
as  Carl  Otfried  Muller — cut  off  too  soon  in  the 
first  ardour  of  his  researches  on  Greek  soil — and 
a  whole  generation  of  scholars  of  similar  aim 
and  breadth  of  grasp.  In  the  second  and  third 
quarters  of  the  present  century  Graeco-Roman 
archaeology  and  art  history  had  become  recognized 
and  vital  branches  of  teaching  in  all  the  great 
Universities  of  Germany.  Notwithstanding  the 
fruitful  initiative  of  the  English  Dilettanti,  and 
the  acknowledged  success  of  their  practical  ex- 
plorations and  publications,  no  such  recognition 
was  for  many  years  obtained  for  those  studies  in 
England.  With  very  rare  exceptions,  such  as 
that  of  Rose  in  the  early  and  Donaldson  in  the 
middle  years  of  the  century,  the  attention  of  our 
great  University  scholars  was  for  the  most  part 
rigidly  confined  to  literary  materials,  and  to  textual 
and  philological  criticism.  While  every  German 
University  of  note  had  its  active  and  often  brilliant 
school  or  classical  archaeology,  the  subject  was  to 
all  intents  and  purposes  ignored  in  the  curriculum 
and  the  class-lists  at  Oxford  and  Cambridge.  The 
only  academical  recognition  which  it  obtained  was 


History  of  the  Society  of  "Dilettanti   xn 

the  foundation,  in  185-1,  of  a  meagrely  paid  chair 
of  general  archaeology  at  Cambridge  through  the 
gift  of  Mr.  Disney. 

Throughout  this  period — say  roughly  18  30-1 880  Decline  of 
— the  Dilettanti  and  the  British  Museum  were  the  clasfica} 

.  ...  i-i  11     1  1  1      enthusiasm 

only  two  institutions  which  practically  kept  the  study  in  England. 
alive  in  this  country ;  and  even  among  the  former  the 
old  zeal  had  to  a  great  extent  abated.  The  fashion 
of  forming  private  cabinets  of  antiques  in  town  or 
country  houses  had,  as  already  noted,  passed  away, 
and  those  collectors  who  from  time  to  time  joined 
the  ranks  of  the  Society  were  almost  exclusively 
collectors  of  pictures.  A  wave,  moreover,  of  Gothic 
enthusiasm  had  succeeded  the  preceding  wave  of 
classical  enthusiasm  among  the  most  cultivated  circles 
in  England.  The  influence  of  Pugin  and  his 
followers,  the  influence  of  Ruskin  and  the  Prae- 
Raphaelites,  told  against  the  taste  for  Greek  and 
Roman  art.  Again,  among  persons  really  interested 
in  antiquarian  explorations,  the  brilliant  discoveries 
of  Sir  Henry  Layard  and  his  coadjutors  on  the  sites 
of  the  ancient  Assyrian  civilization  served  for  a  while 
to  divert  attention  from  Greece  and  Rome.  Amidst 
this  general  indifference  of  academic  and  cultivated 
circles,  the  few  Englishmen  who  kept  the  torch  of 
classical  archaeology  alight  felt  themselves  for  many 
years  to  be  working  in  isolation  and  with  scant 
encouragement.  Such  work  as  the  Dilettanti,  cor- 
porately  or  in  the  person  of  individual  members, 
succeeded  amid  this  general  indifference  in  doing 
for  the  cause,  under  the  regime  of  Hamilton, 
Ryan,  and  Pollock,  has  been  above  narrated. 

Meantime    the    exertions    of   Bunsen,    Gerhard,  The 
Kestner,  and  their  friends  and  fellow-enthusiasts  of  ^rcbaeo- 
various    nationalities   at   Rome,  had   succeeded   in   0&ca 

P    z 

xix   History  of  the  Society  of  'Dilettanti 

Institute  of 
Rome ; 
schools  at 

Revival  of 
the  study  in 
but  in 

founding  and  maintaining  the  famous  Archaeological 
Institute  in  that  city.  Since  1839,  tne  Year  °^  lt$ 
foundation,  that  institute  has  remained  the  chief 
centre  for  the  study  and  publication  of  the  monu- 
ments of  the  classier  past.  It  has  had  fluctuating 
fortunes,  first  as  a  cosmopolitan  society  supported 
entirely  by  the  subscriptions  of  its  members,  then 
for  a  considerable  period  assisted  by  a  subvention 
from  the  Prussian  Government,  and  lastly,  since  the 
war  of  1 870-7 1,  as  a  German  imperial  establishment ; 
and  has  supplied  training  and  opportunity  of  study 
to  generations  of  European  scholars.  Other  schools 
of  classical  study  have  since  been  founded  on  the 
soil  of  Greece  itself:  the  French  school  of  Athens  in 
1 847 — those  of  other  countries  much  more  recently ; 
the  German,  as  a  branch  of  the  Archaeological 
Institute,  soon  after  the  Franco-German  War ;  then 
the  American ;  and  last  of  all,  through  private  effort 
powerfully  supported  by  the  Prince  of  Wales,  the 

For  it  happened  about  twenty  to  fifteen  years  ago, 
in  the  early  eighties,  that  a  change  came  over  the 
spirit  of  English  academical  scholarship.  Partly 
from  a  growing  knowledge  of  the  value  of  the  work 
done  by  continental  and  especially  German  archae- 
ologists, partly  through  the  efforts  and  the  example 
of  individual  scholars,  among  whom  Newton  stood 
far  the  foremost,  the  claims  of  classical  archaeology 
and  the  history  of  art  to  their  place  among  the  other 
classical  disciplines  began  at  last  to  be  adequately 
recognized  in  this  country.  The  admission  of  the 
study  among  the  several  branches  of  the  highest 
classical  honour  examination  at  Cambridge;  the 
establishment  at  the  same  University  of  an  adequate 
museum   of  casts    and   an    archaeological    library, 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti   213 

followed  by  a  similar  provision  on  a  more  ex- 
tended scale  at  Oxford  j  the  foundation  of  pro- 
fessorships or  readerships  in  the  study  at  both 
Universities ;  the  formation  and  prosperity  of  the 
Society  for  the  Promotion  of  Hellenic  Studies ; 
and  finally  the  establishment  by  private  effort  and 
initiative  of  an  English  school  at  Athens ; — all 
these  have  been  the  signs  and  evidences  of  that 
change  of  spirit  to  which  we  have  referred.  At 
the  opening  of  the  Cambridge  Museum  of  Classical 
Archaeology  in  1884,  Sir  Charles  Newton,  whose 
career  had  been  to  some  extent  clouded  by  his  sense 
of  isolation  among  the  English  scholars  of  his  own  race 
and  generation,  uttered  in  welcome  of  such  evidences 
a  touching  Nunc  Dlmittis^  which  those  who  heard  it 
are  not  likely  to  have  forgotten.  The  consequence 
is  that  the  study  of  classical  art  and  antiquity  at  this 
moment  stands  in  one  sense  in  a  more  flourishing 
position  in  this  country  than  it  has  ever  occupied 
before.  But  the  new  phase  upon  which  the  study 
has  now  entered  is  essentially  different  from  that 
through  which  it  was  passing  in  the  days  when  the 
Dilettanti  took  the  chief  part  in  promoting  it. 
Classical  art  and  antiquities  were  then  a  matter  of 
more  or  less  amateur  interest  to  every  leisured  and 
cultivated  gentleman.  Now  they  are  so  no  longer, 
but  have  become,  on  the  other  hand,  a  matter  of 
special  study  and  research  to  a  not  inconsiderable 
number  of  well-trained  scholars,  both  men  and 
women.  The  new  societies  and  institutions  for 
classical  research,  whether  continental  or  English, 
have  each  their  separate  journal  or  organ  of 
publication,  in  which  the  progress  of  work  and 
discovery  is  recorded  in  a  constantly  increasing 
number  of  special  essays  and  memoirs,  and  illustrated 

xi4   History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

at  relatively  small  expense  by  one  or  other  of  the 
various  modern  means  of  mechanical  reproduction. 
At  the  same  time  greater  and  more  varied  resources 
are  forthcoming  than  ever  before  for  the  work  of 
excavation  and  discovery.  The  German  Government 
with  its  great  undertaking  at  Olympia,  the  French 
with  theirs  at  Delos  and  at  Delphi,  the  Archaeo- 
logical Society  of  Athens  with  its  fruitful  industry 
in  the  city  and  neighbourhood,  the  American  school, 
and  lastly  our  own  school,  which  is  the  youngest 
of  all,  and  whose  resources  have  most  need  of  rein- 
forcement, have  all  been  diligently  at  work  on  Greek 
soil  j  the  foreign  institutions  disinterestedly  so  far  as 
concerns  the  acquisition  of  the  objects  found,  since 
export  is  forbidden  by  the  new  laws  both  of  Greece 
and  Turkey,  but  with  none  the  less  gain  to  know- 
Part  taken,  Under  these  circumstances  and  amidst  these 
orto  be  ,  altered  conditions,  it  is  hardly  to  be  supposed  that 
Dilettanti. *  tne  Society  of  Dilettanti  can  maintain  or  assume 
again  its  old  lead  along  its  old  lines.  Our  narrative 
has  shown,  indeed,  that  the  progress  of  all  these 
changes  has  by  no  means  found  it  idle  or  left  it  in 
the  cold.  When  the  Archaeological  Institute  was 
founded  on  cosmopolitan  principles  at  Rome,  the 
secretary  of  its  English  section  was  W.  R.  Hamilton, 
the  Secretary  also  of  the  Dilettanti  Society.  When, 
nearly  half  a  century  later,  a  British  school  was  at  last 
established  afc  Athens,  the  initiative  was  largely 
due  to  a  famous  scholar  who  is  also  a  member  of 
the  Dilettanti,  Professor  Jebb ;  moreover,  the  first 
director  fbi  the  school  was  found  in  the  person  of 
the  father  of  the  Dilettanti,  Mr.  Penrose.  The  good 
work  done  by'  the  Society  for  so  many  years  was 
amply    acknowledged    by   one   of  the    leaders    of 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti   215- 

classical  archaeology  in  Germany,  Professor  Michaelis 
of  Strassburg,  in  the  monumental  volume  on  English 
private  collections  of  antiques  which  he  published 
in  1 8  8  2  1.  In  that  volume,  as  well  as  in  a  series 
of  separate  papers2,  Professor  Michaelis  told  as 
much  of  the  history  of  the  Dilettanti  as  could  be 
gathered  from  the  historical  evidences  and  notices 
of  its  activity  without  access  to  its  private  archives. 

At  the  present  juncture  of  the  Society's  history,  it  conclusion. 
has  seemed  to  the  members  desirable  that  a  fuller 
record  of  its  past,  alike  from  the  social  and  personal 
and  from  the  antiquarian  and  working  points  of 
view,  should  be  drawn  up  from  these  archives,  for 
the  information  primarily  of  members,  and  in  the 
second  place  of  so  many  of  the  general  public  as  may 
be  found  to  take  an  interest  in  the  subject.  The 
present  narrative  is  the  result  of  this  decision.  Let 
it  close  with  the  ancient  toast  of  the  Society — esto 
praeclara,  esto  perpetua  :  an  aspiration  which  will 
probably  be  fulfilled  or  otherwise  in  proportion 
as  the  Society  may  find  a  way,  under  the  altered 
conditions  above  described,  to  persevere  in  pursuit 
of  the  ideals  expressed  in  two  other  of  its  traditional 
mottoes,  seria  ludo  and  Grecian  taste  and  roman 

1  Ancient  Marbles  in  Great  Britain^  described  by  Adolf  Michaelis. 
Translated  from  the  German  by  C.  A.  M.  Fennel],  M.A.  Cam- 
bridge :  University  Press,  1882. 

2  Zeitschrift  fur  bildende  Kun ft y  vol.  xiv. 


Portraits  of  members:  George  Kjiapton — Institution  of 
face-money — Kjiaptorts  resignation — J.  Stuart  as 
Painter  to  the  Society — Stuart  superseded  in  favour 
of  Reynolds — The  two  great  portrait -groups — 
Nathaniel  Dance — Various  resolutions  as  to  portraits 
— Death  of  Reynolds  j  Lawrence  chosen  successor — 
Motion  as  to  portrait  of  Sir  J.  Banks — The 
'Reynolds  groups:  steps  for  their  preservation — 
The  groups  engraved  in  mezzotint — Portrait  of 
Payne  tonight — Lawrence  on  the  question  of  fresh 
portrait-groups — Portraits  and  face-money:  various 
orders — Portraits  of  Lord  Dundas  and  Benjamin  West 
— Lawrence  succeeded  by  Shee — Portrait  of  Morritt 
— Inquiries  into  state  of  pictures — Shee  succeeded 
by  Eastlake — Proposed  series  of  engravings — Ap- 
plications for  loan  of  pictures:  Manchester,  South 
Kensington,  National  Gallery y&c. — Eastlake  succeeded 
by  Leighton — Portraits  of  Lord  Broughton  and  Sir 
Edward  J^yan — Successive  Painters  to  the  Society: 
Sir  F.  W.  Burton  and  Sir  Edward  Poynter — 
Further  loans  of  pictures — Last  portraits:  Mr.  Watkiss 
Lloyd,  Lord  Leigh  ton,  Mr.  Sidney  Colvin. 

Portraits  of  *|^  T  O  history  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  would 
members :  X^  foQ  complete  without  some  descriptive  notice 
Knapton.  ^     of  the  interesting  collection  which  it  pos- 

sesses of  portraits  of  members  from  its  foundation 
to  the  present  day.  On  January  4,  174I,  it  was 
ordered  (as  already  quoted,  p.  64.) 

'  That  every  member  of  the  Society  do  make  a  present  of  his 
Picture  in  Oil  Colours  drawn  by  Mr.  Geo.  Knapton,  a  member,  to 
be  hung  up  in  the  Room  where  the  said  Society  meets.' 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    W] 

Mr.  Knapton,  a  painter  both  in  oils  and  crayons  of 
some  merit,  is  best  known  to  posterity  through  his 
part  in  preparing,  from  various  sources,  the  drawings 
from  which  Houbraken  produced  the  famous  series 
of  engravings  published  in  Birch's  British  Worthies. 
In  early  life  he  had  resided  for  some  time  in 
Italy,  whence  he  sent  home  an  account  of  the  then 
newly  discovered  remains  of  Herculaneum.  He  was 
an  original  member  of  the  Dilettanti,  and  was 
appointed  Painter  to  the  Society.  The  order  above 
quoted  was  at  once  responded  to  by  some  of  the 
original  members.  It  is  in  accordance  with  a  taste 
in  portraiture  common  in  the  previous  generation, 
and  not  yet  extinct  at  the  date  of  this  order — it 
is  also  in  keeping  with  the  festive  and  jocose  nature 
of  the  Society's  proceedings — that  the  early  por- 
traits of  its  members  are  all  in  fancy  dress,  with 
accessories  of  a  more  or  less  emblematical  character. 
In  1 74 1  Knapton  painted  the  portraits  of  Sir 
James  Gray,  the  Earl  of  Middlesex,  Mr.  Howe,  and 
Lord  Hyde.  These  gentlemen  are,  as  all  those 
painted  by  Knapton  in  this  series,  shown  in  life  size 
to  the  waist.  Sir  James  Gray  is  represented  as 
Don  Quixote  de  la  Mancha  j  Middlesex  as  a  Roman 
consul  returning  from  a  campaign ;  Mr.  Howe, 
perhaps  as  a  magician,  pours  wine  from  a  vessel 
shaped  as  a  terrestrial  globe  ;  Lord  Hyde  holds 
a  large  glass  inscribed  res  publica.  In  1742 
Knapton  painted  Sir  Francis  Dashwood,  Mr.  Harris, 
and  Sir  Brownlow  Sherard.  Dashwood  is  repre- 
sented as  one  of  the  sham  Franciscan  friars  of 
Medmenham  Abbey,  holding  a  goblet  inscribed 
matri  sanctorum,  in  an  attitude  of  devotion  before 
a  figure  of  the  Venus  de'  Medici ;  the  picture,  the 
motive  of  which  is  both  indecorous  and  profane,  is 

xi8   History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

of  face- 

inscribed  san  Francesco  de  wycombo.  A  somewhat 
similar  portrait  of  Dash  wood  has  been  engraved 
as  from  a  painting  by  Hogarth.  Mr.  Harris,  the 
first  Treasurer  of  the  Society,  holds  in  his  hands  the 
first  list  of  subscriptions  towards  erecting  or  pro- 
curing a  house  for  the  more  honourable  and 
commodious  reception  of  the  Society,  signed  Thomas 
Watson,  President,  with  the  names  of  the  subscribers 
and  the  date  Anno-Non.  Soc.  March  7,1741.  Sir  Brown- 
low  Sherard,  in  a  green  gown  and  grey  cloak,  has 
no  very  defined  accessories.  In  1743  Knapton's 
series  was  continued  by  the  portraits  of  Mr. 
Ponsonby,  Mr.  Fauquier,  Mr.  Sewallis  Shirley,  and 
Lord  Galway.  Mr.  Ponsonby  (afterwards  Earl  of 
Bessborough)  is  represented  in  oriental  costume, 
to  denote  his  having  travelled  in  the  East ;  Mr. 
Fauquier  appears  as  a  musician  with  an  immense 
black  tie ;  Sewallis  Shirley  holds  the  lid  of  a 
casket,  inscribed  et  vivatj  Lord  Galway  is  repre- 
sented as  a  cardinal.  In  1744  followed  the  por- 
traits of  Colonel  Denny,  as  a  Roman  standard- 
bearer  5  Major- General  Gray,  as  Secretary  to  the 
Society,  writing  in  the  red  morocco  minute-book  on  a 
page  inscribed  Soc.  Dec.  ;  Mr.  Savage  in  masquerade 
costume;  and  Sir  Bourchier  Wrey  with  a  punch- 
bowl, on  which  is  the  inscription  dulce  est  desipere 
in  loco.  All  of  these  portraits  are  in  kitcat  size  to 
the  waist. 

On  February  3,  174^,  it  was 

'Ordered  nemine  contradicente  that  every  member  of  the 
Society  who  has  not  had  his  Picture  painted  by  Mr.  Knapton, 
by  the  meeting  in  February  next  year,  shall  pay  One  Guinea 
per  Annum  till  his  Picture  be  deliver'd  to  the  Society,  unless 
Mr.  Knapton  declares  that  it  was  owing  to  his  want  of  time  to 
finish  the  same.' 

This  annual  payment  became  known  as '  face-money,' 

History  of  the  Society  of  "Dilettanti   xi9 

and  soon  became  a  regular  annual  subscription, 
the  custom  of  paying  it  in  lieu  of  having  a  por- 
trait painted  being  continued  up  to  the  year  1809. 
An  attempt  to  abolish  the  tax  as  oppressive  was  made 
in  178 1,  but  failed.  Face-money  was  escaped  in 
174.5-  by  Viscount  Barrington,  Sir  John  Rawdon 
(afterwards  Earl  of  Moira),  and  the  Earl  of  Sandwich, 
who  all  three  sat  to  Knapton  in  that  year.  Bar- 
rington  appears  in  classical  costume  with  a  dagger 
and  a  spear,  Rawdon  in  furred  robe,  and  Sandwich 
in  oriental  costume,  with  rapt  gaze  fixed  upon  his 
wine-glass.  In  1747  the  Duke  of  Bedford,  who 
had  twice  been  mulcted  for  face-money,  was  painted 
in  scarlet  uniform  with  the  Order  of  the  Garter ; 
and  in  the  same  year  the  Earl  of  Blessington, 
playing  a  guitar.  In  1748  Mr.  Brand,  who  had 
paid  face-money  twice,  was  painted  by  Knapton ; 
and  in  1749  tne  ^ar^  °^  Holdernesse,  who  paid 
face-money  once,  was  also  painted  by  Knapton, 
appearing  as  a  gondolier,  in  allusion  to  his  services 
as  British  Envoy  to  the  Signory  of  Venice.  One 
portrait,  that  of  Baron  Hochberg  (or  Hohberg), 
who  was  painted  by  Knapton  as  a  flute-player, 
bears  no  date.  Among  the  earliest  members  to  pay 
face-money,  whose  portraits  were  never  painted,  were 
Mr.  Boyle,  Mr.  Bristow,  Mr.  Colebrooke,  Mr.  Boone, 
the  Duke  of  Kingston,  Mr.  Welbore  Ellis,  Mr. 
Archer,  Mr.  Norborne  Berkeley,  Mr.  Ross  Mackye, 
Sir  Henry  Liddell,  and  Sir  Henry  Calthorpe. 

On  February  tf,  1763,  it  was  ordered  Knapton' s 

c  That  Mr.  Knapton  having  signified  his  Resignation  of  the  resknatton- 
office  of  Painter  to  the  Society,  the  said  Resignation  be  accepted/ 

Mr.  Knapton  was  then  about  sixty-five  years  of  age. 
At  the  same  time  it  is  recorded  that 

c  A  motion  being  made  and  the  Question  being  put  that  James 

xio   History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

Stuart  Esq.  F.R.S.,  F.S.A.,  be  appointed  Painter  to  the  Society 
in  the  room  of  Mr.  Knapton,  with  the  usual  Sallary.  It  passed  in 
the  affirmative  nem.  con.' 

J.  stuart  as      James   Stuart,  although   he   had   practised   as    a 
Pamter  to     painter,   was   better   known   for   his   work   in    the 
oaey.    £ej^  o£  Greek  archaeology,  as  recorded  above  in 
Chapter  IV.     On  May  i,  1763,  it  was  ordered 

'That  Mr.  Dawkins  be  requested  to  sit  for  his  Picture  to 
Mr.  Stuart  the  Painter  of  the  Society  at  their  expense,' 

and  also  that 

'  Mr.  Dawkins  be  desired  to  Permit  the  Picture  of  his  Brother 
to  be  Copy'd  by  the  Painter  of  the  Society.' 

These  orders  were  never  carried  out,  for  in  April, 
1766)  it  was  ordered 

'That  the  Secretary  be  desired  to  speak  to  Mr.  Stewart  the 
present  Painter  of  the  Society  to  know  if  He  will  undertake  to 
paint  the  Portraits  of  such  Members  who  have  not  already  given 
their  Pictures  to  the  Society,  and  to  Report  his  answer  at  the 
next  meeting ;  and  to  acquaint  Mr.  Stewart  that  if  he  declines  it, 
the  Society  will  give  leave  to  the  members  to  present  their 
Pictures  painted  by  any  other  Painter,  or  pay  a  guinea  a  year  to 
the  General  Fund  for  the  article  of  Face-Money.' 

At  the  next  meeting  in  May,  17  66, 

c  Mr.  Stewart,  the  Painter  of  the  Society,  being  present  declared 
that  He  was  ready  to  Paint  the  Portraits  of  those  members  that 
chose  to  sett  to  him.' 

It  was  also  on  this  date  ordered  afresh  that 

c  All  such  Members  as  have  not  their  Pictures  finish'd  by  the 
meeting  in  Febr.  next  do  pay  one  guinea  to  the  General  Fund 
and  that  they  continue  to  pay  the  same  annualy  until  they  present 
the  Pictures  to  the  Society,' 

and  also  that 

'The  Painter  of  the  Society  be  desired  to  Paint  the  pictures 
of  Mr.  Harry  Dawkins  &  to  copy  the  picture  of  the  late  Mr. 
James  Dawkins  as  ruled  in  the  meeting  in  May,  Ann.  Soc.  Trigm0.' 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  xxi 

No  result  was,  however,  obtained  from  Mr.  Stuart. 
Either  he  could  not,  or  would  not,  paint  the  portraits 
in  question,  or  the  members  would  not  sit  to  him,  for 
on  December  7,  1766,  it  was  ordered 

c  That  the  names  of  those  Members  who  have  been  already 
painted  be  wrote  on  their  Respective  Pictures  to  be  referred  to 
the  Committee/ 

On  January  17,  1768,  it  was  ordered 

£  That  the  officient  Secretary  do  write  the  following  Letter  to 
Mr.  Stewart,  Painter  to  the  Society  : — 

'  S*,  at  the  next  meeting  of  the  Society  viz*.  7th  Feb*,  when 
the  Tax  is  to  be  paid  by  the  Members,  whose  pictures  have  not 
been  painted,  You  are  desired  by  the  Society  to  give  an  account 
by  letter  of  the  pictures  of  the  two  Mr.  Dawkins's  of  which  you 
was  ordered  to  paint  in  May  1763,  as  yet  painted,  with  any  very 
forwardness,  in  order  that  the  Members  may  judge  whether  they 
shall  sett  to  you  or  any  other  Painter  for  their  Pictures.' 

Nothing,  however,  in  the  way  of  portraits  could  be  stuart  super- 
extracted  from  Stuart,  so  on  his  declining  to  comply  seded  in 
with   the  demand    of  the  Society,  they  in  March,  f"vour°f 
1769,  declared  Mr.  (afterwards  Sir  Joshua)  Reynolds 
to  be  Painter  to  the  Society.     The  Society,  however, 
tried  to  get  Stuart  at  least  to  paint  his  own  por- 
trait, for  in  December,  1776,  it  was  ordered 

c  Mr.  Stewart  to  pay  the  forfeit  if  he  does  not  present  his  Picture 
to  the  Society  before  this  day  six  months/ 

The  portrait  was,  however,  never  painted.  Rey- 
nolds was  proposed  by  Lord  Charlemont,  and  elected 
a  member  of  the  Society  in  May,  1766.  There 
is  no  record  of  his  having  paid  face-money,  so 
that  it  is  very  probable  that  he  presented  his  own 
portrait  on  becoming  a  member  of  the  Society,  as  the 
portrait  is  dated  in  that  year. 

In  January,  1777,  Lord  Carmarthen,  Lord  Sea-  The  two 
forth,  Mr.  G.  Pitt,  and  Mr.  Banks  great  por- 

c  Agreed  to  set   for  their  Pictures    to  Sir  Jos.  Reynolds  for  the 

xxx   History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

Dilettanti  Soc.  either  separately  or  in  a  group,  the  size  to  be  at 
Sir  Jos.  Reynolds'  option/ 

There  is  no  record  in  the  minute-books  of  the 
Society  of  the  decision  come  to  by  the  painter  to 
paint  the  members  of  the  Society,  who  were  willing 
to  sit,  in  two  groups,  the  next  mention  being  in 
December,  1778,  when  it  was  ordered 

c  That  the  Secretary  do  write  to  the  Painter  of  the  Society  to 
attend  the  next  meeting  to  shew  cause  why  he  should  not  be 
punish'd  for  having  neglected  so  long  to  finish  the  two  groups 
which  he  undertook  to  do  and  several  members  to  suffer  to  be  done/ 

In  the  account-books  of  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds  for 
this  period  the  names  occur  as  sitters  of  the  various 
persons  represented  in  the  two  groups,  and  the 
pictures  were  completed  in  1779.  On  January  26, 
178  3,  it  was  recorded  that 

cThe  Sec.  having  produced  a  Bill  delivered  to  him  by  the 
executors  of  Mr.  Vials  deceased  for  Frames  of  the  Groups  painted 
by  Sr  Joshua  Reynolds  &  presented  to  this  Soc.  amounting  to 
£<\n.  2s  od.  Resolved  that  as  no  instance  occurs  in  the  Records  of 
the  Dill.  Soc.  of  their  paying  for  Frames  of  Pictures  presented  to 
them  the  gentlemen  subjects  of  the  said  groups  do  pay  for  the 
Frames  &  that  the  executors  of  the  said  Mr.  Thos.  Vials  be 
referred  to  Sr  Joshua  Reynolds  Painter  to  the  Soc.  by  whose  order 
the  Frames  was  made,  whose  duty  it  is  to  collect  the  requisite 
money  for  the  said  gentlemen  &  pay  it  to  them,  etc.  etc.1 ' 

1  The  bill  in  question  is  interesting  and  is  as  follows  : — 
The  Hon.  Gentlemen  of  the  Dilettanti  Society's  Bill  to  the 
Executors  of  the  Late  Mr.  Viall,  Carver. 

1780,  March  12 — To  two  large  (bold)  burnished  gold 
frames,  carved  with  antique  eggs,  ribbon  and 
water  leaf  outside,  with  a  scrolling  fluted  frett, 
rich  ornament  tops,  with  shield  and  palm 
branches,  for   pictures   painted    by  Sir  Joshua 

Reynolds 4.2 

To  self  and  three  men  to  fix  up  the  two  pictures 
over  the  chimnies  .  .... 

£    t.    J. 

£42     8     o 


Group   of  Members     of 
THE     SOCIETY    OF    DILETTANTI,     1779 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti   xxg 

These  two  well-known  groups  are  among  the  most 
remarkable  works  of  England's  great  portrait- 
painter,  being  characterized  not  only  by  skilful 
grouping,  but  by  the  most  vivacious  and  character- 
istic portraiture.  In  each  group  seven  members  of 
the  Dilettanti  are  represented  seated  at  the  festive 
board,  and  to  the  joviality  of  the  scene  are  added 
the  distinctive  signs  of  connoisseurship  in  virtu. 
In  one  group  the  members  represented  are  Sir 
Watkin  Williams-Wynn,  Bart.,  Mr.  Smyth  of 
Heath  (elected  in  177  s\  Sir  John  Taylor,  Bart.,  Mr. 
W.  Spencer-Stanhope,  Mr.  Stephen  Payne-Gallwey, 
Mr.  Richard  Thompson  (elected  in  1776),  and 
Sir  William  Hamilton,  K.B.  (elected  in  1777).  Sir 
William  Hamilton  is  seated  at  the  table  with  a 
Greek  vase  and  open  volume,  and  the  others  are 
grouped  round  him  drinking  wine.  In  the  other 
group  appear  the  Earl  of  Seaforth  (elected  in  1741), 
Mr.  Crowle  and  Mr.  Thomas  Dundas  (elected  in  1 764), 
Sir  Joseph  Banks,  the  Marquess  of  Carmarthen,  the 
Hon.  Charles  Greville,  and  Lord  Mulgrave  (all  elected 
in  1774  or  tne  following  year).  The  charge  to  each 
of  these  gentlemen  was  £3  ?  each,  as  appears  from  an 
application  made  in  January,  1790,  by  Mr.  Thomas 
Grenville,  on  behalf  of  Lady  Wynn,  for  leave  to  have 
a  copy  made  of  the  portrait  of  the  late  Sir  Watkin 
Williams-Wynn  in  the  group,  which  was  granted, 
but  the  painter  was  ordered  not  to  remove  the 
group  till  he  was  ready  to  begin  his  copy,  or 
keep  it  after  the  copy  was  finished,  because  it 
cost  245-  guineas.  On  March  2,  1777,  it  was 

'That  the  Portraits  belonging  to  the  Society  be  cleaned  and  the 
Frames  new  gilt,  and  that  Sr  J.  Reynolds  be  desired  to  appoint 
a  proper  Person  or  Persons  to  do  the  same.' 

224  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 


as  to  por- 

In  February,  1777,  Mr.  Nathaniel  Dance,  R.A. 
(afterwards  Sir  N.  Dance-Holland,  Bart.),  was  elected 
a  member.  It  has  rarely  been  the  custom  of  the 
Society  to  elect  more  than  one  professional  painter 
as  a  member,  but  Mr.  Dance  had  in  1776  retired 
from  professional  life  on  inheriting  a  fortune.  In 
March,  1777,  it  was  ordered 

c  That  Mr.  Dance  have  permission  to  present  the  Society  with 
his  own  Picture  painted  by  Himself,  Sir  J.  Reynolds  Painter  to  the 
Society  having  waved  His  right  to  paint  the  same.' 

On  May  2,  1782, 

cMr.  Dance,  who  was  elected  in  Feb.  1777,  having  asked 
a  further  indulgence  in  regard  to  his  Picture  the  Soc.  ordered  that 
he  be  excused  the  payment  of  his  face-money  till  the  first  meeting 
of  the  next  year  when  if  he  does  not  deliver  it  to  the  Soc.  the 
utmost  rigor  of  the  law  is  to  be  inflicted  upon  him.' 

The  portrait  was,  however,  not   completed   at   the 
time  of  Dance's  abdication  in  1784. 

It  was  some  years  before  another  portrait  was 
added  to  the  collection,  although  attempts  were 
made  to  obtain  more  portraits  by  Sir  Joshua 
Reynolds.     In  March,  1785-,  the  Society  agreed 

'  To  return  to  Lord  Wentworth  the  guinea,  which  he  has  this 
day  paid  as  face -money,  provided  he  does  before  the  next  call 
present  to  them  his  Lordship's  picture  painted  by  one  of  the  liege 
painters  of  the  Society.' 

The  portrait  was  never  received.     In  May,  1 7  8  7,  it 
was  ordered 

'That  no  picture  be  in  future  removed  fiom  the  meeting-room 
of  the  Society  without  an  order  First  obtained  by  the  vote  of 
a  regular  Meeting  thereof,  and  that  the  Painter  of  the  Society  be 
required  to  repair  the  Damages  the  Group  of  his  Painting  has 
suffered  in  consequence  of  being  removed  from  thence  by  his  order 
signified  in  writing  to  Mr.  Hunt,  and  entrusted  into  the  possession 
of  an  engraver,  &  that  a  copy  of  this  order  be  sent  to  the  Painter.' 

In  March,  1788,  the  Duke  of  Norfolk  gave  notice 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti   zzy 

that  he  intended  to  be  painted  for  the  Society  in 
a  group  j  Mr.  Knight  and  Mr.  Townley  volunteered 
to  accompany  his  Grace.  All  agreed  that  the 
numbers  admitted  should  not  exceed  five.  The 
group,  however,  was  never  accomplished,  so  busy 
a  painter  as  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds  having  probably 
no  longer  any  time  to  spare  for  a  work  on  this  scale. 

Sir   Joshua   Reynolds,   President   of   the    Royal  Death  of 
Academy,  died  in  1792.     On  April  1  it  is  recorded  Reynolds; 

*V-*  La<wrence 

that  chosen 

cMr.  Lawrence  Proposed  by  Mr.  Knight  &  seconded  by  Sr  Jos.  successor. 
Banks   as  Painter  to  the   Society  in   the   Room  of  our  worthy 
member  Deceased  Sr  Joshua  Reynolds  was  put  to  the  BalJot  & 
elected  unanimously. 

'Mr.  Lawrence  Painter  to  the  Society  was  then  Proposed  as 
a  member  thereof  by  Mr.  Knight  &  seconded  by  the  Duke  of 
Norfolk— Elected/ 

In  April,  1793,  a  motion  was  made  and  seconded    Motion  as  to 

'  That  the  Sec.  do  set  for  his  Picture  for  &  at  the  expense  of  portrait  of 

the  Soc'  Str  J- 

5  Banks. 

which  was  carried,  and 

'That  a  sum  not  exceeding  70  guineas  be  expended  in  the  said 

In  response  to  this  request  to  Sir  Joseph  Banks,  at 
the  following  meeting  in  May, 

'  At  the  Particular  request  of  the  Sec.  who  tho'  gratefull  in  the 
highest  degree  for  the  honor  intended  him  express'd  the  utmost 
possible  disinclination  to  every  kind  of  alienation  of  the  General 
Fund  from  the  purposes  to  which  it  has  originally  been  destined, 
&  in  consideration  of  the  Society  being  already  in  Possession  of 
a  Picture  of  him  painted  by  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds,  the  resolution 
of  the  last  meeting  by  which  £70  was  ordered  to  be  disbursed  for 
another  Picture  of  him  out  of  the  General  Fund  was  tho* 
reluctantly  unanimously  rescinded.' 

In  March,  1805-,  the  state  of  the  two  great  groups  The 
by  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds  was  found  to   be   rather  Reynolds 
bad,  and  Mr.  West,  P.R.A.,  having  inspected  them  irouPs:  stePs 

z%6   History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

for  their  by  request,  reported  that  they  were  in  a  state  of 
preserva-  decay,  menacing  ruin,  and  that  they  required  im- 
mediate care  for  their  preservation.  A  committee, 
consisting  of  Mr.  West,  Mr.  Lawrence,  Mr.  Dundas, 
Mr.  Henry  Hope,  Mr.  Thomas  Hope,  Lord  North- 
wick,  and  Sir  Henry  Englefield,  was  appointed  to 
inspect  the  pictures  and  report  at  the  next  meeting 
of  the  Society.  A  few  days  later  West,  Lawrence, 
and  Englefield  inspected  the  pictures,  and  reported 
that  no  time  should  be  lost  in  repairing  them,  as 
not  only  many  parts  were  peeled,  but  many  square 
inches  now  adhering  to  the  canvas  were  in  a  blistered 
state,  and  could  be  detached  by  a  slight  shake 
given  to  the  pictures.  Mr.  West  recommended  the 
employment  of  a  Mr.  Milles  to  repair  the  pictures 
without  removing  them  from  Parslow's  Tavern. 
The  Society,  however,  did  not  take  any  action  in 
the  matter.  In  June,  1810,  another  committee, 
consisting  of  the  Duke  of  Somerset,  Lord  Dundas, 
Earl  Cowper,  Lord  Morpeth,  Lord  Selsey,  Mr. 
Metcalfe,  Mr.  Mitford,  Mr.  Williams,  Mr.  Hope, 
Mr.  Morritt,  Mr.  Knight,  Dr.  Burney,  Mr.  Dawkins, 
Sir  J.  Coxe  Hippisley,  and  Sir  Henry  Englefield, 
resolved,  if  necessary,  to  put  the  two  groups  into 
the  hands  of  Mr.  William  Conyers,  of  Great  Coram 
Street,  for  repair.  Mr.  Conyers,  however,  reported 
that  in  their  bad  condition  relining  would  be  im- 
possible, and  would  only  make  them  worse.  It  was 
ordered  in  January,  18  n,  that  the  pictures  should 
be  delivered  to  Mr.  Conyers  for  repair ;  but  this 
does  not  appear  to  have  been  done,  for  the  pictures 
were  still  at  Parslow's  Tavern  in  the  following 
February,  and  were  finally  left  there  until  the  Society 
transferred  its  quarters  to  the  Thatched  House 
Tavern.     In   April,    18  u,  the   following  members 

Group  of   Members    of 
THE      SOCIETY     OF    DILETTANTI,    1779 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  2x7 

were  appointed  a  Committee  of  Painting  to  inspect 
and  remove  the  pictures  belonging  to  the  Society, 
viz.  the  Earl  of  Hardwicke  and  Lord  Selsey,  Mr. 
Thomas  Hope,  Mr.  West,  Mr.  Lawrence,  Mr.  Wilkins, 
and  the  Secretary.  In  May,  18 12,  this  Committee 
was  empowered  to  consult  with  Mr.  Rising  as  to  the 
state  of  the  two  groups. 

Meanwhile  a  scheme  had  been  proposed  for  The  groups 
preserving  the  pictures  by  engravings,  and  on  engraved  in 
May  17,  18 12,  Mr.  Lawrence  reported  that  Mr.  ******* 
Turner  and  Mr.  Say  were  severally  ready  to  execute 
plates  in  mezzotint  from  the  two  groups  by  Sir 
Joshua  Reynolds  belonging  to  the  Society,  the  size 
of  the  plates  to  be  23  inches  by  1  d,  and  the  plates 
to  be  the  absolute  property  of  the  Society,  at  the 
price  of  25-0  guineas  each.  It  was  resolved  that  it 
was  the  opinion  of  the  Committee  that  the  pictures 
should  be  delivered  to  Mr.  Turner  and  Mr.  Say 
without  delay  for  the  purpose  of  engraving.  It 
does  not  appear  that  the  pictures  were  at  once 
delivered  over  to  the  engravers,  for  in  January, 
18 1 3,  the  Society  consented  to  lend  the  pictures 
in  their  possession  by  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds  to  the 
British  Institution  for  an  exhibition  of  that  painter's 
works.  It  was  not  until  March,  18 17,  that  the 
Secretary  informed  the  Society  that  the  plates 
would  be  soon  finished  and  the  pictures  returned, 
and  that  finished  proofs  were  laid  before  the 
Society.  It  was  then  ordered  by  the  Society  that 
the  two  pictures  before  being  returned  should  be 
placed  in  the  hands  of  Mr.  Bigg  for  cleaning, 
which  was  done  at  a  cost  of  sixty  guineas.  In  April, 
1 8  21,  the  two  plates  were  finally  finished,  and  after 
some  attempts  to  place  them  in  a  dealer's  hands,  the 
Society  decided  to  print  300  copies,  100  on  India 

xx8  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

Portrait  of 



on  the 
question  of 

paper  for  the  use  of  the  Society,  and  200  to  be 
disposed  of  to  the  advantage  of  the  Society,  and 
the  plates  then  to  be  destroyed.  Each  member  was 
to  receive  a  copy,  and  also  the  representatives  of 
the  members  portrayed  in  the  groups.  Members 
were  to  be  permitted  to  purchase  additional  copies, 
not  exceeding  three,  at  thirty  shillings  each.  Proofs 
of  each  group  were  presented  to  the  Fitzwilliam 
Museum  at  Cambridge  in  May,  1822,  and  to  the 
National  Gallery. 

The  next  portrait  acquired  by  the  Society  was 
that  of  Mr.  Richard  Payne  Knight,  who  paid  face- 
money  for  the  last  time  in  1805-,  and  presented  his 
portrait  painted  by  Lawrence  in  the  same  year. 

The  idea,  however,  of  a  further  commemoration 
of  the  Society  by  a  great  group  of  portraits  was 
again  renewed  in  1807,  and  a  proposal  made  to 
Mr.  Lawrence  upon  the  subject,  in  reference  to  which 
he  addressed  the  following  letter  to  the  Secretary : — 

gm  Greek  Street,  March  ?,  1809. 

I  take  the  liberty  of  addressing  you  on  the  subject  of  the 
pictures  which  many  of  the  Members  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 
appointed  me  to  paint  for  them. 

The  pleasure  of  being  so  honourably  distinguished  by  them,  and 
of  being  employed  upon  a  work  of  magnitude,  made  me  at  the 
time  regardless  of  the  disadvantages  necessarily  attending  the 
execution  of  so  large  a  picture  composed  entirely  of  portraits. 
These,  however,  appeared  on  reflection  to  present  so  many 
obstacles  to  the  completion  of  a  work  that  should  do  justice  to 
the  liberal  intention  of  my  employers,  that  on  communicating 
them  to  my  earliest  friends  in  the  Society,  it  was  determined  to 
propose  for  the  consideration  of  the  subscribing  Members  the 
substituting  in  the  place  of  that  picture  an  historical  composition, 
appropriate  in  its  subject  to  the  first  views  of  the  Institution. 
This  proposal  was  accordingly  mentioned  to  the  Society  by  the 
gentlemen  to  whose  friendship  I  am  indebted  for  my  introduction 
to  it.  The  adoption  of  this  measure,  should  it  meet  the  con- 
currence of  its  Members,  must  still  entirely  depend  on  the 
approbation  of  such  committee  as  might  be  appointed   to  form 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  zxy 

some  judgment  of  the  work,  from  a  sketch  submitted  to  their 
inspection ;  and  this  I  have  not  yet  been  enabled  to  prepare. 

The  gentlemen  I  have  consulted  on  this  occasion  are  acquainted 
that  the  number  of  my  present  engagements  compels  me  to 
decline  any  new  commissions. 

The  early  claim,  however,  of  the  Members  of  this  Society 
forms  an  exception  to  this  rule,  and  I  shall  therefore  be  proud  and 
happy  to  exert  the  utmost  efforts  of  my  pencil  on  any  single 
portraits  they  may  command  me  to  paint  for  them,  at  the  fixed 
price  given  me  for  my  labours  when  the  picture  above  mentioned 
was  first  ordered. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  &c, 

Thomas  Lawrence. 

On  the  above  date,  when  this  letter  was  written  Portraits 
and  read,  it  was  ordered  that  a  committee  do  meet  *ndface- 
on  Sunday,  March  20,  for  considering  the  business  J[JJ2w 
of  portraits,  and  that  the  same  be  an  open  com-  orders. 
mittee,  and  that  all  who  attend  have  voices.     The 
committee  resolved  that  the  Treasurer  should  not 
collect  any  face-money  due  from  members  previous 
to  March,  1809,  but   that  after   that  date  the  tax 
should  be  exacted  as  before  '.     On  May  17,  1 812,  at 
an  open  committee  of  the  Society,  Lord  Dundas  in 
the  chair,  it  was  resolved 

£  That  the  Secretary  [Sir  Henry  C.  Englefield]  is  commanded, 
with  all  possible  expedition,  to  put  his  face  into  the  most  picturesque 
order  in  his  power,  and  as  soon  as  he  shall  have  succeeded  in  this 
great  and  difficult  work,  to  present  himself  to  Mr.  Lawrence,  the 
Painter  to  the  Society,  to  the  end  that  a  Portrait  of  the  said 
Secretary  be  painted  with  all  speed  by  him  for  the  use  of  the  Society. 

'  N.B. — The  Father  of  the  Society  ordered  that,  instead  of  the 
word  use,  the  word  ornament  be  inserted  in  the  Motion — Ordered 
nem.  con/ 

The  portrait  of  Englefield  was  completed  by  Law- 
rence, and  bears  the  date  of  18 12.  At  the  same 
meeting  in  May,  1812,  it  was  resolved  also 

1  It  does  not  appear  that  face-money  was  collected  after  this  date, 
although  there  seems  to  be  no  minute  recording  the  actual  abolition 
of  the  tax. 

xgo  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

'That  the  Painter  to  the  Society  be  requested  and  enjoined 
forthwith  to  paint,  for  the  ornament  of  the  Society,  his  own 

This  command,  however,  also  remained  unfulfilled, 
as  was  also  the  order  on  June  75  1 8 1 2, 

cThat  the  Duke  of  Norfolk  be  requested  to  present  to  the 
Society  without  delay  his  portrait  by  the  Painter  to  the  Society, 
in  the  robes  of  Arch-Master  of  the  Ceremonies/ 

A  similar  want  of  success   attended  the  order  of 
the  Society  on  February  tf,  1814, 

'That  the  Secretary  do  direct  Mr.  Lawrence,  Painter  to  the 
Society,  forthwith  to  paint  the  picture  of  Mr.  Gell  at  the  expense 
of  the  Society,  and  that  the  picture,  when  finished,  be  hung  up  in 
the  room  of  the  Society/ 

Portraits  of       The  Society  was  more  fortunate  in  June,  1817, 
Lord  when  it  was  resolved 

Dundas  and 

Benjamin  'That  the   Secretary  do  write   to  Sir  Thomas  Lawrence  re- 

West.  questing  him  to  finish  the  picture  of  our  venerable  father,  Lord 

Dundas,  if  possible  previous  to  the  next  meeting/ 

This  picture  was  completed  by  Sir  Thomas  Lawrence 
in  the  same  year.  In  18  21,  after  the  death  of  Lord 
Dundas,  permission  was  given  to  the  second  Lord 
Dundas  to  have  an  engraving  taken  of  it,  and  in  1822 
Sir  Robert  Dundas  was  allowed  to  have  a  copy  of 
it  made  by  Sir  Thomas  Lawrence.  Lord  Dundas 
had  figured  previously  in  one  of  the  groups  painted 
by  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds  in  1778,  nearly  forty  years 
before.  On  April  26,  1818,  Mr.  Benjamin  West, 
P.R.A.,  presented  a  portrait  he  had  just  painted  of 
himself.  He  had  been  elected  an  ordinary  member 
in  1792,  and  addressed  a  letter  to  the  Secretary  as 
follows : — 

Dear  Sir, 

Having  the  honour  of  being  a  Member  of  the  Society  of 
Dilettanti,  and  in  conformity  to  one  of  its  laws,  which  renders 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  231 

it   necessary  for  every  one  who  claims  that  distinction  to  send 

a  portrait  of  himself  to  be  therein  deposited,  I  shall  think  myself 

highly  flattered   by  the  noblemen   and  gentlemen,  who   are  its 

members,  accepting  the  one  painted  by  myself  as  President  of 

the  Royal  Academy  of  Arts  in  London,  and  which  I  trust  will  be 

honoured  by  their  approbation. 

I  shall  take  care  that  the  picture  is  properly  framed,  before  it  is 

placed  in  the  collection ;  and,  as  I  have  been  solicited  for  two 

portraits  of  myself,  one  to  be  placed  in  the  Capitol  at  Rome,  and 

the  other  in  the  Gallery  at  Florence,  I  shall  be  obliged  to  you 

to  make  known  to  the  Members  of  the  Society  my  request  for  the 

indulgence  of  painting  the  two  pictures  from  the  one  I  now  have 

the  honour  of  sending  them,  which  I  hope  to  do  in  the  course  of 

next   summer,  after  which  the  portrait  shall  be  restored  to  the 

Society  of  Dilettanti.     Be  so  good  to  make  my  best  respects  to  its 

Members.  _, 

Benjamin  West. 

The  unanimous  thanks  of  the  Society  were  voted 
to  Mr.  West  upon  the  same  day.  Mr.  West  abdi- 
cated in  1 8 19,  on  account  of  increasing  age  and 
infirmity,  but  was  desired  to  remain  a  honorary 
member.  He  died  in  1820,  and  was  succeeded  in 
the  Presidency  of  the  Royal  Academy  by  Sir 
Thomas  Lawrence. 

In  May,  1822,  another  attempt  was  made  to  secure  Laiurence 
a  portrait  of  Sir  Thomas  Lawrence,  who  had  now  succeeded  by 
become  Secretary  to  the  Society,  he  being,  on  the        ' 
motion  of  Mr.  Wilkins,  directed 

6  To  obey  the  commands  formerly  issued  to  him  as  their  Painter 
to  paint  his  own  Portrait  for  the  Society,  additionally  ordering 
him  to  paint  it  in  the  Secretary's  dress/ 

This  command,  however,  like  the  previous  one, 
remained  unfulfilled.  Sir  Thomas  Lawrence,  P.R.A., 
died  in  1829,  and  was  succeeded  as  President  of  the 
Royal  Academy  by  Sir  Martin  Archer  Shee,  R.A., 
who  also  succeeded  him  as  Painter  to  the  Society  of 
Dilettanti,  of  which  he  was  elected  a  member  in 
July,  1830. 

xgx  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

Portrait  of        On  May  i,  1 8  3 1,  it  was  resolved 

cThat  Sir  Martin  Archer  Shee,  Pres.  R.A.,  be  commanded  by 
the  Society  to  paint  the  Portrait  of  Mr.  Morritt,  Arch-Master  of 
the  Ceremonies  to  this  Society,  in  the  long  crimson  taffety- 
tasselled  robe  of  that  great  and  most  respectable  officer,  and  that 
a  copy  of  this  Resolution  be  forwarded  by  the  Secretary  to 
Sir  M.  A.  Shee  for  his  information  and  guidance/ 

Sir  Martin  Shee  faithfully  obeyed  these  instruc- 
tions, and  completed  the  portrait,  a  very  fine  and 
characteristic  one,  in  1832.  The  Society  had  in- 
tended to  defray  the  cost  of  the  portrait,  for  which 
Sir  M.  A.  Shee  at  first  declined  payment,  out  of  the 
General  Fund ;  but  Mr.  Morritt  himself  insisted 
upon  paying  the  painter,  in  which  the  Society,  not 
choosing  to  decline  his  generosity,  somewhat  re- 
luctantly acquiesced.  It  was  ordered  that  the 
portrait  of  Mr.  Morritt  should  be  engraved  in 
mezzotint,  but  this  order  was  never  carried  out,  and 
the  picture,  which  is  one  of  the  finest  Shee  ever 
painted,  is  reproduced  for  the  first  time  in  the  present 
volume  (p.  146). 
inquiries  In    1 8 39    the    state   of  the   two   groups    by   Sir 

into  state  of  Joshua  Reynolds  again  called  for  attention,  and 
pictures.  in  consequence  of  the  report  of  Sir  M.  A.  Shee, 
the  Society  decided  in  February,  1840,  to  place 
them  in  the  hands  of  Mr.  Seguier,  the  picture- 
restorer  then  most  in  vogue,  for  repair.  They 
remained  in  Mr.  Seguier's  custody  during  1841  and 
1842,  while  the  quarters  of  the  Society  were  trans- 
ferred to  the  premises  occupied  by  the  Albion 
Club,  and  were  returned  in  February,  1842.  In 
May,  185-0,  the  state  of  one  of  the  aforesaid  groups 
again  gave  cause  for  anxiety,  and  it  was  decided 
in  February,  185*1,  that  the  two  pictures  should 
be  protected  by  plate  glass. 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  xgg 

Sir    Martin    Archer    Shee,   P.R.A.,   resigned   his  shee 
membership  of  the  Society  in  July,  1845-.     He  was  succeeded  by 
succeeded   in   the   Presidency    of  the    Royal   Aca-  East    tm 
demy  by  Sir  Charles  Lock  Eastlake,  who  was  also 
elected   to   be   a   member   of  the  Society,  and  its 
official  Painter,  in  June,  1848.     In  1860  a  further 
inquiry  was   made    into   the    state  of  the  pictures, 
and  the  whole  collection  was  entrusted  in  this  and 
the  following  years  to  Mr.  John  Dujardin,  junior, 
by   whom   they  were   relined,   covered    with    plate 
glass,    and    the    frames    regilt,    prior    to    the    re- 
arrangement and  rehanging  of  the  portraits  in  the 
Society's  new  room  at  Willis's  Rooms  in  King  Street, 
St.  James's. 

In  1 8  f  5-  a  project    was  started   for   reproducing  Proposed 
by   some   process   of  engraving  the  whole  of  the  series  °f 
Society's  collection  of  portraits.     Sir  Richard  West-  **&***&• 
macott,  R.A.,  communicated  with  Mr.  George  Scharf, 
junior   (afterwards   Director  of  the   National  Por- 
trait Gallery),  and  received  from  him  an  estimate 
of  the  cost  of  engraving  the  thirty-one   portraits 
in    question   on   wood.      The    cost,   however,    was 
probably   the    reason   which   deterred   the    Society 
from  proceeding  in  the  matter. 

In   February,  i8j7,  an  application  was  received  Applications 
from  Mr.  Peter  Cunningham,  the  manager  of  the  f°lj0a" '■? 
Historical  Section  of  the  great  Exhibition  of  Art  Manchester, 
Treasures  at   Manchester   in  that  year,  requesting  South 
the  loan  of  the  portraits  belonging  to  the  Society  **»***&*** 

c         !_■•  i_-i_-    •  i  r  °     °  ,  J    National 

for  this  exhibition ;  but,  after  some  correspondence,  Gallery,  &c. 
the  Society  declined  to  accede  to  this  request. 
In  April,  1867,  the  Society  agreed  to  lend  the 
whole  collection  of  portraits  (except  that  of  Lord 
Broughton,  not  yet  received)  to  the  National 
Exhibition  of  Portraits,  held  at  South  Kensington, 

134-  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

in  1 868,  on  condition  of  their  being  kept  together 
in  a  separate  room,  and  no  photographs  being 
allowed  to  be  taken  of  them.  For  this  loan  the 
Dilettanti  received  the  thanks  of  the  Lords  Com- 
missioners of  Education  in  February,  1869.  In 
the  same  year  the  Society  received  a  request  from 
Sir  William  Boxall,  Director  of  the  National 
Gallery,  for  a  temporary  loan  of  the  two  portrait- 
groups  by  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds.  The  Society  con- 
sented to  lend  them  from  August  1,  1869,  to 
January  31,  1870,  during  their  recess.  On  the 
latter  date  they  were  replaced  in  the  room  of 
the  Society  by  Sir  William  Boxall,  who  addressed 
the  following  letter  to  the  Secretary : — 

National  Gallery 

a  8  Jan.,  1870. 

On  behalf  of  the  Board  of  the  National  Gallery  I  have 
to  beg  that  you  offer  to  the  Members  of  the  Dilettanti  Society,  the 
best  thanks  for  the  generous  permission  they  have  enjoyed  for  the 
pleasure  and  instruction  of  the  Public,  to  exhibit  for  six  months 
the  two  groups  of  portraits  belonging  to  the  Society.  It  may  be 
interesting  to  the  Society  to  know  that  since  the  1st  of  August 
last,  &  notwithstanding  the  closing  of  the  Gallery  during  the 
month  of  October,  more  than  383  thousand  people  have  visited 
the  National  Gallery.  In  accordance  with  the  conditions  of  the 
Loan  I  have  to  inform  you  that  on  Monday  next,  being  the 
31st  of  Jany.  1869  {sic),  the  two  pictures  will  be  replaced  in  the 
Society's  Room  in  King's  Street,  St.  James',  free  of  all  costs  and 
charge  for  removing  and  replacing  them,  though  not  without  silent 

I  have  the  honour  to  be, 
Your  obed.  servt, 
To  the  Honorary  Secretary  William  Boxall, 

of  the  Dilettanti  Society.  Director. 

EastUke  Sir    Charles    Eastlake    died    in    i8df,  and   was 

succeeded  by  succee(ied  in  the  office  of  Painter   to  the  Society 
Lag  ton.      ky   Mr.   Frederic   Leighton,  R.A.,  who   eventually 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  z%s 

also  succeeded  to  the  Presidential  Chair  of  the 
Royal  Academy. 

On  July  i,  i8dtf,  the  Society  Portraits  of 

c  Requested  Lord  Broughton  to  Present  to  them  a  Portrait  of  Broughton 
himself.     Lord  Broughton  said  he  would  comply  with  the  wishes  anj  s-ir 
of  the  Society/  Edward 

Eventually     the     Society     received     from     Lord    yan' 
Broughton    a   portrait  of  himself  painted   by  the 
Hon.   Henry   Graves.     On    July    2,    1871,   it   was 

c  That  a  portrait  of  the  Secretary  [Sir  Edward  Ryan]  be  painted 
at  the  expense  of  the  Society  by  an  artist  to  be  selected  by  the 

Sir  Edward  Ryan  selected  Mr.  Leighton  as  the 
artist,  who  completed  the  portrait  during  the  next 
six  or  seven  months.  On  March  3,  1872,  it  was 

1  That  aoo  guineas  be  paid  with  the  best  thanks  of  the  Society 
to  Mr.  Leighton,  and  that  he  be  requested  to  order  a  frame  for  the 
picture  of  the  Secretary  at  the  charge  of  the  Society  with  the 
Society's  usual  Inscription  thereon/ 

At  the  same  time  it  was  resolved 

c  That  Mr.  Leighton  receive  the  cordial  assent  of  the  Dilettanti 
Society  to  his  wish  to  exhibit  the  portrait  of  the  Secretary  at  the 
Royal  Academy,  and  that  if  Mr.  Leighton  obtain  permission  to 
withdraw  the  picture  from  the  Rooms  of  the  Academy  for 
exhibition  in  those  of  the  Dilettanti  Society  on  the  7th  April,  he 
be  requested  to  communicate  the  fact  to  the  Secretary  in  order 
that  the  Secretary  may  inform  members  with  a  view  to  a  full 
gathering  of  the  Society/ 

The  portrait  of  Sir  Edward  Ryan  is  one  of  Sir 
Frederic  Leighton's  happiest  efforts  in  portraiture, 
conceived  and  carried  out  in  the  original  spirit 
of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti.  The  genial  Secretary 
to  the  Society   is  represented  in  his  official  dress, 

236  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

Painters  to 
the  Society: 
Sir  F.  W. 
Burton  and 
Sir  E.  J. 

loans  of 

Last  por- 
traits : 
Mr.  Wat  kiss 
Lloyd,  Lord 

standing  at  the  dinner  table  and  reading  the 

In  March,  1879,  Sir  Frederic  Leighton,  having 
received  a  French  diploma  as  'Sculpteur  Anglais,' 
begged  leave  to  be  allowed  to  serve  the  Society 
in  the  office  of  Sculptor ;  and  on  this  being 
granted,  the  Society  elected  Mr.  (afterwards  Sir) 
F.  W.  Burton,  R.H.A.,  Director  of  the  National 
Gallery,  to  be  Painter  to  the  Society.  In  1894 
Sir  F.  W.  Burton  resigned  his  membership,  and  in 
1 8  9  5  Mr.  Poynter  was  elected  a  member  of,  and 
Painter  to,  the  Society  in  his  place.  Since  then 
Mr.  Poynter  has  become  President  of  the  Royal 
Academy  and  received  his  knighthood ;  events  strictly 
in  accordance  with  the  traditions  of  the  Society. 

In  1884  the  two  groups  by  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds 
and  the  portrait  of  himself  were  lent  by  the  Society 
to  the  Grosvenor  Gallery  for  an  exhibition  of  the 
collected  works  of  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds.  In  March, 
1 890,  on  the  Society's  removing  from  Willis's 
Rooms,  the  two  groups  by  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds 
were  once  more  deposited  on  loan  with  the  Trustees 
of  the  National  Gallery,  until  the  whole  collection 
of  pictures  was  removed  and  rehung  in  the  Society's 
new  room  in  the  Grafton  Gallery. 

In  January,  1894,  a  portrait  of  Mr.  William 
Watkiss  Lloyd,  painted  by  Miss  Bush,  was  received 
by  the  Society  from  his  daughter,  Miss  Ellen 
Watkiss  Lloyd,  having  been  bequeathed  to  the 
Society  by  Mr.  Watkiss  Lloyd,  who  had  for  many 
years  been  one  of  its  most  active  and  respected 
members.  After  the  death  of  Lord  Leighton, 
President  of  the  Royal  Academy,  in  January,  1896, 
the  Dilettanti,  being  anxious  to  obtain  a  portrait 
of  one   of  the    most    illustrious    of   their    body, 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti    xg7 

decided  to  have  a  copy  made  of  the  portrait 
painted  by  Lord  Leighton  of  himself  for  the 
Uffizii  Gallery  at  Florence.  The  work  was  en- 
trusted to  Mr.  Charles  Holroyd  (now  Keeper  of  the 
National  Gallery  of  British  Art),  and  completed 
before  the  close  of  the  same  year.  In  February, 
1895,  on  the  resignation  by  Mr.  Sidney  Colvin  of 
his  post  as  Secretary  and  Treasurer  of  the  Society, 
the  Society  ordered  that  a  portrait  of  that  gentleman 
should  be  added  to  their  collection.  Sir  Edward 
Poynter  undertook  to  paint  the  portrait  of  Mr. 
Colvin,  which  was  sent  by  permission  of  the  Society 
to  the  Royal  Academy  Exhibition  of  1897.  This 
addition  completes  the  list  of  the  Dilettanti  portraits 
up  to  the  present  day. 






FIFTEEN  years  having  elapsed  since  the  publi- 
cation of  the  History  of  the  Society  in  1898,  it 
was  resolved  in  February,  1 9 1 3,  that  a  list  should 
be  added  of  the  members  elected  since  that  date,  and 
that  in  a  supplementary  chapter  some  account  should 
be  given  of  the  progress  of  the  Society  during  the 

Owing  to  losses  from  death  or  resignation  some  fifty 
new  members  have  come  in,  and  according  to  the  tradi- 
tions of  the  Society  they  have  been  drawn  from  the 
public  service,  from  the  Bench  and  Bar,  from  both 
Houses  of  Parliament,  from  the  Royal  Academy,  and 
from  the  ranks  of  art  collectors  and  connoisseurs.  The 
connexion  of  the  Society  with  the  Royal  Academy 
has  been  strengthened  by  the  election  of  Sir  Thomas 
Brock  and  Sir  Thomas  Jackson;  from  the  British 
Museum  have  come  Sir  Frederick  Kenyon  (now  Direc- 
tor), Sir  Cecil  Harcourt  Smith  (now  Director  of  the 
Victoria  and  Albert  Museum),  and  Sir  Hercules  Read 
(now  President  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries) ;  from 

X4-o*  History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

the  Record  Office,  Sir  H.  Maxwell  Lyte,  Deputy- 
Keeper.  Other  departments  of  the  public  service  are 
represented  by  Sir  Edward  Davidson  and  Sir  Chauncy 
Cartwright  of  the  Foreign  Office ;  by  Lord  Desart, 
Sir  Kenneth  Muir  Mackenzie,  and  Sir  H.  Babington 
Smith.  Lord  Plymouth,  Lord  Burghclere,  Lord  Sand- 
hurst (recently  resigned),  Lord  Islington,  Lord  New- 
lands,  Lord  Goschen,  and  Sir  Walter  Hely  Hutchinson 
have  served  their  country  with  distinction  at  home  or 
abroad.  From  the  Bench  and  the  Bar  have  been 
added  Lord  Mersey,  Lord  Collins  (too  soon  withdrawn 
by  death),  Lord  Moult  on,  Mr.  Justice  Pickford, 
Mr.  Wedderburn,  K.C.,  and  Mr.  Francis  Pember.  Sir 
George  Armytage  and  Sir  Alexander  Henderson  are 
well-known  collectors,  while  the  claims  of  such  men  as 
Sir  Robert  Mowbray,  Mr.  Andrew  Hichens,  Mr.  Vicary 
Gibbs,  Mr.  Alfred  Farquhar,  Mr.  Spencer  Lyttelton, 
and  Mr.  Adolphus  Liddell  for  admission  into  the 
Society  are  sufficiently  obvious.  Three  successive 
American  Ambassadors  have  been  admitted  to  the 
Society  during  the  period.  Of  these  Col.  John  Hay 
was  recalled  after  only  a  year's  service  to  take  up  the 
post  of  Secretary  of  State  at  Washington ;  Mr.  Choate 
was  a  constant  and  most  welcome  attendant  at  the 
Society's  dinners  during  his  term  of  office,  and  remains 
an  honorary  member  of  the  Society ;  Mr.  Whitelaw 
Reid  though  elected  never  presented  himself  for  formal 
admission,  and  resigned  shortly  before  his  death. 

During  these  fifteen  years  the  Society  has  lost  by 
death  some  of  its  oldest  and  most  valued  members. 
These  include  Mr.  Penrose,  who  had  long  been  Father 
of  the  Society,  and  whose  Principles  of  Athenian  Archi- 
tecture was  among  its  most  important  publications; 
Sir  William  Farrer,  who  generously  had  the  two 
great  Reynolds'  groups  reproduced  by  photogravure 



History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  X4i* 

in  1 8  9  8  at  his  own  expense  and  presented  the  plates  to 
the  Society ;  Sir  William  Fraser,  Sir  Nigel  Kingscote, 
Lord  Davey,  Sir  John  Murray  Scott,  Sir  Barrington 
Simeon,  Sir  Richard  Paget,  Mr.  Andrew  Hichens,  Lord 
Collins,  and  more  recently  Mr.  Underdown,  K.C.,  who 
was  a  constant  attendant  at  the  dinners  and  took  the 
keenest  interest  in  the  Society's  welfare ;  Sir  Walter 
Hely  Hutchinson,  the  late  popular  Governor  of  the 
Cape  Colony ;  and  in  Spencer  Lyttelton. 

But  the  most  serious  loss  was  the  death  in  1 9 1 1  of 
Mr.  E.  H.  Pember,  K.C.,  who  had  been  Joint  Secretary 
of  the  Society  for  eighteen  years,  from  1893  to  1896 
in  association  with  Sir  Sidney  Colvin,  and  then  until 
his  death  with  Lord  Welby.  His  geniality  and  wit 
and  his  devotion  to  the  Society's  interests  had  en- 
deared him  to  all  the  members,  and  it  was  most  for- 
tunate that  two  years  before  his  death  an  admirable 
portrait  of  him  by  Sir  Edward  Poynter,  the  painter  to 
the  Society,  had  been  added  to  its  collection.1  Mr. 
Pember's  place  as  Joint  Secretary  with  Lord  Welby  was 
filled  by  the  appointment  of  Mr.  George  Macmillan, 
who  had  been  elected  a  member  in  1898,  and  whose 
official  connexion  with  the  Hellenic  Society  and  the 
British  School  at  Athens  has  helped  to  bring  the  Society 
into  more  direct  touch  with  modern  archaeological 

Among  members  who  have  resigned  during  the  period 
may  be  mentioned  Sir  Sidney  Colvin,  who  had  served 
the  Society  so  well  in  the  office  of  Secretary;  Sir  Colin 
Scott  Moncrieff,  General  Clive,  Lord  Sandhurst, 
Lord  Rosebery,  Lord  Plymouth,  and  Lord  Desart. 

Reference  has  already  been  made  to  the  portrait  of 
Mr.  Pember,  which  was  added  to  the  Society's  collec- 

1  A  reproduction  of  this  portrait  is  issued  with  the  present 

X4-X*   History  of  the  Society  of  "Dilettanti 

tion  in  1909.  In  1 9 1 1 ,  through  the  courtesy  of  Lord 
Belhaven,  the  Society  was  able  to  acquire  a  copy  of  a 
portrait  (by  Phillips)  of  his  grandfather,  W.  R.  Hamil- 
ton, who  served  the  Society  as  Secretary  from  1 8  3  o  to 
185-9.  The  copy,  on  the  recommendation  of  Sir  Edward 
Poynter,  was  entrusted  to  Mr.  Dorofield  Hardy,  who 
produced  an  excellent  picture  for  the  sum  of  £$0. 
In  19 1 3  it  was  unanimously  resolved  that  a  portrait 
should  be  painted  of  Lord  Welby,  who  has  been  a 
Joint  Secretary  of  the  Society  since  1 896.  The  Com- 
mittee appointed  to  carry  the  resolution  into  effect 
entrusted  the  work  to  the  Hon.  John  Collier,  who 
produced  an  excellent  portrait,  which  has  just  been 
hung  in  the  Society's  collection. 

In  1 907  a  Committee,  consisting  of  Sir  Nigel  Kings- 
cote,  Sir  Spencer  Walpole,  Mr.  Underdo wn,  K.C.,  and 
the  two  secretaries,  Mr.  Pember  and  Lord  Welby,  was 
appointed  to  consider  the  revision  of  the  Society's 
Rules  and  Regulations.  Their  recommendations  were 
unanimously  adopted,  and  the  new  Rules  were  printed 
and  issued  to  members  before  the  end  of  the  year. 
The  chief  alterations  were  that  the  number  of  members 
was  definitely  limited  to  fifty- four, and  that  candidates' 
names  were  thenceforth  to  be  submitted  in  a  printed 
list  to  members  in  advance  and  selected  by  voting 
papers,  on  which,  however,  the  choice  was  to  be  indi- 
cated by  a  mark  (x),  not  by  the  voter's  name.  The 
names  thus  selected  are  then  submitted  to  the  Society 
for  ballot  in  the  traditional  way. 

It  was  pointed  out  in  the  History  of  the  Society 
(pp.  209-1  $)  that  since  the  days  when  the  Society  itself 
equipped  expeditions  for  archaeological  research  in  the 
Levant,  conditions  had  so  far  changed  that  research  of 
the  kind  naturally  devolved  upon  younger  institutions 
expressly  founded  for  the  purpose.  The  foundation  of 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti   243* 

the  Hellenic  Society  in  1 8  97,  and  of  the  British  School 
at  Athens  in  1895-,  had  provided  machinery  and  funds 
which  had  not  hitherto  been  available,  so  that  the 
Society  of  Dilettanti  is  no  longer  called  upon  to  take 
the  lead  in  such  matters.  It  has  been  felt,  however,  that 
loyalty  to  its  old  traditions  implied  a  sympathetic  in- 
terest in  the  work  of  these  younger  institutions,  and 
since  1898  the  Society  has  in  fact  contributed  consider- 
able sums  both  from  its  own  funds  and  through  special 
subscriptions  among  its  members  to  enterprises  of  this 
kind.  Thus  in  1 8  9  9  the  Society  itself  contributed  £?o 
and  individual  members  another  £60  towards  excava- 
tions undertaken  by  the  British  School  at  Athens  on 
the  site  of  Naucratis.  In  1901  £jo  was  voted  towards 
excavations  at  Praesos  in  Crete,  also  undertaken  by  the 
School,  and  at  intervals  from  1901101906  the  Society 
contributed  ^100  and  its  members  as  much  again 
towards  the  very  remarkable  and  fruitful  excavations 
carried  out  by  Sir  Arthur  Evans  at  Knossos  in  Crete. 
Reports  on  these  matters  were  from  time  to  time  made 
to  the  Society  by  Mr.  Penrose,Mr.Macmillan,  and  other 
members,  and  have  always  been  heard  with  interest. 
It  cannot  be  doubted  that  the  Society  will  continue  to 
recognize  that  inquiries  into  the  history  of  classical 
art  and  civilization  have  a  special  claim  upon  its 
sympathy  and  support. 

It  seems  appropriate  to  record  at  this  point  the  really 
remarkable  fact  established  by  Lord  Welby  from  ex- 
amination of  the  Society's  archives,  and  reported  by 
him  at  a  recent  meeting,  that  during  the  many  years 
of  the  Society's  activity  in  this  field  no  less  a  sum  than 
£7,6^000  was  expended  on  archaeological  research. 
For  a  body  consisting  of  from  forty  to  sixty  members, 
not  incorporated  for  scientific  inquiry,  but  meeting 
mainly  for  purposes  of  conviviality,  this  is  certainly 

144*  History  of  the  Society  of  "Dilettanti 

a  highly  creditable  achievement,  and  in  accordance 
with  a  resolution  passed  at  the  meetingof  April  £,1913, 
a  summary  of  the  work  done,  which  is  dealt  with  in- 
cidentally in  the  course  of  the  History,  will  be  given 
as  an  Appendix  to  this  chapter. 

During  the  last  few  years  the  Secretaries,  with  the 
help  of  a  Special  Committee,  have  given  much  time 
and  attention  to  the  Society's  archives.  Many  large 
bundles  of  papers  have  been  examined  and  reduced  to 
some  kind  of  order,  while  superfluous  matter  has  been 
destroyed.  It  was  found  that  there  was  a  large  mass 
of  plates  from  the  Society's  different  publications, 
accompanied  in  many  cases  by  the  original  drawings. 
The  really  beautiful  drawings  prepared  for  Specimens 
of  Ancient  Sculpture  have  been  placed  in  portfolios,  and 
some  of  the  separate  plates  have  been  acquired  by 
members  at  a  nominal  price.  As  the  very  numerous 
architectural  plates  from  the  various  volumes  of  Anti- 
quities of Ionia ,  Penrose's  Principles  of  Athenian  Archi- 
tecture^ and  other  works,  had  no  commercial  value,  it 
was  decided  to  offer  them  to  various  institutions  in- 
terested in  the  study  of  architecture,  including  the 
Royal  Institute  of  British  Architects,  the  Royal 
Academy  of  Arts,  the  Architectural  Association,  the 
Victoria  and  Albert  Museum,  the  British  School  at 
Rome,  and  several  provincial  Universities  and  Schools 
of  Art.  The  offer  was  in  each  case  gratefully  accepted. 
In  the  end  a  residuum  of  fine  architectural  plates,  with 
the  original  drawings,  was  presented  to  the  Royal 
Institute  of  British  Architects  and  received  as  a  very 
valuable  addition  to  their  Library.  The  Institute 
held  in  the  summer  of  1912  a  Special  Exhibition  of 
these  plates  and  drawings,  which  attracted  wide  atten- 
tion among  students  of  architecture.  In  preparing 
an  account  of  this  Exhibition  for  the  Journal  of  the 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  24  5-* 

Institute,  Prof.  W.  R.  Lethaby  made  the  very  interest- 
ing and  unexpected  discovery  that  some  sixty  of  these 
fine  plates,  dealing  with  various  sites  in  Asia  Minor, 
were  not  to  be  found  in  the  existing  volumes  of  Anti- 
quities of  Ionia  and  had  apparently  never  been  pub- 
lished. Prof.  Lethaby  communicated  this  discovery 
to  the  Secretaries  of  the  Society,  with  the  suggestion 
that  as  the  plates  were  of  real  archaeological  value 
they  should  still  be  published.  The  matter  was  re- 
ported to  the  Society  at  the  November  dinner  in  1 9 1 2 
and  aroused  great  interest.  A  Committee,  consisting 
of  the  two  Secretaries,  Sir  Cecil  Harcourt  Smith,  and 
Sir  Thomas  Jackson,  was  appointed  to  consider  Prof. 
Lethaby's  suggestion  and  report  to  a  later  meeting. 

Search  through  the  minute-books  of  the  Society 
revealed  the  fact  that  about  1830  two  new  volumes 
of  Antiquities  of  Ionia ,  which  were  to  be  Volumes  III 
and  IV,  were  in  contemplation.  Of  these  Volume  III 
had  been  published  in  1840,  but  the  fourth  volume 
had  evidently  been  postponed,  though  the  minute-books 
contained  no  explanation  of  the  postponement.  There 
is,  however,  a  reference  to  the  point  on  p.  1 8  o  of  the 
History,  where  Mr.  Lionel  Cust  says  that  a  fourth 
volume  was  in  contemplation  and  some  of  the  plates 
actually  engraved  when  the  death  of  Mr.  Wilkins, 
R.A.,  who  was  to  have  been  responsible  for  the  text, 
put  a  stop  to  further  progress. 

It  seems  nevertheless  a  strange  thing  that  the  very 
existence  of  these  plates  should  have  been  forgotten 
when  some  thirty  years  later  materials  for  an  entirely 
new  volume  were  provided  by  Mr.  R.  P.  Pullan's  re- 
searches on  the  sites  of  Teos  and  the  Smintheum,  and 
he  was  further  commissioned  to  examine  the  temple 
of  Athene  Polias  at  Priene,  in  order  that  there  might 
be  enough  matter  to  fill  a  volume  of  reasonable  size. 

q  9p  3JC  3p 

X4-6*   History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

This,  the  existing  fourth  volume  of  Antiquities  oflonia, 
was  published  by  Macmillan  &  Co.  for  the  Society  in 
1881,  as  recorded  in  the  History,  but  contains  no 
reference  to  the  plates  now  in  question. 

Fortunately,  however,  the  original  plates  have  been 
found  through  Mr.  Macmillan  in  perfect  condition  in 
the  store-rooms  of  Messrs.  Ross  &  Co.,  the  well-known 
copper-plate  engravers  in  the  Hampstead  Road,  and 
with  the  help  of  Prof.  Lethaby  have  been  identified. 
Careful  estimates,  prepared  by  the  Committee,  showed 
that  200  copies  of  a  volume  containing  these  sixty 
plates,  with  letterpress,  could  be  produced  for  about 
£3  fo.  Prof  Lethaby  has  kindly  undertaken  to  pro- 
vide the  text  for  a  fee  of  £?o,  and  at  the  meeting  on 
May  4, 1 9 1 3,  the  Society  decided  that  the  work  should 
be  put  in  hand. 

The  volume  is  to  be  sold  to  members,  and  offered 
in  advance  to  various  libraries,  museums,  and  other 
public  bodies  in  England  and  abroad  at  £2  2/.,  and 
will  afterwards  be  published  at  £3  3  s.  A  Guarantee 
Fund  has  been  started,  to  which  the  Society  and  the 
Royal  Institute  of  British  Architects  have  each  guaran- 
teed £fo,  and  individual  members  of  the  Society  about 
£70  more.  There  seems  to  be  a  reasonable  prospect 
of  the  work  being  ready  for  publication  before  the 
end  of  19 14  or  early  in  19  ly. 

The  discovery  of  these  plates,  and  their  publication 
nearly  a  century  after  they  were  engraved,  forms  a 
romantic  episode  in  the  history  of  the  Society  and  will 
serve  to  keep  its  name  forward  among  the  promoters 
of  archaeological  research.  It  should  be  added  that 
the  sites  dealt  with  in  the  volume  include  Myra,  Tel- 
messus,  and  Magnesia. 

With  this  important  announcement  the  present  re- 
cord may  fitly  close.    Mr.  Cust  said  at  the  end  of  his 

History  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti  247* 

History  that  the  welfare  of  the  Society  as  expressed 
in  its  ancient  toast — <  Esto  Clara,  Esto  Perpetua  ' — 
would  probably  depend  upon  its  keeping  in  view  the 
ideals  implied  in  two  other  of  its  traditional  toasts — 
'Seria  Ludo'  and  'Grecian  Taste  and  Roman  Spirit.' 
This  hint  has  clearly  been  borne  in  mind,  and  if  it 
should  be  decided  to  celebrate  in  1932  the  200th 
anniversary  of  the  foundation  of  the  Society  it  may 
be  hoped  that  another  chapter  will  be  added  to  this 
History,  and  that  at  least  as  good  an  account  may  be 
rendered  of  its  progress  and  efficiency. 

G.  A.  M 


CONTRIBUTIONS  TO  ART.     1734-1908. 

approximate  statement  of  moneys  expended  by  the 
Society  of  Dilettanti  for  the  encouragement  and  promotion 
of  a  knowledge  of  ancient  art,  comprising  sums  expended  on 
traveller /,  artists^  and  in  the  publication  of  their  works. 

The  first  payment  under  any  of  these  heads  recorded  in  the 
books  of  the  Society  is  in  the  year  1757,  when  the  property  of  the 
Society  appears  to  have  been  about  ^1700^  this  payment  is  thus 
described :  £     s.   d. 

To  subscription  to  Messrs.  StuartandRevett's 

work  on  the  antiquities  of  Attica         .  2100 

In  1764.  the  funds  of  the  Society  were  increased 
from  £2000  to  rather  more  than  ^fooo,  and  in  April 
1 764.  the  Society  set  aside  ^2000  for  an  expedition 
to  collect  information  relating  to  monuments  of  anti- 
quity in  the  East.  Further  sums  were  voted  later. 
The  expedition  resulted  in  the  first  part  of  Ionian 
Antiquities.     The  sums  expended  are  as  follows  : 

1764..  May   iy.     Messrs.  Chandler,  Revett,  and 

Pars  on  account  ....         200    o     o 

Oct.  20.     Paid  their  drafts  on  Leghorn       .         400     o     o 
1765.  April  10.     Paid  Messrs.  Revett  and  Chand- 
ler's draft  from  Smyrna 

Nov.  2.  „  „  „ 

Nov.  16.  „  „  „ 

1 766'.  Nov.     Mr.  Chandler's  draft  from  Zante    . 

Nov.  „  „  from  Bristol    . 

Nov.  30.  „  „  on  his  receipt 

1767.  Feb.     Mr.  Chandler  by  order     . 
Feb.    Mr.  Revett  „  ... 
Feb.     Mr.  Pars              „            ... 

1768.  May.     Messrs.  Revett  and  Pars  on  account 

for  copper  plates,  &c. 
Mr.  Revett  more  on  account 
*ij6y.  May.     Mr.  Revett  on  account  . 

*   1769-  The  first  part  of  the  Ionian  Antiquities  was  published. 



















































Contributions  to  Art  249 

May.     Mr.  Revett  for  paper,  printing,  Sec. 

May.     Mr.    Pars,    making,   finishing,   and 

colouring  drawings     .... 

Mr.  Revett  on  account      .... 

1770.  May.      Engraving    and    striking    off   the 

Athenian  inscription  .... 

1 77 1.  May.     Mr.  Revett,  by  order,  for  finishing 

the  drawings 

1772.  May.  „  „  „ 
Payments  for  the  first  part  of  the  Ionian  Anti- 
quities completed,  total  cost,  £  3  207  1  s.  id. 

*I773.  No  payments. 
1774.  Dr.  Chandler,  by  order  of  the  Society  .  16     5 

Mr.  Revett  for  work  on  a  second  part  of 

Ionian  Antiquities         .  .         .  .  1 00     o 

I77T*  June«     Lodged   with   Messrs.   Drummond 

for  the  use  of  the  students  at  Rome    .         120     o 
1776.  April  2.     Dr.  Chandler,  fifty  guineas  1774. 
and  1776,  for  his  work  on  Greek  in- 
scriptions and  travels 
Students  at  Rome 

t*777-  »   m     »  

1782.  Paid  to  Mr.  Revett  (in  full  of  all  demands) 

1783.  Mr.  Revett  for  200  copies  of  Ionian  Anti- 

quities s  I 

1784.  Mr.  Newton  for  engraving  four  plates 
Mr.  Byrne  for  engraving  a  plate 

1785*.  Mr.  Hadrill  for  printing  Ionian  Antiquities, 

No.  5: 

Mr.  Faden,  engraving  map  for  Ionian  Anti- 
quities, No.  5*      .... 
Mr.  Ball  for  Colombier  paper  for  ditto 
Mr.  Spilsbury  for  printing  ditto 
Mr.  Sharpe  for  vignette  * 

1790.  Engraving  plates  for  vol.  2  of  Stuart's  Anti- 
quities of Athens .         .         -.         »  247  16     o 
J 1 75>4«  Sir  Joseph  Banks  renders  account  of  expendi- 
ture  on  vol.   2   of  Ionian  Antiquities, 

1784-1794 1 140  17     o 

*   1773.  Society's  balance  made  over  by  Mr.  Fauquier,  £3911  17-r.  6d. 
t  1777.  Balance  made  over  by  Mr.  Crowle  to  Mr.  Banks,  £4066  19s.  id. 
X   1794.  Sir  Joseph   Banks  resigns  Treasurership.      Society's  balance 
£7724  lot.  id. 

§    Expenditure  on  second  volume  of  Ionian  Antiquhiet. 


































x$"o*       The  "Dilettanti  Society's 





Expended  on  the  same  account  . 

33  33  33  ... 

Mr.  Byrne  for  two  plates  of  Aradus  and 
Halicarnassus     ..... 

Mr.  Bulmer  for  printing  vol.  x  of  Ionian 
Antiquities.  . 

Drawings  and  engravings  for  vol.  1  of  Select 
Specimens  of  Ancient  Sculpture 







33  33 

For  engravings 


1 8 14. 

33         33  .         .         .         .         . 

Total   expenditure   on   the   Specimens, 

£-l6%<$  17s.  %d. 
In    181 1    a    new    Ionian   Expedition  was 

undertaken  under  Gell,  Deering,  and 

Telescopes  for  this  expedition 
Drafts  of  Sir  W.  Gell  for  ditto 

33  33  33 

For  engraving  . 

Maps  for  the  Ionian  Expedition 

Ionian  Expedition  in  April 

33  33  June . 

„  33  July  • 

j,  „  September 

„  „  October 

Miscellaneous  expenses  on  ditto 
Corbould  for  engraving 
Ionian  Expedition 

£    s. 


436  16 


376"  16 


189  0 


189  11 


11  11 


238  13 


M7  ^ 


zq.6     1 


no  10 


161  19 


386  10 


384  14 


380  10 


xxx  9 


°4  0 


96   ix 


104  IX 








































1  J 

*  Vol.  2  of  Ionian  Antiquities,  total  cost,  £2820  14/.  id. 

t  1808.  Mr.  Metcalfe  resigns  Treasure rship.  Society  owns  £10,000 
three  per  cents,  reduced  and  £46  gs.  gd.  cash. 

I  Work  on  the  third  volume  of  Ionian  Antiquities,  which  was  not  pub- 
lished till  1840.    Expenseson vol.  5  (?  and  4),  £10,200  17s.  gd.    Seep.245* 

Contributions  to  Art 


Engravings  for  ditto .... 
fi8i?.  „  „  .... 

j  1 8 1 6'.  Engravers  for  printing 

1817.  „  „  ... 
Binding,  &c.     -. 

181 8.  Paid  for  drawing,  painting,  and  engraving 

1 8 19.  Drawings  for  Ionia  or  Attica 
Agar  for  engraving  in  second  vol.  of  Select 

Specimens    .  . 

18x0.  Engravers 

Paid  through  Mr.  Wilkins  for  architectural 
engraving  ...... 

1 8a  1.  Second  edition  with  additions  of  part  1  of 
Ionian  Antiquities  published. 
§i8xx.  Paid  for  engravings 

1823.  Paid  to  engravers 

1824.  „        „  

1 8x6\  Messrs.  Roffe,  Heath,  and  Porter,  engravers 
18x7.  Engravers  ...... 

18x8.  „  

||i8xo.  Engravings 

1830.  The  Society  orders  the  second  vol.  of  Select 
Specimens  and  parts  3  and  4  of  Ionia  to 
be  proceeded  with  more  rapidly. 
Engravings  and  drawings 

















£    *. 


413  y 
1166  19 

8xx  iy 



494  10 
165  0 


377  ° 
86  11 


101  if 

5x7  it 










































The  second  vol.  of  Select  Specimens  of  Ancient 
Sculpture  published. 
183(3.  Engraving,  &o,  &c,  printing,  Sec.    .         .         476  11     6 

*  Continued  from  previous  page.     See  note  J. 

t   18  1  ?.  The  Society  owns  £3000  reduced  three  per  cents. 

\  1 8 16.  Each  member  pays  £10  ioj.  od.  annually  for  five  years  in  aid 
of  the  publication  of  the  Ionian  Antiquities  and  the  r  Inedited  Antiquities  ' 
of  Attica. 

§  1822.  Sir  H.  Englefield,  Secretary  and  Treasurer,  dies.  The  Society 
owns  £2500  three  per  cents,  and  £872  lis.  Sd.  cash. 

||  1829.  Sir  Thomas  Lawrence,,  Treasurer,  dies.  The  Society  owns 
£2500  reduced  three  per  cents.,  £1000  exchequer  bills,  £746  cash. 

If  1833.  The  funds  of  the  Society  were  reduced  to  £2000  three  per  cents. 
**  Third  volume  of  Antiquities  of  Ionia,  and  vol.  2  of  Select  Specimens 
of  Ancient  Sculpture. 


x?x*       The  Dilettanti  Society  s 

£     s. 


Chevalier  Bronsted  for  copper  plates  of  the 



of  Sir  is 

.          . 

,                , 

100     0 


The  Bronzes 

of  Sir  is 




raving,  paper,  printing,  &c. 

281   10 






50     0 






260     9 






JZ    10 


1 841. 




33     3 





33                        ' 

9    + 






47     3 






sum  not  stated 





33   J7 






181  11 






*19  l8 






187     1 






171  13 






"T     T 






3°5>     * 




:'s  Investigation  of 


Architecture  published. 


£30614.    2 


Between  185"!  and  18  5:9  the  Society  made  no  contributions  to  art, 
except  a  subscription  of  £1  \is.  6d.  to  the  Architectural  Institute  at 
Rome.  In  185-2  they  had  no  money  invested.  Between  185-2  and 
185*9  tney  kid  out  j£ioo°  in  tne  purchase  of  £<\.')i  6s.  6d.  Bank  of 
England  Stock.  Their  cash  balance  rose  from  ^"483  zs.  6d.  on 
Dec.  31,  185a,  to  £860  is,  yd.  on  Dec.  31,  185-9.  ^n  l8T7  the 
Society  approved  the  expenditure  of  £zjo  at  Halicarnassus,  but 
it  was  found  not  necessary. 

i860.  Mr.  C.  R.  Cockerell,  R.A.,  for  70  copies  of 
his  work  on  Egina 

1 861.  Mr.  Pullan,  excavations  at  Teos 

1862.  „  at  Teos    .... 

1863.  „  „ 
Mr.W.  Lloyd  (a  member),  apparently  expenses 

in  connexion  with  the  Teos  Committee 





14     8 

20  15-     7 

*  Third  volume  of  Antiquities  of  Ionia  and  vol.  z  of  Select  Specimens 
of  Ancient  Sculpture. 

t  Investigation  of  Athenian  Architecture. 



s.    d. 


0  0 


0  0 


0  0 


II  0 


IO   0 


0  0 


0  0 



I  3 

Contributions  to  Art 

1864.  Mr.  Pullan,  drawings  Teos 
\%66.  „  the  Smintheus  temple 

1867.  „  Smintheus 

1868.  Printing  Report  on  Priene 
Mr.  Pullan  for  Priene  investigations  . 

1869.  „  Priene      .... 

1870.  „         Priene  and  Smintheus 
No  expenditure  on  art  in  1871,  187X5  1873, 

1874,  1877,  and  1876'. 

To  close  of  1876,  Total 

In  1875:  the  Society,  having  spent  £1966  on  explorations  at  Teos, 
Priene,  and  the  Smintheum,  resolved  in  accordance  with  precedents 
in  1 8 14.  (Ionian  Mission)  and  1833  (purchase  of  bronzes  of  Siris) 
to  ask  members  for  subscriptions  to  enable  the  result  of  these 
explorations  to  be  published  (vol.  4,  Ionia),  and  a  Publication  Fund 
was  created  to  which  the  expenses  of  publication  would  be  charged. 
The  cost  was  originally  put  at  £810,  subsequently  at  ^00  to 
;£iooo.  On  April  x8,  1879,  ^e  Publication  Committee  reported 
that  £611  had  been  derived  from  subscriptions  and  ,£41  ys.  64. 
from  the  Society  itself,  or  £66^  js.  6d.  Subsequently  subscriptions 
of  £j6  5 j.  are  reported,  and  in  that  year  ^1^0  was  further  sub- 
scribed by  the  Society.  In  May  1881  the  Publication  Committee 
report  the  approaching  completion  of  vol.  4  of  Ionia ;  the  remaining 
costwould  be  about^4oo,ofwhich^'3  fo  were  available  from  the  Publi- 
cation Fund,  into  which  receipts  from  sale  of  the  books  were  paid  as 
well  as  members'  subscriptions  and  contributions  from  the  Society 
itself,  leaving  ^^o  to  be  made  good  by  the  Society.  I  do  not  find  any 
final  account  of  the  expenditure,  but  it  will  be  seen  from  this 
statement  that  a  sum  of  over  £1000  was  laid  out  on  the  publication 
of  part  4,  which  was  distributed  to  members  and  placed  on  sale  in  June 
1 881.  In  i88z  ;£i?o  was  paid  by  the  Society  itself  to  the  Publication 
Fund,  and  probably  (though  that  is  not  recorded)  this  contribution 
represented  an  advance  for  the  final  settlement  of  the  accounts  for 
part  4.     If  so,  the  total  expenditure  on  part  4  approached  ^"1400. 

June  3 ,  1883.  The  Society  decided  on  the  publication  of  a  second 
edition  of  Penrose's  "Principles  of  Athenian  Architecture,  and  granted 
him  ;£i?o  to  enable  him  to  revisit  Attica  for  that  purpose.  In 
June  1886  a  further  sum  of  £  100  was  paid  to  him,  and  on  May  id, 
1887,  a  statement  of  the  expenditure  was  laid  before  the  Society. 
£301  4/.  rd.  had  been  spent  on  plates  and  the  journeys  to  Athens, 
and  £110  was  due  for  engravings,  ^411  4*.  id.  The  cost  of 
printing  and  publishing  was  put  at  £411  ixx.  \od.     It  proved, 

X5*4*  Contributions  to  Art 

however,  to  be  £6$%,  some  part  of  which  was  met  by  sales  of 
publications.  Thus  the  cost  of  the  second  edition  of  Penrose's 
work  was  about  £iojo.  It  carries  this  record  of  the  aid  given  by 
the  Society  to  Art  up  to  the  year  1890. 

It  was  proposed  in  1890  that  the  Society  should  raise  a  fund  for 
researches,  but  1  do  not  find  any  record  of  a  subscription  being 

In  1899  the  Society  subscribed  ^"15-0  for  excavation  at  Naucratis 
(including  £60  subscribed  by  members),  and  in  1901  and  1903  it 
gave  ^15:0  for  excavation  at  Cnossos  in  Crete. 

In  1905'  it  subscribed  £10  to  the  Penrose  Library  in  the  British 
School  at  Athens. 








the  ! 

Society  to  Art  1734- 








»           1853- 




23  (So 





„          l877- 





,  and  Penrose,  say 






„           1899- 







Total    £3  5784 

Add  sum  collected  by  the  Society  in  1833  for  the 
purchase  of  the  bronzes  of  Siris  which  it  pre- 
sented to  the  British  Museum.  The  cost  was 
;£iooo,  to  which  the  Museum  contributed  £200         800 

Total    £36084 
say     36000 

No  contributions  were  made  to  archaeological  research  between 
1908  and  191 3,  when  a  fifth  volume  of  Ionian  Antiquities  was  under- 
taken as  explained  in  the  Supplement,  pp.  245"*- 246*. 




A  l  List  of  Members  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti, 
according  to  the  Order  of  Election,  dating  from  the 
6th.  of  March,  173^,'  was  compiled  by  Mr.  William 
Richard  Hamilton  and  appended  as  a  supplement 
to  his  Historical  Notices  of  the  Society  of  Dilettanti 
published  in  185-5-.  Copies  of  this  list  were  printed 
separately  and  distributed  to  members. 

A  second  List  of  Members,  brought  up  to  date, 
was  printed  by  Sir  William  Fraser,  Bart.,  in  1874, 
and  presented  by  him  to  the  members  of  the  Society. 

The  following  List  of  Members  has  been  compiled 
from  the  elections  recorded  in  the  Minute-Books  of 
the  Society.  An  attempt  has  been  made  to  identify 
the  members  and  to  enumerate  the  various  dis- 
tinguished positions  which  so  many  of  them  have 
occupied  in  the  public  service. 




Lord  Middle- 


Simon  Harcourt,  born  17 14.;  only  son 
of  Hon.  Simon  Harcourt,  and  suc- 
ceeded his  grandfather,  17x7,  as 
second  Viscount  Harcourt ;  travelled 
in  France  and  Italy,  1730-34.;  Lord 
of  the  Bedchamber  to  George  II, 
1735-57;  created  Earl  Harcourt, 
1 74-9 ;  governor  to  the  Prince  of 
Wales,  175*1 ;  Ambassador  to  Meck- 
lenburg-Strelitz,  1761,  for  the 
marriage  of  Princess  Charlotte  and 
George  III;  Ambassador  to  Paris, 
1768-9;  Lord-Lieutenant  of  Ireland, 
1771-7  ;  died  1777. 

Charles  Sackville,  Earl  of  Middle- 
sex, born  171 1  ;  eldest  son  of  first 
Duke  of  Dorset ;  travelled  in  France 
and  Italy;  M.P.;  Lord  of  the 
Treasury ;  Master  of  the  Horse  to 
Frederick,  Prince  of  Wales ;  suc- 
ceeded as  second  Duke  of  Dorset, 
1763  ;  died  1769- 

Earl  Harcourt. 

Duke  of  Dorset. 

240  List  of  Members  of 

Viscount  Gustavus  Hamilton,  Viscount  Boyne, 

Boyne.  born    1710*   succeeded  his    grand- 

father as  second  viscount;  travelled 
before  173 1 ;  M.P.;  P.C.;  a  Com- 
missioner of  Revenue ;  died  un- 
married 174.6". 

Sir  Lionel  Sir  Lionel  Pilkington,  born  1706-7  ; 

Pilkington.  succeeded    as    fifth    baronet    1716"; 

travelled  in  France  and  Italy;  pur- 
chased Chevet  Hall,  near  Wakefield; 
M.P. ;  died  unmarried  1778. 

Mr.  T.  Thomas  Grimston,  of  Grimston  Garth 

Grimston.  and  Kilnwick,  near  Hull;  born  1701; 

died  1 751. 

Hon.  W.  William  Ponsonby,  born  1704.;  eldest 

Ponsonby.  son  of  second  Viscount  Duncannon, 

and  first  Earl  of  Bessborough; 
travelled  in  Italy,  Greece,  and  the 
East  for  some  years  up  to  1739; 
friend  and  companion  of  J.E.Liotard 
the  painter;  a  member  of  the  Ac- 
cademia  del  Disegno  at  Florence, 
and  noted  collector  of  marbles, gems, 
and  other  works  of  classical  antiquity; 
styled  Viscount  Duncannon,  1735); 
M.P.;  Lord  of  the  Treasury;  Post- 
master-General; succeeded  as  second 
Earl  of  Bessborough,  1758;  died  1793 
as  c  Father  of  the  Society/ 

Mr.  R.  Richard  Grenville,  born  171 1;  eldest 

Grenville.  son  of  Richard  Grenville  and  Hester, 

Countess  Temple,  and  brother-in-law 
of  the  Earl  of  Chatham ;  travelled 
for  four  years  up  to  1734. ;  M.P. ; 
styled  Viscount  Cobham,  174.9-5^; 
succeeded  his  mother  as  Earl  Temple, 
i75"z;  First  Lord  of  the  Admiralty, 
Lord  Keeper  of  the  Privy  Seal,  and 

other  state  offices ;  one  of  the  fore- 
of  his   day ;    died 


most  statesmen 


Earl  of  Bess- 

Earl  Temple. 

the  Society  of  Dilettanti 


Mr.  J.  Howe. 

Lord  Robert 

Sir  Robert 

Sir  Francis 

Mr.  Mitchell. 

Sir  Brownlow 

Mr.T.  Archer. 

1736  {continued). 

John  Howe,  of  Hanslope,  Bucks,  born 
1707  ;  married  Caroline,  daughter 
of  second  Viscount  Howe;  died 
176  9. 

RobertMontagu,  born  1 7 1 3  (?) ;  second 
son  of  first  Duke  of  Manchester; 
M.P.;  Vice-Chamberlain  to  the 
Queen;  succeeded  as  third  Duke  of 
Manchester,  1739;  Lord  of  the 
Bedchamber  to  the  King,  and  Lord 
Chamberlain  to  the  Queen;  died 

Sir  Robert  Long,  born  1705;  succeeded 
his  father  as  sixth  baronet  of  Dray- 
cot,  Wilts,  17x9;  M.P. ;  married 
heiress  of  Earl  Tylney ;  died  1767. 

Sir  Francis  Dashwood,  born  1708 ; 
travelled  in  France,  Italy,  Russia, 
etc.;  M.P. ;  Chancellor  of  the  Ex- 
chequer, 176^,-3  ;  confirmed  in  his 
mother's  barony  of  Le  Despencer, 
1763;  Postmaster-General;  F.R.S., 
LL.D.;  died  1781. 

Sir  Andrew  Mitchell,  born  1708;  tra- 
velled and  studied  at  Leyden  Uni- 
versity and  elsewhere  on  the 
Continent;  M.P.;  Under-Secretary 
of  State  for  Scotland,  174a;  Am- 
bassador to  the  Court  of  Prussia, 
175-6',  and  Envoy  Extraordinary  to 
the  same  court,  1765;  K.B.,  176?; 
confidential  friend  of  Frederick  II ; 
died  at  Berlin,  1771. 

Sir  Brownlow  Sherard,  Student  at 
Leyden  University,  and  travelled  in 
the  East;  succeeded  his  father  as 
fourth  baronet,  173I- ;  M.P. ;  married 
Mary  Sidney,  co-heiress  of  the  Earl 
of  Leicester;  died  1748. 

Thomas  Archer,  of  Umberslade,  War- 
wick, born  \6y<)  ;  M.P. ;  created 
Baron  Archer,  1747;  died  1768. 

Duke  of  Man- 

Lord  le 

Sir  Andrew 
Mitchell,  K.B. 

Baron  Archer. 


List  of  Members  of 

Mr.  R. 

Hon.  Thomas 

Mr.  E.Clarke. 

Mr.  W. 


Mr.T.  Anson. 

Sir  James 

Mr.  William 

Mr.  Wiliiam 

Hon.  James 

Hon.  Sewallis 

1736  {continued). 

Robert  Bristow,  of  Micheldever, 
Hants;  M.P.;  Clerk  Comptroller 
of  the  Household;  died  1737. 

Thomas  Villiers,  born  1709;  second 
son  of  Earl  of  Jersey ;  Minister 
Plenipotentiary  to  Dresden,  Vienna, 
Berlin,  and  other  courts ;  M.P. ; 
created  Viscount  Hyde,  1756",  and 
Earl  of  Clarendon,  1776";  Postmaster- 
General  and  Chancellor  of  the  Duchy 
of  Lancaster;  died  1786". 

Edward  Clarke. 

William  Degge,  born  165*8 ;  second 
son  of  Simon  Degge,  of  Derby ; 
Lieutenant-Colonel  of  Dragoons. 

Thomas  Anson,  of  Shugborough,  Staf- 
fordshire; M.P.;  elder  brother  of  Ad- 
miral Anson;  died  unmarried  1773. 

Sir  James  Gray,  eldest  son  of  first 
baronet;  British  Resident  at  Venice, 
1746"— 53  ;  Envoy  to  the  Court  of 
Naples  and  the  Two  Sicilies,  1 754-66, 
and  to  the  Court  of  Spain,  1766-73  ; 
K.B.,  1761;  P.C,  1769;  died  1773. 

William  DENNY,Colonelinthe  Army; 
Deputy-Governor  of  Pennsylvania, 
1756-9;  died  about  1770. 

William  Strode,  born  1698;  Colonel 
6and  Foot,  and  Lieutenant-General, 
1 76"  5 ;  served  under  the  Duke  of 
Cumberland;  M.P. ;  died  1776", 
buried  in  Westminster  Abbey. 

James  Noel,  third  son  of  third  Earl 
of  Gainsborough ;  M.P. ;  died  1752. 

Sewallis  Shirley,  born  1709;  fourth 
son  of  first  Earl  Ferrers;  M.P. ; 
Comptroller  of  the  Household  to 
Queen  Charlotte  ;  died  1765". 

Earl  of 


Sir  James  Gray, 
Bart.,  K.B. 

the  Society  of  Dilettanti 


Mr.  George 

Rev.  Arthur 

Mr.  D.Boone. 

Sir  Henry 

Mr.  George 

Mr.  William 

Mr.  Henry 

Mr.  Thomas 

1736  {continued.} 

George  Knapton,  born  1698 ;  painter 
in  oil  and  crayons ;  resided  for  many 
years  in  Italy;  surveyor  and  keeper 
of  the  royal  collection  of  pictures, 
1765;  first  Painter  to  the  Society; 
died  1778. 

Arthur  Smyth,  son  of  the  Bishop  of 
Limerick;  travelled  after  leaving 
Oxford;  Dean  of  Raphoe,  1743, 
and  Deny,  1744.;  Bishop  of  Clon- 
fert,  1772,  Down,  175-3,  and  Meath, 
176?;  Archbishop  of  Dublin,  1766; 
died  1771. 

Daniel  Boone,  born  17 10;  son  of 
Governor  of  Bombay;  Director  of 
the  East  India  Company  and  the 
Bank  of  England  ;  M.P. ;  Clerk  of 
the  Household  to  Frederick,  Prince 
of  Wales;  died  1770. 

Sir  Henry  Liddell,  born  1708 ;  suc- 
ceeded his  father  as  fourth  baronet, 
1723;  M.P.;  created  Baron  Ravens- 
worth,  1747;  died  1784. 

George  Gray,  second  son  of  Sir  James 
Gray,  Bart.;  Colonel  of  37th  Foot 
and  Major-Gen eral ;  succeeded  his 
brother  as  third  baronet,  1773;  Secre- 
tary and  Treasurer  to  the  Society, 
1738-71 ;  died  1773. 

William  Fauquier,  banker  and  Direc- 
tor of  the  South  Sea  Company; 
Secretary  to  the  Society,  1771-4; 
Registrar  and  Secretary  of  the  Order 
of  the  Bath,  178  ?;F.R.S.;  died  1788. 

Henry  Harris, Commissioner  of  Wine 
Licences  and  Gentleman  Usher  of 
the  Black  Rod  in  Ireland;  first 
Treasurer  and  High  Steward  to  the 
Society;  died  1764. 

Thomas  Whitmore,  of  Apley,  Shrop- 
shire; M.P.,  K.B. ;  died  1773. 

r  2 

Archbishop  of 

Baron  Ravens- 

General  Sir 
George  Gray, 

Sir  Thomas 


List  of  Members  of 

Mr.  Robert 


Sir  Hugh 

Mr.  Turner. 
Mr.  Spence. 

Mr.  Phillips. 

Mr.  Delme. 

Hon.  Robert 

1736  (continued}. 

Robert  Dingley,  of  Lamb  Abbey, 
Chiselhurst,  merchant,  born  1705;; 
contested  Middlesex  in  1768  against 
John  Wilkes ;  founder  of  the  Mag- 
dalen Hospital,  1758  j  died  1781. 

Sir  Hugh  Smithson,  born  1715  5  suc- 
ceeded as  fourth  baronet,  1 729  • 
M.P. ;  married,  1740,  Elizabeth 
Seymour,  daughter  and  heiress  of 
sixth  Duke  of  Somerset  and  grand- 
daughter of  eleventh  Earlof  Northum- 
berland ;  succeeded  as  Earlof  North- 
umberland, and  assumed  the  name 
of  Percy,  i75"o;  K.G.,  Lord  of  the 
Bedchamber,  Lord  Chamberlain,  and 
Lord-Lieutenant  of  Ireland ;  created 
Duke  of  Northumberland,  1766; 
died  at  Syon  House,  1786". 

Joseph  Spence,  born  1699  5  Fellow  of 
New  College,  Oxford ;  travelled  in 
France  and  Italy,  1730-33,  with  the 
Earl  of  Middlesex,  and  in  1739-4.1 
with  the  Earl  of  Lincoln ;  Professor 
of  Poetry  and  Regius  Professor  of 
Modern  History  at  Oxford ;  author 
of  Polymetis,  The  Anecdotes,  etc. ;  and 
friend  and  correspondent  of  Pope  • 
died  at  Byfleet,  Surrey,  1768. 

[?  Sir  Erasmus  Philipps,  Bart.,  of  Picton 
Castle,  born  1700 ;  M.P. ;  succeeded 
his  father  as  fifth  baronet,  1736; 
died  1743.] 

Peter  Delme,  born  1710;  son  of  Sir 
Peter  Delme,  Lord  Mayor  of  London  j 
M.P. ;  died  1770. 

Robert  Hay,  born  1712;  second  son 
of  seventh  Earl  of  Kinnoull ;  Bishop 
of  St.  Asaph,  1748,  and  Salisbury, 
1761 ;  Archbishop  of  York,  1761  ; 
assumed  additional  name  of  Drum- 
mondj  died  ijj6. 

Duke  of 


Rev.  Joseph 

Archbishop  of 

the  Society  of  Dilettanti 



Mr.  Bowman. 

Hon.  Charles 

Mr.  Williams. 


Mr.  Darcy. 

1  [Count 


2  Earl  of 


Mr.  Thomas 

Mr.  George 

Mr.  Knight. 
Mr.  Gore. 

1736  (continued}. 

Simon  Luttrell,  born  17 13;  M.P. ; 
created  Baron  Irnham,  1768;  Vis- 
count Carhampton,  1780-81;  Earl 
of  Carhampton,  1785" ;  died  1787. 

Charles  Feilding,  third  son  of  fourth 
Earlof  Denbigh;  Lieutenant-Colonel 
in  the  Army ;  Gentleman  Usher  to 
Queen  Caroline;  died  1745. 

Sir  Charles  Hanbury  Williams,  born 
1708;  M.P.;spentmostofhislifein  the 
diplomatic  service  at  Dresden,Berlin, 
Vienna,  and  St.  Petersburg ;  author 
of  many  satirical  poems;  died  175:9. 

John  Monckton,  born  itfp?;  M.P.; 
created  Viscount  Galway,  1717; 
Commissioner  of  Revenue  and  Sur- 
veyor General  of  Woods  and  Forests; 
died  1 75"  1. 

Patrick  Darcy. 

Earl  of  Car- 

George  Fitzroy,  Earl  of  Euston,  born 
1 71 5  ;  eldest  son  of  second  Duke  of 
Grafton;  M.P. ;  died  before  his 
father,  17+7. 

Thomas  Steavens,  son  of  Sir  John 
Steavens  of  Eltham ;  died  1779. 


George  Stanhope,  [?  second  son  of 
first  Earl  Stanhope;  born  1717]. 

[?  Robert  Knight,  of  Barrels ;  M.P. ; 

afterwards  Baron   Luxborough   and 

Earl  of  Catherlough.] 
[?  Arthur  Gore,  elder  brother  of  Lord 

Annaly;  M.P.;  died  1758.] 

Sir  Charles 


1  In  the  list  published  for  the  Society  by  Sir  William  A.  Fraser,  Bart.,  the  two  names  occur  here  as 
original  members,  but  there  is  no  trace  of  the  names  in  the  original  list  as  given  in  the  minutes. 
■  The  first  member  whose  election  is  recorded  in  the  Minute-Books. 


List  of  Members  of 

Mr.  Stewart. 
Earl  Cowper. 

Hon.  James 

I737  {continue dY 
[?  William  Stewart.] 

William  Cowper,  second  Earl  Cowper, 
born  1 705) ;  Lord  of  the  Bedchamber 
to  George  II;  F.R.S.,  LL.D.; 
married  Henrietta,  daughter  and 
heiress  of  Henry  d'Auverquerque, 
Earl  of  Grantham ;  died  1764. 

[?  James  Hamilton,  born  171a  ;  eldest 
son  of  seventh  Earl  of  Abercorn; 
summoned  to  Irish  House  of  Lords 
as  Baron  Mountcastle,  1738;  suc- 
ceeded his  father  as  eighth  Earl  of 
Abercorn,  174!;  died  1785).] 

Earl  of 
Abercorn  ? 

The  Duke  of 

Mr.  Samuel 

Lord  Rock- 

Mr.  Samuel 



Evelyn  Pierrepont,  second  Duke  of 
Kingston,  born  1711;  succeeded  as 
second  duke,  1716;  Lord  of  the 
Bedchamber  and  K.G.,  1 74.1 ;  held 
various  commands  in  the  army  and 
fought  at  Culloden;  married  cMiss 
Chudleigh';  died  1773. 

Samuel  Savage. 

Lewis  Watson,  born  1709  (?);  second 
son  of  Viscount  Sondes ;  succeeded 
his  grandfather  as  second  Earl  of 
Rockingham,  17x4.;  died  174.?* 

Samuel  Feake  ;  a  Director  of  the  East 
India  Company. 

George  Montagu,  born  1716;  son 
of  George,  first  Earl  of  Halifax; 
married,  1741,  Miss  Dunk,  a  rich 
heiress,  whose  surname  he  assumed ; 
Lieutenant-General  in  the  Army ; 
President  of  the  Board  of  Trade, 
and  'Father  of  the  Colonies' ;  Lord- 
Lieutenant  of  Ireland ;  First  Lord  of 
the  Admiralty,  and  Secretary  of 
State;  K.G. ;  died  1771. 

Earl  of  Halifax, 

Hon.  Thomas 

the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

1738  {continued). 

Thomas  Watson,  born  1715";  younger 
son  of  Viscount  Sondes;  M.P. ; 
succeeded  his  brother  as  third  Earl 
of  Rockingham,  174.5";  died  1746". 


Earl  of  Rocking- 

Lord  Barring- 

Mr.  News- 

Mr.  Mallet. 

Mr.  Norborne 

Mr.  Henry 


Mr.  Varey. 


William  Wildman,  second  Viscount 
Barrington,  born  1717,  travelled  on 
the  Continent,  1735—8 ;  M.P. ;  Lord 
of  the  Admiralty,  Secretary  at  War, 
Chancellor  of  the  Exchequer,  and 
Treasurer  of  the  Navy;  died  1793. 

James  Newsham,  born  1715 ;  nephew  of 
James  Craggs,  Secretary  of  State,  and 
stepson  of  John  Knight  of  Gosfield. 

David  Mallet  (or  Muloch),  born 
1705-  (?) ;  author  of  numerous  poems 
and  tragedies,  and  friend  and  cor- 
respondent of  Pope,  Bolingbroke  and 
others  ;  tutor  to  various  members  of 
the  aristocracy  (including  Mr.  News- 
ham),  and  a  follower  of  the  Earl 
of  Bute  and  the  Prince  of  Wales; 
died  1 765'. 

Norborne  Berkeley,  son  of  John 
Symms  Berkeley,  of  Stoke  GifJbrd; 
M.P.;  successfully  claimed  the  barony 
of  Botetourt,  1764.;  Governor  of 
Virginia,  and  died  at  Williamsburgh, 

Henry  Crowley. 

William  Varey;  mentioned  in  the 
correspondence  of  G.  A.  Selwyn 
and  others  as  a  man  of  fashion. 

Mr.  Vernon.      Francis  Vernon. 


Mr.  Grim- 


Lord  Botetourt. 


List  of  Members  of 

Mr.  Bristow. 

Earl  of 

1740  (continued}. 

William  Bristow  ;  Commissioner  of 
Revenue  in  Ireland  5  M.P.,  F.R.S.; 
died  175*8. 

John  Montagu,  fourth  Earl  of  Sand- 
wich, born  1 71 8  ;  succeeded  his 
grandfather,  1719;  travelled  in  Italy, 
Sicily,  the  Greek  Islands,  Turkey, 
and  the  East  up  to  1739 ;  First  Lord 
of  the  Admiralty ;  Plenipotentiary 
at  the  peace  of  Aix-la-Chapelle, 
174.8  ;  died  179a. 

Lord  Galway. 

Mr.  W.  H. 

Mr.  Wellbore 

Marquess  of 


Mr.  NeJ- 



William  Hall  Gage,  born  171 8; 
eldest  son  of  first  Viscount  Gage; 
M.P. ;  and  succeeded  as  second 
viscount,  1754;  Paymaster  of  the 
Pensions;  F.R.S. ;  created  Baron 
Gage,  1780;  died  1791. 

Welbore  Ellis,  born  171 3;  son  of 
Bishop  of  Meath ;  M.P. ;  Lord  of 
the  Admiralty,  1747;  Vice-Treasurer 
of  the  Household,  17??;  Secretary 
of  State  for  America,  178a;  created 
Baron  Mendip,  1794;  F.R.S., 
D.C.L.,  and  a  trustee  of  the  British 
Museum;  died  180a. 

William  Cavendish,  Marquess  of 
Hartington,  born  1720;  M.P. ; 
summoned  to  the  House  of  Lords  as 
Lord  Cavendish,  175T;  Lord-Lieu- 
tenant of  Ireland;  succeeded  as  fourth 
Duke  of  Devonshire,  175*5:;  Prime 
Minister,  175"^;  K.G. ;  died  1764.. 

George  Henry  Lee,  Viscount  Quaren- 
don, born  1718;  M.P. ;  succeeded 
his  rather  as  third  Earl  of  Litchfield, 
1 74-3  ;  Chancellor  of  the  University 
of  Oxford,  1761;  died  1772. 

James  Nelthorpe  ;  died  1767. 

Viscount  Gage. 

Baron  Mendip. 

Duke  of  Devon- 

Earl  of  Litch- 

the  Society  of  'Dilettanti 


Sir  Charles 

Hon.  Mr. 

Lord  Lovel. 

Mr.  William 

Sir  John 

Rev.  Mr. 

Earl  of 

Mr.  Mac- 

Mr.  Ross. 


174—  {continued). 

Sir  Charles  Bunbury  ;  succeeded  as 
fourth  baronet,  1753  ;  M.P.;  died 

Edward  Coke,  born  17x0;  only  son 
of  Thomas  Coke,  Lord  Lovel;  M.P.; 
styled  ViscountCoke,  1 744-73  ;  mar- 
ried Lady  Mary  Campbell;  died  175:3. 

Thomas  Coke  of  Holkham,  born  1695 ; 
M.P.;  created  Baron  Lovel,  17x8, 
and  Earl  of  Leicester,  1744;  Post- 
master-General; died  1759. 



Sir  John  Rawdon,  born  1710;  suc- 
ceeded as  baronet ;  travelled  in 
Greece  and  the  East ;  M.P.;  created 
Baron  Rawdon,  1770,  and  Earl  of 
Moira,  1761;  F.R.S. ;  died  1793. 

Thomas  Dampier,  born  about  1704; 
Under-Master  of  Eton  School; 
Canon  of  Windsor  and  Dean  of 
Durham;  died  1777. 

Henry  Fiennes-Clinton,  born  1710; 
succeeded  his  brother  as  ninth  Earl 
of  Lincoln,  1730;  Lord  of  the  Bed- 
chamber; K.G.;  succeeded  his  uncle 
as  second  Duke  of  Newcastle,  1768 ; 
died  1794. 

Kenneth  Mackenzie,  born  1718  (?) ; 
eldest  son  of  fifth  Earl  of  Seaforth ; 
attainted  for  his  share  in  the  Jacobite 
rebellion;  M.P. ;  sometimes  styled 
Viscount  Fortrose ;  died  1761. 

Charles  Ross,  of  Balnagar,  second 
son  of  Viscount  Ross;  M.P.;  killed 
at  Fontenoy,  1745". 

William  Wentworth,  born  if%%i 
succeeded  his  father  as  second  Earl 
of  Strafford,  1739;  a  well-known 
amateur;  died  1791. 

Viscount  Coke. 

Earl  of  Leicester. 

Earl  of  Moira. 

Duke  of  New- 

Earl  of  Strafford. 


Mr.  Cole- 

Mr.  Cotton. 

List  of  Members  of 

174I  (continued}. 

Robert  Colebrooke,  born  17 18  ;  elder 
brother  of  first  baronet;  M.P.;  minis- 
ter to  the  Swiss  Cantons  and  am- 
bassador to  the  Ottoman  Porte ;  died 

John  Hinde  Cotton,  born  171 8; 
succeeded  as  fourth  baronet,  iy^a  j 
M.P. ;  died  if^- 

Sir  John  Hinde 
Cotton,  Bart. 

Mr.  J.  Ross- 



Lord  Mansel. 

Mr.  Frederick. 

Mr.  Thomas 

Duke  of 


John  Mackye,  of  Polgowan  ;  M.P.  ; 
assumed  name  of  Ross  on  marriage 
with  daughter  and  co-heiress  of 
thirteenth  Lord  Ross;  Treasurer 
and  Paymaster  of  the  Ordnance; 
died  1797. 

James  Ogilvy,  Lord  Deskfoord,  born 
I7i4(?);  eldest  son  of  fifth  Earl  of 
Findlater;  Commissioner  of  Customs 
and  Lord  of  Police;  succeeded  as  sixth 
Earl  of  Findlater,  1 764. ;  committed 
suicide,  1770. 

Thomas,  second  Lord  Mansell  of 
Morgan ;  succeeded  his  grandfather, 
17x3  ;  died  1744. 

John  Frederick,  eldest  son  of  first 
baronet ;  succeeded  as  second  baronet, 
1 7f  ? ;  a  well-known  collector  of 
antiquities  and  works  of  art;   died 

Thomas  Brand,  of  the  Hoo,  Herts. ; 
M.P.;    married   daughter  of    Duke 
of  Kingston;  died  1770. 

John  Russell,  fourth  Duke  of  Bedford, 
born  171  o;  succeeded  his  brother, 
173a;  First  Lord  of  the  Admiralty, 
Secretary  of  State,  Lord-Lieutenant 
of  Ireland,  Ambassador  Extra- 
ordinary to  the  Court  of  France; 
K.  G. ;  died  1771. 

Earl  of  Findlater. 

Sir  John 

the  Society  of  "Dilettanti 


Hon.  Henry 

I74a  {c°nttnue(l)' 

Henry  Bilson  Legge,  fourth  son  of 
first  Earl  of  Dartmouth,  born  1708  ; 
M.P. ;  Secretary  for  Ireland;  Lord  of 
the  Admiralty,  Envoy  Extraordinary 
to  the  King  of  Prussia ;  Chancellor 
of  the  Exchequer  ;  died  1 764. 

Mr.  Liddell. 

Sir  Charles 


Mr.  Cal- 

Mr.  Blyth. 
Mr.  Lascelles. 

Mr.  William 

Mr.  Vernon. 

Mr.  Robert 

Sir  Bourchier 


[?  Richard  Liddell,  fifth  son  of  third 

Sir  Charles  Wyndham,  born  1710; 
son  of  third  baronet,  and  succeeded 
his  father,  1 740  ;  succeeded  his  uncle 
as  second  Earl  of  Egremont,  175-0  ; 
Secretary  of  State;  died  1763. 

William  Lushington,  second  son  of 
Thomas  Godfrey  Lushington  of 
Sittingbourne ;  Captain  in  the  Army ; 
died  1763. 

Henry  Calthorpe,  son  of  Reynolds 
Calthorpe  of  Elvetham, Hants;  K.B.; 
died  1788. 

John  Bligh,  born  1719 ;  succeeded  his 
brother  as  third  Earl  of  Darnley, 
1747;  died  1787. 

Edwin  Lascelles,  of  Harewood,  born 
171 3;  M.P.;  created  Baron  Hare- 
wood,  1790;  died  1 795'. 

[?  William  Peere  Williams  ;  suc- 
ceeded his  rather  as  second  baronet, 
1758;  M.P.;  killed  at  Belleisle, 

Henry  Vernon,  of  Hilton  Park,  Staf- 
fordshire, born  1718  ;  died  1777. 

Robert  Coke,  of  Hillingdon ;  married 
sister  of  last  Duke  of  Wharton. 

Sir  Bourchier  Wrey;  succeeded  his 
father  as  fifth  baronet,  1  jz6  ;  M.P. ; 
died  1784. 

Earl  of 

Sir  Henry  Cal- 
thorpe, K.B. 

Earl  of  Darnley. 

Baron  Hare- 

Sir  William 
Bart.  ? 


Mr.  George 

Lord  George 

Mr.  Patrick 

Earl  of  Rock- 

Mr.  Pitt. 

Lord  Conway. 

Mr.  B. 

Mr.  Dingley. 



Lord  Gowran. 

List  of  Members  of 

1742  (continued), 

George  Bubb-Dodington,  born  169 1; 

M.P.;    the   well-known    politician; 

Treasurer    of    the    Navy;    created 

Baron  Melcombe  Regis,  1761  ;  died 

George  Graham,  younger  son  of  first 

Duke  of  Montrose-    R.N.,  M.P.; 

died  1747. 


Francis  Seymour-Conway,  born  1718  ; 
succeeded  his  father  as  second  Baron 
Conway,  1731;  created  Earl  of 
Hertford,  1750,  and  Marquess  of 
Hertford,  1793;  K.G. ;  Ambassador 
to  Paris,  Lord-Lieutenant  of  Ireland, 
Master  of  the  Horse,  and  Lord 
Chamberlain;  died  1794. 

Bellingham  Boyle,  son  of  first  Earl  of 
Shannon 1 ;  Commissioner  of  Re- 
venue ;  married  to  daughter  of 
Archbishop  Hoadly ;  died  1771. 



Alan  Brodrick,  second  Viscount 
Midleton,  born  1 702  ;  succeeded  his 
father,  1733;  Commissioner  of 
Customs ;  Joint  Comptroller  of  the 
Navy;  died  1747. 

George  Churchill,  son  of  Lieu- 
tenant-General  Charles  Churchill 
and  Anne  Oldfield;  Lieutenant- 
General  in  the  Army  ;  died  175-3 . 

John  Fitzpatrick,  second  Baron 
Gowran,  born  1719;  succeeded  his 
father,  1727 ;  created  Earl  of  Upper 
Ossory,  175:1;  died  1758. 

Baron  Melcombe 

Marquess  of 
Hertford,  K.G. 

Earl  of  Upper 

1  Or  perhaps  of  the  Hon.  Richard  Boyle  and  his  second  wife  Madeline  Bellingham. 

the  Society  of  'Dilettanti 


Mr.  Nel- 

Sir  Everard 


Marquess  of 



Mr.  Berkeley. 

Mr.  Feilding. 

Hon.  Richard 

Mr.  Lascelles. 
Mr.  Foster. 



Sir  Everard  Fawkener,  born  1684; 
merchant  ;  friend  of  Voltaire ;  Am- 
bassador to  the  Ottoman  Porte ; 
Postmaster-General;  died  175-8. 

Simon  Fanshawe,  of  Fanshawe  Gate, 
born  1716'-  M.P. ;  died  1777. 

John  Manners,  Marquess  of  Granby, 
born  1 72 1 ;  eldest  son  of  third  Duke 
of  Rutland;  Commander  of  the 
British  forces  at  the  victory  of 
Minden,  1759;  Commander-in- 
Chief  of  the  land  forces  in  England ; 
died  1770. 

Baron  Hochberg  (or  Hohberg). 



Richard  Edgcumbe,  born  1716;  eldest 
son  of  first  Baron  Mount-Edgcumbe; 
Major-General  in  the  Army,  Lord 
of  the  Admiralty,  and  Comptroller 
of  the  Household;  wit  and  poet; 
succeeded  as  second  Lord  Mount- 
Edgcumbe,  1758;  died  1761. 


John  Thomas  Foster,  of  Dunleer; 
M.P. ;  married  Lady  Elizabeth 
Hervey  (afterwards  Duchess  of 
Devonshire);  died  1761. 

Baron  Mount- 

Duke  of 

Marquess  of 





List  of  Members  of 

Earl  of 


Earl  of  Ash- 

Mr.  St. 

1745  (continued}. 

Robert  Darcy,  sixth  Earl  of  Holder- 
nesse,  born  1718-  succeeded  his 
father,  17x2;  Lord  of  the  Bed- 
chamber in  attendance  on  the  King 
at  Dettingen;  Ambassador  to  the 
Republic  of  Venice,  and  to  the  Low 
Countries;  Secretary  of  State  and 
Lord  Justice  of  the  Realm ;  died 

John,  second  Earl  of  Ashburnham, 
born  1724;  succeeded  his  father, 
1737;  Lord  of  the  Bedchamber; 
died  1 8 ix. 

Chevalier  St.  George  (?  Henry  St. 
George,  born  1716 ;  M.P. ;  died 
17^);  F.R.S. 



Richard  Aldworth,  of  Stanlake,  born 
1 7 17;  married  daughter  of  Richard 
Neville,  of  Billingbere ;  assumed 
name  of  Neville-Aldworth  ;  M.P. ; 
Ambassador  to  Paris ;  Under-Secre- 
tary of  State  ;  died  1793. 


Lord  Hobart.  John  Hobart,  second  Earl  of  Bucking- 
hamshire, born  17x2;  Ambassador 
to  Russia ;  Lord- Lieutenant  of 
Ireland;  died  1793. 

Sir  Thomas         Sir   Thomas   Saunders    Sebright,   of 
Sebright.  Beechwood,    Herts.,     born     1723; 

succeeded  as  yth  baronet,  1736' ;  died 


Earl  of  Bless-  I  William   Stewart,  second  Viscount 
ington.  Mountjoy,    born    1709;    succeeded 

his   father,   1728;    created  Earl   of 
Blessington,  1745;  died  1769. 

Earl  of  Bucking- 

the  Society  of  Dilettanti 




174^  {continued). 

George  Edgcumbe,  born  1711  • 
younger  son  of  first  Baron  Mount- 
Edgcumbe;  R.N. ;  Admiral  ;  suc- 
ceeded his  brother  as  third  Baron 
Mount-Edgcumbe,  1761  ;  Treasurer 
of  the  Household ;  created  Earl  of 
Mount-Edgcumbe,  1789;  died  175)5". 

Earl  of  Mount- 

Mr.  Dun- 

Earl  of  March. 

Mr.  Tilson. 
Dr.  Gamier. 

Mr.  Freeman. 
Mr.  Gell. 

Sir  William 

Mr.  Dingley. 


Thomas  DuNCOMBE,of  Duncombe  Park; 
died  1795). 


William  Douglas,  third  Earl  of  March, 
born  1715;  succeeded  his  father, 
1 731;  Lord  of  the  Bedchamber; 
succeeded  his  cousin  as  fourth  Duke 
of  Queensberry ;  as  f  Old  Q./  one  of 
the  noted  characters  of  his  day ;  died 

James  Tilson,  of  St.  George's,  Hanover 
Square;  died  1764. 

Thomas  GARNiER,of  Wykeham,Hants; 
Apothecary-General  to  the  Army ; 
died  1763. 

Sambrooke  Freeman,  of  Fawley  Court, 
born  1710;  M.P. ;  son  of  John 
Freeman  and  Susanna,  daughter  of 
Sir  Jeremiah  Sambrooke ;  died  178a. 

Philip  Gell,  of  Hopton,  Derby ;  died 


Sir  William  Milner,  born  17 19; 
succeeded  hisfather  as  second  baronet, 
1745;  Receiver-General  of  the 
Excise;  died  1774. 


Duke  of  Queens- 


List  of  Members  of 


Mr.  Moun- 



Sir  Robert 


Lord  Drum- 

Mr.  George 

Mr.  Bowlby. 

Marquess  of 

Mr.  Dundas. 

Earl  of 


Edward  Wortley  Montagu,  born 
1713;  son  of  Lady  Mary  Wortley 
Montagu;  M.P.,  F.R.S.;  well 
known  for  his  travels  on  the  Con- 
tinent and  in  the  East,  and  his  ec- 
centric life  and  adventures ;  died  1776. 

Archibald  Montgomery,  eleventh 
Earl  of  Eglinton ;  born  ijz6  ;  third 
son  of  ninth  Earl. 

Sir  Robert  Hildyard,  third  baronet, 
born  1716";  M.P.;  died  1781. 

George  Brydges  Rodney,  born  1718  j 
R.N.  ;  the  distinguished  Admiral 
and  victor  at  Cape  Finisterre  and 
other  sea-fights ;  created  a  baronet, 
1764,  and  Baron  Rodney,  I78z; 
M.P.;  died  179*. 

Henry  Douglas,  Earl  of  Drumlanrig, 
born  172.x;  eldest  son  of  third  Duke 
of  Queensberry;  an  officer  in  the 
Army;  accidentally  killed,  1754. 

George  Rice,  of  Newton,  born  1724; 
M.P.j  married  Baroness  Dynevor; 
Commissioner  of  Board  of  Trade; 
Treasurer  of  the  King's  Chamber; 
P.C.;  died  1779. 

Thomas  Bowlby,  of  Durham,  born  165)8; 
Commissioner  of  Excise;  married 
daughter  of  Earl  of  Cardigan  and 
sisterof first Dukeof Montagu;  M.P.; 
died  1778. 



Lawrence  Dundas  ;  Commissary- 
General  ;  created  a  baronet,  '  1762, ; 
died  1781. 

Alexander  Stewart,  sixth  Earl  of 
Galloway,  born  1694;  Lord  of 
Police;  succeeded  his  father,  1746; 
died  1775. 

Admiral  Baron 

Sir  Lawrence 
Dundas,  Bart. 

the  Society  of  Dilettanti 


Mr.  Robert 

Earl  of  Sussex. 

Mr.  Chaplin. 

Mr.  Steavens. 
Lord  Anson. 

Mr.  St.  Leger. 

Mr.  Humber- 

1750  (continued). 

Robert  Jocelyn,  born  1688  ;  fifth  son 
of  Sir  Robert  Jocelyn,  Bart.,  M.P. ; 
Solicitor-General,  Attorney-General, 
Lord  Chancellor-  created  Baron 
Newport  and  Viscount  Jocelyn,  175-^, 
died  175:6". 

George  Augustus  Yelverton,  second 
Earl  of  Sussex,  born  1727;  succeeded 
his  father,  173 1  •  Lord  of  the  Bed- 
chamber to  the  Prince  of  Wales ; 
died  175'L 

John  Chaplin,  of  Blankney  ■  married, 
1757,  the  daughter  of  Earlof  Exeter ; 
died  1764.. 

(?  Re-elected.) 

George,  Lord  Anson,  born  171 7; 
younger  brother  of  Thomas  Anson, 
of  Shugborough;  R.N.;  distinguished 
Admiral  and  victor  off  Cape  Finis- 
terre,  174.7;  created  Baron  Anson, 
1 747 ;  First  Lord  of  the  Admiralty ; 
victor  over  the  French  at  Quiberon, 
1755)  •  died  176%. 

[?  Anthony  St.  Leger  ;  fourth  son  of 
Sir  John  St.  Leger,  of  Grangemellan, 
Kildare;  M.P. ;  died  1770.] 

Thomas  Humberston,  of  Humberston, 
co.  Lincoln. 


Mr.  Watson. 

Mr.  Trench. 
Mr.  Stewart. 


Lewis  Monson,  born  1728;  son  of 
first  Lord  Monson  by  daughter  of 
first  Earl  of  Rockingham  •  assumed 
additional  surname  of  Watson; 
created  Baron  Sondes,   1760;   died 

James  Stuart,  painter  and  architect; 
c  Athenian  Stuart ; '  born  1 7 1 3 .  See 
page  77. 

Baron  Sondes. 


List  of  Members  of 

Mr.  Revett. 


Lord  Charles 

Mr.  Dundas. 
Mr.  Berkeley. 

Mr.  Leeson. 

Lord  Rock- 

Earl  of 

Earl  of  Hold- 

Mr.  James 

Mr.  Knight. 
Mr.  Gordon. 

175I  {continued). 

Nicholas  Revett,  born  17x1  ,  second 
son  of  John  Revett,  of  Brandeston 
Hall,  Suffolk  •  architect.  See  page  75. 

George  Brodrick,  third  Viscount 
Midleton,  born  1730;  succeeded 
his  father,  1747  •  M.P.;  friend  of 
Frederick,  Prince  of  Wales ;  died 


Charles  Douglas,  born  1726 ;  second 
son  of  third  Duke  of  Queensberry ; 
M.P. ;  succeeded  his  brother  as  Earl 
of  Drumlanrig,  17^4. ;  died  175-^. 




Joseph  Leeson,  born  1722;  M.P. ; 
created  Baron  Russborough,  175*6', 
and  Earl  of  Milltown,  1763;  died 


Charles  Watson- Wentworth,  second 
Marquess  of  Rockingham,  born  1730; 
only  son  of  first  Marquess,  and 
succeeded  1750;  K.G. ;  Prime  Min- 
ister, ij6<j-6  and  1782;  died  1782. 



James  Dawkins,  born  1722;  M.P. ; 
travelled  with  Mr.  Robert  Wood  to 
Palmyra  and  Baalbec  •  noted  for  his 
Jacobite  sympathies ;  died  1779. 


Sir  William  Gordon,  Minister  Pleni- 
potentiary to  the  Diet  of  Ratisbon, 
1764. ;  Envoy  Extraordinary  to  Den- 
mark, etc.;  M.P.;  K.B. 

Earl  of  Drum- 

Earl  of  Milltown. 

Marquess  of 

Lord  Charle- 

the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

James  C  aulfeild,  fourth  Viscount  Char- 
lemont,  born  1728  ;  resided  for  some 
time  in  Italy ;  afterwards  highly  dis- 
tinguished as  a  politician,  and  patron 
of  art  and  letters  in  Ireland ;  created 
Earl  of  Charlemont,  1763  •  F.R.S., 
F.S.A.,  K.P.;  died  1799. 


Earl  of 


Earl  of 

Mr.  Stopford. 


Henry  Herbert,  twenty-ninth  Earl  of 
Pembroke  and  Montgomery,  born 
1754;  General  in  the  Army;  suc- 
ceeded his  father,  1750;  Lord  of  the 
Bedchamber;  died  1794. 

James  Stopford,  born  1700  (?);  created 
Baron  Courtown,  17 5-  8,  and  Earl  of 
Courtown,  1762;  died  1770. 

Earl  of 

Hon.  Captain 

Mr.  Gordon. 

Earl  of 


Sir  Thomas 


Augustus  John  Hervey,  born   1724; 

second  son  of  John,  Lord  Hervey ; 

R.N.  5  Vice- Admiral ;  succeeded  his 

brother   as    Earl   of  Bristol,    1775"; 

first   husband   of  Miss   Chudleigh ; 

died  1779. 



Sir  Thomas  Robinson,  born  1693  (?); 
fourth  son  of  Sir  William  Robinson, 
Bart.,  of  Newby ;  M.P. ;  Ambassador 
to  Vienna  and  Joint  Plenipotentiary 
at  the  peace  of  Aix-la-Chapelle ; 
K.B. ;  Secretary  of  State,  Lord 
Justice  of  the  Realm;  Postmaster- 
General;  created  Baron  Grantham, 
1 761 ;  died  1770. 

s  2 

Earl  of  Bristol. 





Mr.  Dering. 

Mr.  Richard 

Mr.  Boothby. 

Mr.  James. 
Hon.  Thomas 

Mr.  Robert 

Mr.  Thomas 

Marquess  of 

Mr.  Mackye- 

Lord  Wark- 


List  of  Members  of 

1761  (continued). 

Edward  Dering,  born  1732;  son  of 
Sir  Edward  Dering,  Bart.,  of  Surren- 
den;  succeeded  as  sixth  baronet, 
1762;  M.P.;  died  1798. 


Richard  Phelps,  Under-Secretary  of 
State;  Provost-Marshal  to  the  Lee- 
ward Islands. 

[?  Brook  Boothby,  of  Ashborne  Hall ; 
younger  son  of  second  baronet.] 

Haughton  James,  born  1738;  of  Jamaica. 

Thomas  Robinson,  born  1738  ;  eldest 
son  of  first  Baron  Grantham;  suc- 
ceeded his  father,  1770;  Ambassador 
to  Spain;  President  of  Board  of  Trade 
and  Foreign  Secretary;  died  1786". 

Robert  Wood,  born  17 14-  in  Ireland; 
travelled  with  Mr.  James  Dawkins  to 
Palmyra  and  Baalbec;  M.P.;  Under- 
Secretary  of  State ;  died  1 771. 

Thomas  Pitt,  born  1737;  nephew  of 
the  Earl  of  Chatham;  M.P.;  a 
well-known  amateur ;  created  Baron 
Camelford,  1784;  died  1793. 

Francis  Russell,  Marquess  of  Tavis- 
tock, born  1739 ;  eldest  son  of  fourth 
Duke  of  Bedford;  accidentally  killed, 


John  Ross-Mackye  (re-elected). 

Hugh  Percy,  Lord  Warkworth,  born 
174a ;  eldest  son  of  Sir  Hugh  Smith- 
son,  afterwards  Duke  of  Northum- 
berland ;  General  in  the  Army  and 
Colonel  of  the  Horse  Guards  ;  M.P. ; 
succeeded  his  mother  as  Baron  Percy, 
1776,  and  his  father  as  second  Duke 
of  Northumberland,  1786";  K.G., 
F.R.S.,  F.S.A.;  died  1817. 

Sir  Edward 
Dering,  Bart. 




Duke  of 


the  Society  of  Dilettanti 


Mr.  Dundas. 



Mr.  Crowle. 

Duke  of  Man- 

Mr.  Mytton. 

Lord  Middle- 

Lord  Clan- 

Mr.  Stuart 

1764  (continued}. 

Thomas  Dundas,  born  1741 ;  only  son 
of  Sir  Lawrence  Dundas,  Bart.,  and 
succeeded  his  father  as  second 
baronet ;  M.P. ;  created  Baron 
Dundas,  1794;  died,  as  'Father  of 
the  Society/  1820. 

Guy  Carleton,  born  1724;  Governor 
of  Canada  and  Commander-in-Chief 
in  America ;  K.B. ;  created  Baron 
Dorchester,  1786;  died  1808. 

John  Brudenell-Montague,  Lord 
Montagu,  born  1735;  son  of 
George  Brudenell,  third  Earl  of 
Cardigan,  and  Mary,  daughter  and 
co-heiress  of  Duke  of  Montagu; 
created  Baron  Montagu  of  Bough- 
ton,  1762, ;  styled  Marquess  of  Mon- 
thermer  on  his  father's  creation  as 
Duke  of  Montagu ;  died  1770. 

John  Charles  Crowle,  of  Fryston 
Hall,  Wakefield;  a  well-known 
lawyer  and  antiquary;  Secretary  to 
the  Society,  1774-78;  died  1811. 

George  Montagu,  fourth  Duke  of 
Manchester,  born  1737;  M.P. ; 
succeeded  his  father,  1761. ;  Lord 
Chamberlain  and  Ambassador  to 
Paris;  died  1788. 

John  Mytton,  of  Halston,  Salop,  born 
1737;  died  1783. 


John  Hamilton,  second  Earl  of  Clan- 
brassil,  born  1729;  succeeded  his 
father,  1758  ;  died  1798. 

John  Stewart-Shaw,  eldest  son  of  Sir 
Michael  Stewart,  third  baronet; 
M.P. ;  assumed  name  of  Shaw,  and 
succeeded  his  father  as  Sir  John 
Shaw-Stewart,  Bart.;  died  18 12. 

Baron  Dundas. 



Marquess  of 

Sir  John  Shaw 
Stewart,  Bart. 

i6x  List  of  Members  of 

1764  (continued}. 

Mr.  Thomas       Thomas  Wynn,  born   1736;    son   of 

Wynn.  second  baronet,  and  succeeded   his 

father  as  third  baronet,  1773  ;  M.P.; 

Colonel  in  the  Army ;  created  Baron 

Newborough,  1776;  died  1807. 

Mr.  Richard       Richard  Pennant,  of  Penrhyn  j  M.P.; 
Pennant.  created  Baron  Penrhyn,  1783;  died 


Mr.  Brand.  (?  Re-elected.) 

Mr.  Crewe.  John  Crewe,  of  Crewe  Hall,  born  1 74a ; 
M.P. ;  created  Baron  Crewe,  1806; 




Baron  Penrhyn. 

Baron  Crewe. 

Col.  St.  John. 

Duke  of 

Mr.  Topham 

Sir  Charles 

Lord  Hin- 


Henry  St.  John,  Colonel  in  the  Army  ; 
M.P. ;  Groom  of  the  Bedchamber; 
a  well-known  social  figure  in  his 
day  ;  died  181 8. 

John  Ker,  third  Duke  of  Roxburghe, 
born  1740 ;  K.G.,  K.T.,  F.S.A.,  etc.; 
Lord  of  the  Bedchamber ;  the  well- 
known  antiquary  and  bibliophile; 
died  1804. 

Topham  Beauclerk,  born  1739;  grand- 
son of  first  Duke  of  St.  Albans ;  the 
well-known  wit,  man  of  fashion,  and 
antiquary ;  husband  of  Lady  Diana 
Beauclerk;  died  1780. 

Sir  Charles  Coote,  Bart.,  born  1738 ; 
natural  son  of  Earl  of  Bellamont; 
K.B.,  1 764. ;  succeeded  his  cousin  as 
Baron  Colrony,  1766 ;  created  Earl  of 
Bellamont,  1767,  and  baronet  1774.; 
died  1800. 

John  Montagu,  Lord  Hinchinbroke, 
born  174!;  eldest  son  of  fourth  Earl 
of  Sandwich,  and  succeeded  his  father, 
175)2;  died  1 8 14. 

Earl  of 

Earl  of 

the  Society  of  Dilettanti 


Mr.  Langton. 

Sir  William 

Mr.  Crawford. 

Sir  Lawrence 


Duke  of  Marl- 

Duke  of 




Lord  Palmer- 

1765  {continued}. 

Bennet  Langton,  born  1737;  a  well- 
known  member  of  polite  and  literary 
society;  friend  of  Dr.  Johnson; 
married  the  Countess  of  Rothes ; 
died  1 80 1. 

Sir  William  Boothby,  Bart. ;  suc- 
ceeded his  grandfather  as  fifth 
baronet;  Major-General  in  the 
Army;  died  1787. 


George  Spencer,  fourth  Duke  of 
Marlborough,  born  1739;  succeeded 
his  father,  1758 ;  Lord  Chamberlain, 
Lord  Privy  Seal;  K.G.,  F.R.S.; 
died  1 81 7. 

Charles  Lennox,  third  Duke  of 
Richmond  and  Lennox,  born  1735; 
succeeded  his  father,  1750;  Colonel 
of  Horse  Guards,  Lord  of  the  Bed- 
chamber, Ambassador  to  Paris, 
Secretary  of  State,  Master-General 
of  the  Ordnance ;  K.G. ;  died  1 806. 

Richard,  Baron  Grosvenor,  born 
1 7  3 1 ;  succeeded  his  father  as 
seventh  baronet,  17??;  M.P. ; 
created  Baron  Grosvenor,  1761, 
and  Earl  Grosvenor,  17  84-;  died 

John,  Baron  Spencer  of  Althorp, 
born  1 734-;  created  Viscount  Spencer, 
1 761,  and  Earl  Spencer,  176?  ;  died 

Henry  Temple,  second  Viscount 
Palmerston,  born  1739;  succeeded 
his  father,  1757 ;  travelled  and 
collected  works  of  art  and  anti- 
quities; M.P.;  died  i8oa. 

Earl  Grosvenor. 

Earl  Spencer. 


List  of  Members  of 


Mr.  Charles 

Mr.  Southwell. 

Col.  Nugent. 

Mr.  Luke 

1765  (continued). 

Charles  Howard,  born  17x0;  son 
of  Henry  Charles  Howard  of  Grey- 
stock,  F.R.S.,  F.S.A.;  succeeded  his 
cousin  as  Duke  of  Norfolk,  1777  ; 
died  1786". 

John  George  Southwell,  born  17*1 5 
officer  in  the  Guards ;  succeeded  his 
father  as  third  Viscount  Southwell, 
17 66 ;  died  1780. 

Edmund  Craggs-Nugent,  born  173 15 
son  of  first  Earl  Nugent;  Lieu- 
tenant -  Colonel  of  Foot  Guards ; 
died  1771. 

Luke  Scrafton  ;  Director  of  East  India 
Company;  Governor  of  Bengal; 
drowned  by  shipwreck  on  his  way  to 
India  in  1 767. 



Earl  of 

Lord  Mount- 

Mr.  Weddell. 

Col.  Ligonier. 


John  Fitzpatrick,  second  Earl  of 
Upper  Ossory,  born  1745";  married 
to  the  divorced  Duchess  of  Grafton ; 
M.P.,  F.R.S.;  died  1818. 

John  Stuart,  Viscount  Mountstuart, 
born  1744;  eldest  son  of  Earl  of 
Bute;  succeeded  his  mother  as 
Viscount  Mountstuart,  1794,  and  his 
father  as  fourth  Earl  of  Bute,  1 791 ; 
created  Marquess  of  Bute,  1796; 
died  1 8 14. 

William  Weddell,  of  Newby,  co. 
York,  born  1736;  M.P.;  a  well- 
known  amateur  and  patron  of  art ; 
died  179a. 

John  Ligonier,  born  1 740 ;  succeeded 
as  second  Viscount  Ligonier,  1770; 
created  Earl  Ligonier,  1776;  a 
distinguished  General  in  the  Army ; 
F.R.S.;  died  178a. 

Earl  of  Upper 

Marquess  of 

Earl  Ligonier. 

the  Society  of  "Dilettanti 


Mr.  Reynolds. 

Sir  James 

Duke  of 

Mr.  Fitz- 


Earl  of 

Capt.  Keith 

Sir  Sampson 

/       Hon.  John 

1766  {continued). 

Sir  Joshua  Reynolds,  born  17x3  ;  the 
eminent  painter  and  President  of 
the  Royal  Academy  ;  died  1792. 

Kenneth  Mackenzie,  born  1744; 
grandson  of  the  attainted  Earl  of 
Seaforth;  created  Viscount  Fortrose, 
1766,  and  Earl  of  Seaforth,  1771; 
died  1 78 1. 

Sir  James  Porter,  born  1710;  Am- 
bassador to  the  Ottoman  Porte,  1 746- 
1762,  ;  F.R.S.  j  died  1776. 


Henry  Scott,  third  Duke  of 
Buccleuch,  born  1746;  succeeded 
his  father,  175:1;  K.G.,  K.T.  ; 
succeeded  to  dukedom  of  Queens- 
bery,  1810$  died  181a. 

George  Robert  Fitzgerald,  born 
1 748  (?) ;  nephew  of  the  Earl  of 
Bristol ;  known  as  c  Fighting  Fitz- 
gerald'; tried  on  a  charge  of  murder, 
and  executed  at  Castlebar  in  Ireland, 

Frederick  Howard,  fifth  Earl  of 
Carlisle,  born  1748 ;  succeeded  his 
father,  1758;  K.G.,  K.T. ;  Lord- 
Lieutenant  of  Ireland ;  died  1  Say. 

Keith  Stewart,  third  son  of  sixth 
Earl  of  Galloway ;  R.N. ;  Admiral  ; 
died  1 795:. 

Sir  Sampson  Gideon,  Bart.,  born  1 744 ; 
created  a  baronet,  1759;  M.P., 
F.R.S. ;  assumed  name  of  Eardley, 
1789;  created  Baron  Eardley,  1785); 
died  1814. 


John  Damer,  eldest  son  of  Lord  Milton; 
married  Anne  Seymour-Conway,  the 
sculptress;  committed  suicide,  1776". 
(Did  not  accept  election.) 

Sir  Joshua 


Earl  of  Seaforth. 

Baron  Eardley. 


List  of  Members  of 

Earl  Fitz- 

Hon.  Charles 
James  Fox. 

Hon.  George 

Mr.  Mytton. 
Lord  Sydney. 

Mr.  Gregory. 

Hon.  Stephen 

Mr.  Payne. 

Mr.  Charles 


William,  second  Earl  Fitzwilliam, 
born  174.8 ;  succeeded  his  father, 
1756;  inherited  estates  of  Marquess 
of  Rockingham ;  Lord  President  of 
the  Council,  Lord-Lieutenant  of 
Ireland;  K.G. ;  died  1853. 

Charles  James  Fox,  born  1749;  third 
son  of  first  Baron  Holland ;  M.P. ; 
the  eminent  statesman  and  orator ; 
died  1806. 

George  Hobart,  born  ijzyC?^  younger 
son  of  first  Earl  of  Buckinghamshire ; 
succeeded  his  brother  as  third  earl, 
1 793  ;  one  of  the  chief  supporters  of 
the  Haymarket  opera  house ;  died 


Dudley  Alexander  Cosby,  Baron 
Sydney,  born  1730  (?);  Minister  to 
the  Court  of  Denmark ;  created 
Baron  Sydney  of  Leix,  1 768  ;   died 


Robert  Gregory,  of  Coole  Park, 
Galway  ;  M.P. ;  died  1810. 

Stephen  Fox,  born  1 745 ;  eldest  son 
of  first  Baron  Holland  ;  succeeded  his 
father,  1774;  Clerk  of  the  Pells; 
died  1774. 

Ralph  Payne,  born  1735;  Clerk  of 
the  Household;  M.P.,  K.B. ; 
Governor  of  the  Leeward  Islands; 
P.C. ;  created  Baron  Lavington, 
1795  ;  died  1807. 

Charles  Howard,  born  1 746 ;  son  of 
Charles  Howard,  afterwards  Duke 
of  Norfolk ;  M.P. ;  Lord  of  the 
Treasury;  styled  Earl  of  Surrey, 
1777-86;  succeeded  his  father  as 
Duke  of  Norfolk,  1 7  86" ;  died  1 8 1 5. 

Earl  of  Bucking- 

Baron  Holland. 



Duke  of  Norfolk. 

the  Society  of  "Dilettanti 


Lord  Robert 

Mr.  George 

Hon.  Mr. 



Earl  of 

Mr.  Price. 

Mr.  Henry 


Duke  of 

Mr.  Wil- 


Robert  Spencer,  third  son  of  third 
Duke  of  Marlborough;  Commissioner 
of  Trade;  died  1831. 

George  Augustus  Selwyn,  born  17 19 ; 
the  well-known  wit ;  Surveyor-Gene- 
ral of  the  Land  Revenue ;  died  1 79 1 . 

Richard  Fitzpatrick,  born  174.7  j 
second  son  of  first  Earl  of  Upper 
Ossory;  M.P. ;  Secretary  at  War; 
General  in  the  Army;  a  writer  of 
social  and  satirical  verse ;  died  181 3. 

Henry  Thomas  Fox-Strangways, 
born  174.7;  eldest  son  of  first  Earl 
of  Ilchester;  M.P. ;  succeeded  his 
father,  1776";  died  1802. 

William  Henry  Nassau  de  Zulestein, 
fourth  Earl  of  Rochford,  born  171 7; 
succeeded  his  father,  171 8;  Am- 
bassador to  Paris  and  Madrid; 
Secretary  of  State  and  Lord  Justice 
of  the  Realm;  K.G. ;  died  17  81. 

Uvedale  Price,  born  174.7  ;  friend  of 
Charles  James  Fox ;  author  of  an 
Essay  on  the  Picturesque ;  created 
a  baronet,  i8a8  ;  died  i8ap. 

Henry  Seymour-Conway,  second  son 
of  first  Earl  of  Hertford ;  Clerk  of 
the  Crown  and  Hanaper ;  died  1830. 

Henry  Theophilus  Clements,  younger 
brother  of  first  Earl  of  Leitrim,  born 
1734.  (?)  ;  Lieutenant-Colonel  and 
Paymaster-General  in  the  Army ; 
M.P.,  P.C.;  died  1795. 

William  Cavendish,  fifth  Duke  of 
Devonshire,  born  174.8 ;  succeeded 
his  father,  1764.;  Colonel  in  the 
Army;  Lord  High  Treasurer  of 
Ireland;  K.G. ;  married  first  Lady 
Georgiana  Spencer,  second  Lady 
Elizabeth  Foster ;  died  1811. 

George  Wilbraham,  of  Nantwich  and 
Delamere,  born  174.1;  died  181 3. 

Earl  of  Ilchester. 

Sir  Uvedale 
Price,  Bart. 


Mr.  Fitz- 

Mr.  Hanger. 

Mr.  William 

Mr.  Ascough. 

Mr.  Arthur 





List  of  Members  of 

1770  {continued). 

Alleyne  Fitzherbert,  born  175*3  ; 
Ambassador  to  Paris,  St.  Petersburg, 
the  Hague,  and  Madrid;  G.C.H., 
F.S.A.,  etc.;  created  Baron  St. 
Helen's,  1801;  died  1839. 

John  Hanger,  born  174.3 ;  elder  son 
of  first  Baron  Coleraine ;  succeeded 
his  father,  1773  ;  died  1794. 

William  Hanger,  born  1 744 ;  younger 
son  of  first  Baron  Coleraine ;  M.P. ; 
succeeded  his  brother  as  third  Baron 
Coleraine,  1794.;  died  18 14. 

George  Edward  Ayscough  ;  son  of 
Dean  of  Bristol  and  nephew  of  Lord 
Lyttelton  ;  Captain  in  the  Guards; 
author  of  Semiramis,  a  drama  pro- 
duced at  Drury  Lane;  died  1779. 


Arthur  Freeman,  of  the  Island  of 
Antigua ;  married  daughter  of  Sir 
George  Thomas,  of  Ratton. 


Peniston  Lamb,  first  Baron  Melbourne, 
born  1 740;  son  of  Sir  Matthew  Lamb, 
Bart. ;  created  Baron  Melbourne, 
1770,  and  Viscount  Melbourne, 
1 781;  Lord  of  the  Bedchamber; 
died  1828. 

John  Burgoyne,  born  i74o(?);  eldest 
son  of  sixth  baronet;  Colonel 
of  Dragoons,  Lieutenant-General ; 
succeeded  his  father  as  seventh 
baronet,  1780;  died  1785'. 

Charles  Stanhope,  Lord  Petersham, 
born  175:3;  eldest  son  of  second 
Earl  of  Harrington ;  M.P. ; 
succeeded  his  father  as  third  earl, 
1 799 ;  General  in  the  Army,  Colonel 
of  1st  Life  Guards  and  Commander- 
in-Chief  in  Ireland ;  G.C.H. ;  died 
1 819. 

Baron  St. 

Baron  Coleraine 
Baron  Coleraine 


Sir  John 

Earl  of 


the  Society  of  "Dilettanti 


Mr.  Luke 

Lord  Charle- 

Mr.  Joseph 

of  Car- 

Hon.  Mr. 


Luke  Gardiner,  born  1 745 ;  M.P. ; 
created  Baron  Mountjoy,  1789,  and 
Viscount  Mountjoy,  1705 ;  killed  at 
the  batttle  of  Ross  in  Ireland,  1798. 



Sir  Joseph  Banks,  born  1744.;  son  of 
William  Banks,  of  Revesby  Abbey ; 
celebrated  as  a  traveller  and 
naturalist  j  President  of  the  Royal 
Society;  Secretary  to  the  Society, 
1778-97;  created  a  baronet  1781  ; 
K.B.;  died  i8ao. 

Francis  Godolphin-Osborne,  Mar- 
quess of  Carmarthen,  born  175*1 ; 
eldest  son  of  fourth  Duke  of  Leeds ; 
M.P.;  succeeded  his  father  as 
fifth  duke,  1789;  Ambassador  to 
Paris  and  Foreign  Secretary ;  K.G., 
F.R.S. ;  married  to  Amelia,  Baroness 
Conyers,  heiress  of  the  Earl  of 
Holdernesse,  who  eloped  with 
Colonel  Byron;    died  1799. 

Charles  Francis  Greville,  born  1 749 ; 
second  son  of  first  Earl  of  Warwick ; 
M.P.;  a  well-known  amateur  and 
man  of  fashion ;  F.R.S.;  died  1809. 


Sir  Joseph  Banks, 

Duke  of  Leeds. 

Hon.  Capt. 

Sir  Sampson 


Constantine  John  Phipps,  born  174.4; 
eldest  son  of  first  Lord  Mulgrave 
(Ireland);  R.N. ;  in  1773  com- 
manded the  Racehorse  on  a  voyage 
to  the  Arctic  seas;  succeeded  his 
father,  1775";  M.P.;  Paymaster- 
General;  created  Baron  Mulgrave 
(England),  1790;  F.R.S. ;  died  1791. 


Baron  Mulgrave. 



List  of  Members  of 

Mr.  Smyth. 

Sir  W.  W. 

Earl  of 

1775  (continued}. 

John  Smyth,  of  Heath  Hall,  Yorkshire, 
born  1748;  M.P.;  Lord  of  the 
Admiralty  and  Master  of  the  Mint ; 
P.C.;  died  i8iz. 

Sir  Watkin  Williams-Wynn,  Bart., 
of Wynnstay,  born  1  74?  (?) ;  succeeded 
his  father  as  fourth  baronet,  1 749  ; 
M.P.,  F.R.S.;died  1789. 


Mr.  Spencer  - 

Mr.  John 

Mr.  Harvey. 
Mr.  Pierse. 

Duke  of 

Mr.  Bennett. 

Lord  Guern- 


Walter  Spencer-Stanhope,  of  Hors- 
forth  and  Cannon  Hall,  Yorkshire, 
born  1749;  M.P.j  died  i8zi. 

John  Taylor,  of  Lyssons,  Jamaica; 
created  a  baronet,  1 778 ;  died 

Henry  Peirse,  of  Bedale,  Yorkshire, 
born  1754;  M.P. ;  died  18^4. 

John  Frederick  Sackville,  third  Duke 
of  Dorset,  born  1 745: ;  grandson  of 
first  duke;  M.P. ;  succeeded  his 
uncle  as  third  duke,  1 769  ;  Am- 
bassador to  Paris;  Lord  Steward  of 
the  Household ;  K.G. ;  died  1799. 

Henry  Astley  Bennet,  third  son  of 
third  Earl  of  Tankerville ;  General 
in  the  Army  ;  died  181 J. 

Heneage  Finch,  Lord  Guernsey,  born 
175-1;  eldest  son  of  third  Earl  of 
Aylesford;  Lord  Steward  of  the 
Household,  and  Captain  of  the 
Yeomen  of  the  Guard;  succeeded  his 
father  as  fourth  earl ;  F.R.S. ;  died 

Sir  John  Taylor, 

Earl  of  Aylesford. 

the  Society  of  "Dilettanti 

17  r 

Capt.  Wal- 

Mr.  Earle. 
Mr.  Brand. 

Mr.  George 
Pitt,  jun. 


Mr.  Richard 

Mr.  S.  Payne- 

1776  {continued}, 

Robert  Boyle- Walsingham,  born 
1736;  fifth  son  of  first  Earl  of 
Shannon;  R.N. ;  drowned  in  H.M.S. 
Thunderer^  1780  ;  married  to  daughter 
of  Sir  Charles  Hanbury  Williams. 

George  Earle. 

Thomas  Brand,  of  the  Hoo,  Herts  5 
married  heiress  of  eighteenth  Lord 
Dacre;  died  1794. 

George  Pitt,  of  Strathfieldsaye,  born 
175-1 ;  M.P. ;  succeeded  his  father 
as  second  Baron  Rivers,  1803  ;  died 

John,  third  Lord  Monson,  born  1753  • 
succeeded  his  father,  1774.  •  Recorder 
of  the  City  of  London;  died  1806". 

Richard  Thompson,  of  Escrick  Park, 
Yorkshire,  born  1 745- ;  died  1 820. 

Stephen  Payne-Gallwey,  born  1750; 
son  of  Ralph  Payne,  of  Tofts  Hall, 
Norfolk;  assumed  name  of  Gallwey. 

Baron  Rivers. 

Sir  William 

Mr.  Dance. 

Mr.  Charlton 



Sir  William  Hamilton,  born  1730; 
Ambassador  to  Naples;  distinguished 
as  an  antiquary  and  man  of  learning; 
K.B.;  died  1803. 

Nathaniel  Dance,  born  1735;  Royal 
Academician  and  portrait  painter; 
assumed  name  of  Holland  and  created 
a  baronet,  1800;  M.P. ;  died  18 n. 

Charlton  Leighton,  eldest  son  of 
third  baronet;  succeeded  his  father, 
1780;  M.P.;  died  1784. 

Alan  Gardner,  born  1741;  R.N. ; 
served  under  Lord  Howe  on  the 
First  of  June,  1794;  M.P.;  Lord  of 
the  Admiralty ;  Admiral  and  Com- 
mander of  the  Channel  Fleet;  created 
a  baronet,  and  Baron  Gardner, 
1806;  died  1 8 19. 

Sir  Nathaniel 
Holland,  Bart. 

Sir  Charlton 


Baron  Gardner. 


List  of  Members  of 

Mr.  B. 

Sir  George 

Lord  Chester- 

Mr.  Garrick. 

1777  {continued). 

Benjamin  Langlois,  born  1727; 
Secretary  to  Embassy  at  Vienna; 
M.P. ;  Under-Secretary  of  State  and 
Storekeeper  of  the  Ordnance ;  died 

Sir  George  Augustus  William  Shuck- 
burgh, sixth  baronet;  succeeded 
his  uncle,  1773;  distinguished  for 
his  philosophical  researches;  M.P., 
F.R.S.;  died  1804. 

Philip  Stanhope,  fifth  Earl  of  Chester- 
field, born  175^;  succeeded  his 
cousin,  1773  ;  Master  of  the  Horse; 
Ambassador  to  Spain ;  K.G. ;  died 

David  Garrick,  born  1717;  the 
famous  actor;  died  1779. 


Marquess  of        Charles  Manners,  Marquess  of  Granby, 
Granby.  born    17^4;    succeeded    his  father, 

1770,  and  his  grandfather  as  fourth 
Duke  of  Rutland,  1779;  M.P.;  Lord 
Steward  of  the  Household,  Lord 
Privy  Seal;  Viceroy  of  Ireland; 
K.G.;   died  1787. 

Hon.  John  John  Dawson,  born  1744;   eldest  son 

Dawson.  of  first    Viscount    Carlow;    M.P. ; 

succeeded  his  father,  1779;   created 

Earl  of  Portarlington,  1785: ;  married 

daughter  of  Earl  of  Bute ;  died  175)8. 

Sir  Richard         Sir  Richard  Worsley,  Bart.,  of  Appul- 
Worsley.  durcombe,    born    17  51;     succeeded 

as  seventh  baronet,  1768;  British 
Resident  at  Venice;  travelled  in 
Greece,  Asia  Minor,  and  Italy,  and 
formed  an  important  collection  of 
ancient  marbles,  published  as  the 
Museum  Worsley anum  in  1794,  and 
now  at  Brocklesby  Park;  M.P.,F.R.S.; 
died  1805-. 


Earl  of 

the  Society  of  Dilettanti 


Mr.  George 

Mr.  Fortescue. 

1778  (continued). 

George  Colman,  born  1732,;  the 
eminent  dramatist;   died  1794. 

Hugh  Fortescue,  born  175-3  -  eldest 
son  of  second  Baron  Fortescue; 
M.P.;  created  Earl  Fortescue,  1789; 
F.S.A.;  died  1841. 


Earl  Fortescue. 

Mr.  Osborne. 

Mr.  Peachey. 

Sir  Edward 

Mr.  Lewin 

Marquess  of 

Mr.  Joseph 


Judge  Thomas 


John  Osborn,  born  1743 ;  second  son 
of  SirDanversOsborn,  Bart.;  Minister 
to  Dresden ;  M.P. 

John  Peachey,  born  1745 ;  only  son  of 
first  Baron  Selsey;  M.P.;  succeeded 
his  father,  1808  ;  died  1816. 

Sir  Edward  Swinburne,  Bart.,  born 
1733 ;  younger  son  of  third  baronet; 
succeeded  his  brother  as  fifth  baronet, 
1763  ;  died  1 7  86. 

John  Lewin  Smith. 

James  Graham,  Marquess  of  Graham, 
born  175-5: ;  eldest  son  of  third  Duke 
of  Montrose;  M.P. ;  Vice-President 
of  the  Board  of  Trade;  succeeded 
his  father,  1790;  Master  of  the 
Horse,  Lord  Chamberlain;  K.G. ; 
died  1836. 

Joseph  Windham,  of  Felbrigg  and  Ears- 
ham,  Norfolk,  born  1739;  traveller, 
scholar,  and  amateur ;  F.R.S.,  F.S.A.; 
died  1810. 


Thomas  Noel,  second  Viscount  Went- 
worth,  born  1745*;  only  son  of  first 
viscount,  and  succeeded  1774 ;  M.P.; 
Lord  of  the  Bedchamber;  died  1815-. 

Baron  Selsey. 

Duke  of 

Thomas    Potter;     son    of 
Potter,  wit  and  politician. 



List  of  Members  of 

Mr.  John 

Mr.  Brown. 

1780  (continued}. 

John  Campbell,  of  C  alder,  born  175-5  (?)• 
M.P.;  created  Baron  Cawdor,  1796  ; 
F.R.S.,  F.S.A.  j  died  1821. 

Lancelot  Brown,  born  1749  ;  M.P.; 
son  of 'Capability  Brown';  died  i8ox. 

Baron  Cawdor. 

Lord  Caith- 

Sir  G.  Onesi- 

Mr.  Charles 

Mr.  Payne 

Sir  Henry  C. 

Mr.  Francis 


John  Sinclair,  eleventh  Earl  of  Caith- 
ness, born  1757;  succeeded  his 
father,  1775);   died  1785?. 

Sir  George  Onesiphorus  Paul,  Bart., 
born  174.6";  succeeded  as  second 
baronet,  1774.;  died  18x0. 

Charles  GoRE,of  Horksted,  Yorkshire; 
lived  many  years  in  Florence,  and 
travelled  in  Sicily  with  R.  Payne 
Knight  and  J.  Philipp  Hackert  in 
1777,  of  which  Goethe  afterwards 
published  the  diary;  resided  some 
years  at  Weimar  as  a  friend  of 
Goethe;  died  1807. 

Richard  Payne  Knight,  of  Downton, 
Herefordshire,  born  i75'o;  resided 
in  Italy  for  several  years;  distin- 
guished as  an  amateur  and  antiquary; 
M.P. ;  bequeathed  his  collections  to 
the  British  Museum;  died  1824. 

Sir  Henry  Charles  Englefield,  Bart., 
born  175^;  succeeded  his  father, 
1780;  distinguished  as  an  antiquary 
and  man  of  science;  President  of 
the  Society  of  Antiquaries;  Secretary 
to  the  Society,  1808-18 2a;  died 


Francis  Humberston  Mackenzie,  born 
175-4;  M.P.;  Lieutenant-General  in 
the  Army ;  Governor  of  Barbadoes ; 
created  Baron  Seaforth,  175)7;  F.R.S.; 
died  18 1 5". 

Baron  Seaforth. 

the  Society  of  Dilettanti 


Mr.  Johnnes. 


Hafod,  born  1 748  ;  M.P. ;  printer 
and  antiquary;  died  1816. 

Sir  George 


Sir  George Howland  Beaumont,  Bart., 
born  175:8  ;  succeeded  his  father  as 
seventh  baronet,  I7<5"a;  the  eminent 
amateur  and  collector;  died  1817. 

Mr.  Bowles. 
Mr.  Ellis. 


Oldfield  Bowles,  of  North  Aston,  co. 
Oxford,  born  1740;  died  18 to. 

John  Thomas  Ellis,  of  Wyddial,  born 
1756";  M.P.;  died  1836'. 

Mr.  Metcalfe. 

Mr.  Knight. 

Mr.  Sylvester 

Mr.  Townley. 


Philip  Metcalfe,  born  1733  ;  younger 
son  of  Roger  Metcalfe,  of  Hawstead, 
Suffolk;  M.P.,F.R.S.,F.S.A.;  friend 
and  executor  of  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds ; 
amateur  and  scholar;  Treasurer  to 
the  Society,  1794;  died  18 18. 

Edward  Knight,  of  Wolverley,  Wor- 
cestershire; born  1734;  first  cousin  to 
Richard  Payne  Knight;  died  i8iz. 

Sylvester  Douglas,  born  1743  ;  M.P.; 
Chief  Secretary  for  Ireland;  Pay- 
master-General, Surveyor-General  of 
Woods  and  Forests;  F.R.S.;  created 
Baron  Glenbervie,  1800;  married 
a  daughter  of  Lord  North;  died 

Charles  Townley  (or  Towneley),  of 
Towneley,borni737;  F.R.S.,F.S.A.; 
the  eminent  collector  of  marbles  and 
antiquities,  which  he  bequeathed  to 
the  British  Museum. 
t  a 



List  of  Members  of 

Mr.  Roger 

Mr.  Henry 

Mr.  James 

Mr.  Cous- 

Mr.  Crache- 


Mr.  Charles 

Col.  Mitford. 

Dr.  Ash. 

Mr.  William 


1786  {continued). 

Roger  Wilbraham,  born  1750;  younger 
son  of  Roger  Wilbraham,  of  Nant- 
wich;  collector  of  pictures  and  books; 
M.P.,  F.R.S.,  F.S.A.;  died  183d. 

Henry  Crathorne  ;  F.R.vS. ;  died 


James  Dawkins,  of  Over  Norton, 
Oxford,  born  1760;  nephew  of  the 
explorer ;  M.P. ;  assumed  name  of 
Colyear;  died  1843. 

George  Kein  Hayward  Coussmaker; 
M.P. ;  Colonel  in  the  Army ; 
married  daughter  of  Lord  Clifford ; 
died  1 80 1. 

Rev.ClaytonMordatjnt  Cracherode, 
born  1730;  the  eminent  collector  of 
books  and  engravings,  which  he 
bequeathed  to  the  British  Museum; 
F.R.S.,  F.S.A.;  died  iy99.  (Pro- 
posed by  the  Society.) 

John  Symmons. 

Charles  W.  Herbert. 

William  Mitford,  of  Exbury,  Hants, 
born  1744;  Colonel  in  the  Militia; 
author  of  the  History  of  Greece ;  M.P., 
F.S.A.;  died  1%VJ, 

John  Ash,  born  17x3;  M.D.,  F.R.S. ; 
founder  of  the  Eumelian  Society; 
died  1798. 


William  Parsons,  F.R.S. ;  poet  and 
member  of  the  'Delia  Cruscan' 
Society ;  joint  author  of  The  Florence 

John  Christian,  of  Milata  and  Ewan- 
rigg ;  M.P. ;  assumed  name  of 
Curwen;    died  i8ap. 

the  Society  of  "Dilettanti 


1788  {continued}. 

Mr.  Wood.  Robert  Wood,  son  of  Robert  Wood,  the 

explorer  of  Palmyra ;  M.P.,  F.R.S. 
Mr.  Smith-  James  Hugh  Smith-Barry,  of  Marbury 

Barry.  Hall,  born  174.6  •  died  1801. 

Mr. Winning-  Edward  Winnington,  born  1749; 
ton.  succeeded  as  second  baronet;  F.R.S.; 

died  1805-. 


Mr.  Brodie.  Alexander  Brodie,  of  Madras,  born 
1728 ;  third  son  of  James  Brodie,  of 
Spynie;  M.P. ;  died  1812. 

Mr.  Petty-  Roger  Pettiward,  of  Great  Finborough, 

ward.  Suffolk ;    son   of   Roger   Mortlock, 

D.D.,  afterwards  Pettiward ;  F.S.  A. ; 
Master  of  the  Stationers'  Company  ; 
died  1835. 

Sir  James  Sir  James   St.  Clair   Erskine,  born 

Erskine.  ^l^h    succeeded  as  sixth  baronet, 

1 76?;  General  in  the  Army;  suc- 
ceeded his  uncle  as  second  Earl  of 
Rosslyn,  1805;  died  1837. 

Sir  Abraham  Sir  Abraham  Hume,  Bart.,  born  1 749  ; 
Hume.  M.P.,  F.R.S.,  F.S.A. ;  a  well-known 

amateur  and  collector;  died  1838. 

Sir  Edward 

Earl  of  Rosslyn. 


Mr.  Fred.  Frederick  North,  born  17 66 ;    third 

North.  son  of  second  Earl  of  Guilford ;  M.P.; 

Comptroller  of  the  Customs  of  Lon- 
don; G.C.M.G.,  F.R.S. ;  succeeded 
his  brother  as  fifth  Earl,  1817; 
died  18x7. 

Mr.  Philip  Philip  Yorke,  born  1757  ;  son  of  Lord 

Yorke.  Chancellor    Charles    Yorke;     suc- 

ceeded his  uncle  as  third  Earl  of 
Hardwicke,  1790;  Viceroy  of  Ireland; 
K.G.,  F.R.S.,  F.S.A. ;  died  1834. 

Mr.  G.  George   Pocock,   born   1765 ;    M.P., 

Pocock.  F.R.S. ;    created   a   baronet,    1821; 

died  1840. 

Earl  of  Guilford. 

Earl  of 


Sir  George 
Pocock,  Bart. 


List  of  Members  of 

Mr.  Dundas. 

Mr.  Bury. 
Mr.  Stanley. 

Mr.  Roger 

Mr.  Cur  wen. 

Mr.  Ellis. 

Mr.  A.  M. 

Earl  of 

I79°  {continued}. 

Lawrence  Dundas,  born  i  y66 ;  eldest 
son  of  first  Baron  Dundas;  succeeded 
his  father,  1810;  created  Earl  of 
Zetland,  1838;  died  1839. 

Charles  William  Bury,  born  1764; 
F.R.S.,F.S.A.;  created  Baron  Charle- 
ville,  1806";  died  1835*. 

John  Thomas  Stanley,  born  ij66  ; 
M.P.;  succeeded  as  seventh  baronet  ; 
created  Baron  Stanley  of  Alderley, 
1839;  F.R.S.,  F.S.A.;  died  1850. 

John  Roger  Palmer;  succeeded  his 
father  as  second  baronet ;  died  181 9. 

John  Christian  Curwen  (re-elected). 


Anthony  Morris  Storer,  of  Purley, 
born  174a;  M.P. ;  Minister  Pleni- 
potentiary to  Paris ;  bibliophile,  and 
bequeathed  his  library  to  Eton  Col- 
lege; died  1799. 

John  Henry  Petty,  Earl  of  Wycombe, 
born  176?;  M.P.;  succeeded  his 
father  as  second  Marquess  of  Lans- 
downe,  1805;  died  1805). 

Earl  of  Zetland. 

Baron  Charle- 

Baron  Stanley  of 

Sir  John  Roger 
Palmer,  Bart. 

Marquess  of 

Sir  Richard 

Mr.  Andrew 

Marquess  of 



Andrew  Francis  Barnard,  born  1773; 
General  in  the  Army ;  distinguished 
in  the  Peninsular  War;  G.C.H., 
1834;  G.C.B.,  1840;  Equerry  to 
George  IV,  and  Clerk  Marshal  to 
Queen  Adelaide;  died  1855. 

John  James  Hamilton,  first  Marquess 
of  Abercorn,  born  1756";  succeeded 
his  uncle  as  ninth  Earl  of  Abercorn, 
1785);  created  Marquess,  1790;  K.G.; 
died  1818. 

Sir  Andrew 
Barnard,  G.C.B. 

the  Society  of  Dilettanti 


Sir  Richard 
Colt  Hoare. 

Mr.  Thomas 

Lord  Eardley. 

Mr.  William 

Mr.  Charles 

Mr.  Benjamin 

Mr.  Walpole. 


Sir  Richard  Colt  Hoare,  Bart.,  born 
17^8  ;  succeeded  as  second  baronet, 
1787 ;  the  eminent  traveller  and 
antiquary;  F.R.S.,F.S.A.;  died  1838. 

Thomas  Lawrence,  born  1769 ;  the 
eminent  portrait  painter  and  Presi- 
dent of  the  Royal  Academy;  Secretary 
to  the  Society,  1822-29;  knighted, 
1817;  died  1830. 

Sampson  Gideon,  Lord  Eardley.  (Re- 

William  Sotheby,  born  1757;  officer 
in  the  Army;  author  of  various  poems 
and  translations  of  Homer,  Virgil, 
etc.;  F.R.S.,  F.S.A.;  died  1833. 

Charles  Long,  born  1760;  son  of 
Beeston  Long,  of  Carshalton,  Surrey ; 
M.P.;  Paymaster-General ;  G.C.B.; 
created  Baron  Farnborough,  1826; 
a  well-known  amateur  and  patron 
of  art ;  died  1838. 

Benjamin  West,  born  1738  in  Penn- 
sylvania; the  eminent  painter;  Presi- 
dent of  the  Royal  Academy,  1792; 
died  1820. 

Thomas  Walpole,  of  Stagbury,  born 
1755;  Minister  to  the  Court  of 
Bavaria ;  died  1 84.0. 

Sir  Thomas 


Sir  William 

Mr.  Tighe. 

Sir  Henry 


Sir  William  Young,  Bart.,  born  1742 ; 
succeeded  his  father  as  second 
baronet,  1788;  M.P.,  F.R.S.;  Gover- 
nor of  Tobago;  died  1811. 

Robert  Stearne  Tighe,  of  Mitchels- 
town,  born  1760;  F.R.S.;  died  1835. 

Sir  Henry  Gough  Calthorpe,  Bart., 



succeeded  his  father  as 

second  baronet,  1774;  assumed  name 
of  Calthorpe,  1788;  M.P. ;  created 
Baron  Calthorpe,  1796;  died  1798. 

Baron  Calthorpe. 


List  of  Members  of 


Lord  Eardley. 

Mr.  Robert 


William  Fullarton,  of  Fullarton, 
born  1754  ;  M.P.;  Colonel  and  after- 
wards General  in  the  Army;  raised 
Fullarton's  horse  for  the  war  in  Spain; 
Commander-in-Chief  in  India ;  Go- 
vernor of  Trinidad;  died  1808. 


Robert  Chester,  of  Bush  Hall,  Herts., 
born  1768;  Master  of  the  Ceremonies. 

Sir  Robert 

Sir  Robert 

Mr.  Hugh 

Mr.  Pole 

Mr.  Womb- 

Mr.  Mathew. 


Sir  Robert  Ainslie,  born  1730  (?); 
Ambassador  to  the  Ottoman  Porte ; 
M.P. ;  a  well-known  collector  of 
coins  and  other  antiquities ;  created 
a  baronet,  1804.;  died  181  z. 

Hugh  Scott,  born  175:8;  M.P. ;  as- 
sumed name  of  Hepburne;  succeeded 
his  mother  as  Baron  Polwarth,  1 83  5 ; 
died  1 84.1. 

Reginald  Pole  Carew,  of  Antony, 
Cornwall,  born  175"!;  M.P. ;  Com- 
missioner of  Trade ;  P.C.,  F.R.S. ; 
died  1 83  5*. 


George  Wombwell,  born  1  j6y ;  suc- 
ceeded as  second  baronet ;  died 


Francis  James  Mathew,  born  1768 ; 
eldest  son  of  first  Earl  of  LlandafF; 
M.P. ;  succeeded  his  father  as  second 
earl,  1806;  died  1833. 

Sir  Robert 
Ainslie,  Bart. 

Baron  Polwarth. 

Sir  George 

Earl  of  LlandafF. 

Sir  John 


Sir  John  Courtenay  Throckmorton, 
born  175*3  j  succeeded  his  grandfather 
as  fifth  baronet,  1791 ;  died  18 19. 

the  Society  of  Dilettanti 


Mr.  Champer- 

Hon.  William 
R.  Spencer. 

Mr.  Brian 

Mr.  John 

Mr.  J.  B.  S. 

Duke  of 

1798  {continued). 

Arthur  Champernowne,  born  1769; 
son  of  Rev.  Richard  Harington,  of 
Dartington,  Devon;  assumed  name 
of  Champernowne ;  M.P. ;  a  well- 
known  collector  of  pictures;  died 


William  Robert  Spencer,  born  1769; 
second  son  of  Lord  Charles  Spencer, 
grandson  of  third  Duke  of  Marl- 
borough ;  Commissioner  of  Stamps ; 
well  known  as  a  wit  and  poet  of 
society ;  died  1834. 

Bryan  Edwards,  F.R.S.,  born  1743  ; 
author  of  a  history  of  the  West 
Indies;  M.P.;  died  1800. 

John  Hawkins,  of  Bignor  Park,  born 
175:8  (?);  traveller  and  collector  of 
antiquities;  F.R.S. ;  died  1841. 

John  Bacon  Sawrey  Morritt,  of  Roke- 
by,born  1772-  (?);  travelled  in  Greece 
and  Asia  Minor ;  M.P. ;  friend  of 
Sir  Walter  Scott;  died  1843. 

Edward  Adolphus  Seymour,  Duke  of 
Somerset,  born  1775";  succeeded  his 
father,  1793  ;  President  of  the  Lin- 
nean  Society  and  the  Royal  Institu- 
tion;  K.G.,  F.R.S. ;  died  18  5" 5". 

Mr.  W. 

Hon.  John 


William  Drummond,  born  1770  (?) ; 
Minister  at  Naples  and  Ambassador 
to  the  Ottoman  Porte ;  author  of 
Odin,  a  poem,  and  various  archaeo- 
logical works ;  F.R.S.;  died  1828. 

John  Trevor,  born  1749;  younger 
son  of  Viscount  Hampden;  Minister 
to  Diet  of  Ratisbon  and  to  Court 
of  Sardinia  ;  succeeded  as  third  Vis- 
count Hampden  ;  died  1818. 

Sir  William 



List  of  Members  of 

Mr.  Willet. 

Mr.  Thomas 

Mr.  Strickland 

Mr.  Henry 

Lord  John 





Marquess  of 

1800  {continued). 

John  Willett  Adye,  of  Merlye,  born 
1744-  assumed  name  of  Willett; 
M.P.,  F.S.A.;  died  181  y. 

Thomas  Hope,  of  Deepdene,  born 
1770  (?);  travelled  in  the  East; 
amateur  and  collector;  author  of 
Anastasius-j  F.R.S.,  F.S.A.;  died 


Strickland  Freeman,  of  Fawley  Court ; 
born  1774.;  died  1811. 

Henry  Hope,  born  1736";  banker  at 
Amsterdam  and  London ;  D.C.L. ; 
died  1 81 1. 

John  Townshend,  of  Balls  Park,  Herts, 
born  1757;  younger  son  of  first 
Marquess  Townshend;  M.P. ;  Pay- 
master-General ;  wit  and  poet ;  died 


George  Howard,  Viscount  Morpeth, 
born  1773  ;  eldest  son  of  fifth  Earl 
of  Carlisle ;  M.P. ;  succeeded  his 
father,  1815;  Lord  Privy  Seal ;  K.G.; 
died  18+8. 

John  Rushotjt,  first  Baron  Northwick, 
born  1738;  succeeded  as  fifth  baronet, 
1773;  M.P. ;  created  Baron  North- 
wick, 1797;  an  eminent  collector  of 
pictures  and  works  of  art ;  died  1800. 


Alexander  Hamilton,  Marquess  of 
Douglas,  born  1767;  eldest  son  of 
ninth  Duke  of  Hamilton;  M.P.; 
succeeded  his  father  as  tenth  Duke 
of  Hamilton  and  Brandon,  1 8 1 9  ; 
Ambassador  to  the  Court  of  Russia  ; 
Lord  High  Steward;  K.G. ;  an 
eminent  collector  of  pictures,  MSS., 
etc.;  died  185-2. 

Earl  of  Carlisle. 

Duke  of 


the  Society  of  "Dilettanti 


Col.  Turner. 

Mr.  W. 


Sir  John  Coxe 

Earl  Cowper. 

Lord  Bor- 

Mr.  John 

Mr.  Charles 

Mr.  Samuel 

Earl  of 


TOMKYNS   HlLGROVE   TURNER  j    Colonel 

and  afterwards  Major-General  in  the 
Army;  F.R.S.;  G.C.H. ;  Lieut.- 
Governor  of  Jersey  3  died  1843. 

William  Alexander  Madocks,  of 
Tremadoc,  born  1774;  philanthro- 
pist- M.P.;  died  1828. 

Sir  John  Coxe  Hippisley,  first  baronet, 
born  174.8  ;  resided  some  time  in 
Italy  ;  M.P.;  created  a  baronet, 
1  j 96  ;  Manager  of  the  British  In- 
stitution ;   F.R.S.  ;   died  182.5". 


Peter  Leopold  Nassau,  .fifth  Earl 
Cowper,  born  1778;  younger  son 
of  third  Earl  Cowper;  succeeded 
his  brother,  1799;  F.R.S.;  died 

John  Parker,  second  Baron  Boringdon, 
born  177a;  succeeded  his  father, 
1788 ;  created  Earl  of  Morley,  18 15; 
F.R.S. ;  died  1840. 

John  Towneley,  of  Towneley,  born 
1731;  F.R.S.;  died  1813. 

Charles  Watkin  Williams- Wynn, 
born  1775;  second  son  of  Sir 
Watkin  Williams- Wynn,  Bart.  ; 
M.P. ;  Chancellor  of  the  Duchy  of 
Lancaster  and  Secretary  at  War; 
F.S.A.;  died  185:0. 

Samuel  Rogers,  born  1761;  the 
eminent  poet ;  collector  of  pictures 
and  works  of  art;  F.R.S.;  died  185:5'. 

George  Hamilton-Gordon,  fourth  Earl 
of  Aberdeen,  born  1784;  travelled 
in  Greece  and  collected  antiquities; 
statesman,  diplomatist,  and  scholar ; 
Foreign  Secretary,  Secretary  at  War, 
and  Prime  Minister;  died  i860. 

Sir  Hilgrove 
Turner,  G.C.H. 

Earl  of  Morley. 



List  of  Members  of 

1805  [continued^ 

Lord  Hugh  Fortescue,  Viscount  Ebrington, 

Ebrington.  born  1783;  eldest  son  of  first  Earl 

Fortescue ;  M.P.  •  succeeded  his 
father,  184.1;  Lord  Steward,  Lord- 
Lieutenant  of  Ireland  •  K.G.  j  died 


Dr.  Charles  Charles  Burney,  born  17 ztfj  theemi- 
Burney.  nent  musician  and  author  ;  F.R.S. ; 

died  1814.. 

Mr.  Charles  Charles  H  anbury  Tracy,  of  Todding- 
Hanbury  ton,  born  1778;  son  of  John  Hanbury, 

Tracy.  of    Pontypoolj    assumed    name    of 

Tracy;  created  Baron  Sudeley,i838; 

died  1858. 

Sir  Watkin  Sir  Watkin  Williams- Wynn,  Bart., 
Williams-  born  1771;  succeeded  his  father  as 

Wynn.  fifth   baronet,    1789;    M.P. ;    died 



Hon.  Henry  Henry  Grey  Bennet,  born  1777; 
Bennett.  second  son  of  fourth  Earl  of  Tanker- 

ville;  died  183d. 

Lord  Charle-  Charles  William  Bury,  Baron 
ville.  Charleville  (re-elected). 

Mr.  Henry  Henry  Philip  Hope,  younger  brother 

Philip  of  Thomas  Hope  ;  banker  and  col- 

Hope,  lector  of  works  of  art ;  died  183  9. 

Mr.  William  William  Gell,  born  1777;  son  of 
Gell.  Philip  Gell,  of  Hopton ;  knighted  for 

his  services  in  the  Ionian  Islands, 
1803;  travelled  in  Greece,  the  East 
and  Italy,  and  on  the  Ionian  Ex- 
pedition ;  resided  latterly  at  Naples ; 
F.R.S.  ;  died  183d. 

Mr.  Spalding.     John  Spalding,  of  Holm,  born  1763  ; 
M.P.,  F.R.S. ;  died  1815- . 

Earl  Fortescue. 

Baron  Sudeley. 

Sir  William  Gell. 

the  Society  of  Dilettanti 


Mr.  William 

Mr.  Frederick 

Mr.  William 

Earl  of 


William  Dickinson,  of  King's  Weston, 
Somerset ;  born  1771 ;  M.P. ;  Lord 
Commissioner  of  the  Admiralty; 
died  1837. 


Frederick  Foster,  of  Dunleer,  born 
1777;  elder  son  of  John  Thomas 
and  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster;  M.P. 

William  Wilkins,  born  1778;  archi- 
tect, Royal  Academician, and  author; 
died  1839. 


George  MuRRAY,fifth  Earl  of  Dunmore, 
born  1762 ;  M.P. ;  succeeded  his 
father,  1809;  died  18 36. 

Mr.  W.  R. 


Mr.  Foster 


William  Richard  Hamilton,  born 
1777  ;  son  of  Rev.  Anthony  Hamil- 
ton, Archdeacon  of  Colchester; 
Secretary  to  the  Earl  of  Elgin  in 
Greece ;  M.P. ;  Under-Secretary  of 
State  for  Foreign  Affairs;  Minister 
to  the  Court  of  Naples,  1822-4; 
Secretary  to  the  Society,  1830-79; 
F.R.S.;  died  1879. 

Foster  Cunliffe,  born  1782;  eldest  son 
of  Sir  Foster  Cunliffe,  third  baronet ; 
assumed  name  of  Offley;  died  1832. 

Col.  William 

Mr.  Peregrine 


William  Sotheby,  born  1781 ;  son  of 
William  Sotheby  the  poet ;  Colonel 
in  the  Army;  died  1815". 

Peregrine  Towneley,  of  Towneley, 
born  1762;  F.R.S.;  died  184.6. 


List  of  Members  of 

Mr.  Henry 

Mr.  William 

Mr.  Edward 

Major  Leake. 

Mr.  H.  C. 



Mr.  John 

Marquess  of 


Henry  Drummond,  of  the  Grange, 
Hampshire,  born  1785;  banker; 
M.P.,  F.S.A.;  died  i%6o. 

William  Fitzhugh,  of  Millbrook, 
Southampton ;  M.P. 


Edward  Davenport  [?  Edward  Davies 
Davenport,  of  Capesthorne,  born 
1778  ;  died  184.7]. 

William  Martin  Leake,  born  1777; 
Major  and  afterwards  Colonel  of 
Royal  Artillery ;  travelled  in  Greece, 
Turkey,  and  the  East ;  collector  of 
coins  and  antiquities,  and  author ; 
F.R.S.;  died  i860. 


Henry  Charles  Howard,  born  1791  ; 
only  son  of  Bernard  Howard,  after- 
wards Duke  of  Norfolk;  M.P., 
F.R.S.;  Treasurer  of  the  Household ; 
succeeded  his  father  as  Duke  of 
Norfolk,  1841;  K.G.;  Master  of  the 
Horse  and  Lord  High  Steward; 
died  185:6. 


John  Hookham  Frere,  of  Roydon 
Hall,  born  1769 ;  M.P. ;  Minister  to 
Lisbon  and  Ambassador  to  Madrid  ; 
author  and  antiquary;  P.C.;  died 

George  Granville  Leveson-Gower, 
born  175-8  ;  second  son  of  second 
Earl  Gower ;  M.P. ;  married  to 
Countessof Sunderland;  Ambassador 
to  Paris,  1790-92,  as  Earl  Gower; 
succeeded  his  father  as  Marquess  of 
Stafford,  1803 ;  created  Duke  of 
Sutherland,  1835  ;  K.G. ;  died  1833. 

Duke  of  Norfolk. 

Duke  of 

the  Society  of  "Dilettanti 


Mr.  Richard 

Marquess  of 

Earl  of 

1815  {continued). 

Richard  Heber,  of  Hodnet,  born 
1773  ;  M.P. ;  scholar  and  bibliophile; 
died  1833. 

Henry  Petty-Fitzmaurice,  third  Mar- 
quess of  Lansdowne,  born  1780; 
M.P. ;  succeeded  as  Earl  of  Kerry, 
and  as  Marquess,  1 809  ;  Home  Sec- 
retary, Lord  President  of  the  Council; 
K.G.,  F.R.S.;  died  1863. 

Francis  William  Caulfeild,  second 

Earl   of   Charlemont,    born 
K.P.;  died  1863. 


Mr.  Francis 

Col.  Legh. 


Francis  Horner,  born  1778;  M.P.; 
statesman  and  political  economist ; 
died  1 817. 

Thomas  Legh,  of  Lyme,  born  1814.; 
M.P.,  F.R.S.,  F.S.A.;  died  1857. 

Mr.  Richard 

Sir  John  E. 

Mr.  Dundas. 

Mr.  J.  N. 

Mr.  Gaily 


Richard  Westmacott,  born  1775"; 
sculptor  and  Royal  Academician ; 
knighted  1837;  died  1856. 

Sir  John  Edward  Swinburne,  Bart., 
born  1762;  succeeded  as  sixth 
baronet,  1786-  F.R.S.,  F.S. A. ;  died 

Thomas  Dundas,  born  179?;  eldest 
son  of  first  Earl  of  Zetland;  succeeded 
his  father,  1839;  K.T. ;  died  1873. 

John  Nicholas  Fazakerly,  of  Stodley, 
Devon,  and  Burwood  Park,  Surrey, 
born  1787;  M.P. ;  traveller  and 
antiquary;  died  1852. 

Henry  Gally  Knight,  born  1786; 
traveller,  antiquary,  and  author; 
M.P.,  F.R.S. ;  assumed  name  of 
Knight ;  died  1 846". 

Sir  Richard 

Earl  of  Zetland. 


List  of  Members  of 

Mr.  Charles 

1817  {continued). 

Charles  Standish,  of  Standish  Hall, 
born  1790  ;  son  of  Thomas  Strick- 
land, of  Sizergh  •  assumed  name  of 
Standish;  died  1863. 


Earl  of  Archibald  John  Primrose,  fourth  Earl 

Rosebery.  of   Rosebery,    born    1783;    M.P. ; 

succeeded   his   father,  18 14;    K.T., 
F.R.S.;  died  1M6. 


Mr.  Henry  Henry     Hall  am,    born     1777;     the 

Hallam.  eminent  historian ;  F.R.S.,  F.S. A. ; 

died  iS^p. 

Hon.  Robert       Robert  Henry  Clive,  of  Oakley,  born 
Clive.  1785)  ^    second  son  of  first  Earl  of 

Powis ;  M.P. ;  married  to  Baroness 
Windsor;  died  1854. 

Duke  of  John  Russell,  sixth  Duke  of  Bedford, 

Bedford.  born    1766';    M.P. ;    succeeded  his 

father,    i8oa;    Lord- Lieutenant    of 
Ireland;  K.G. ;  died  183  9. 


Hon.  William     William  Ponsonby,  born  1787;  third 
Ponsonby.  son  of  third  Earl  of  Bessborough ; 

M.P.,  F.R.S.;  created  Baron  de 
Mauley,  1838;  died  185-5*. 

Mr.  William       William  John  Bankes,  of  Kingston 
J.  Bankes.  Lacy,   born    1786  (?);    M.P.;    died 


Hon.  G.  A.         George  James  Welbore  Agar-Ellis, 
Ellis.  born  1797  ;  son  of  second  Viscount 

Clifden;  M.P.,  F.S.A. ;  amateur 
and  antiquary;  Commissioner  of 
Woods  and  Forests ;  created  Baron 
Dover,  1831;  died  1833. 

Baron  de 


Baron  Dover 

the  Society  of  "Dilettanti 


l82I  {continued). 

Mr.  Greville       Fulke  Greville  Upton,  born  1773; 
Howard.  second  son  of  first  Baron  Temple- 

town;  married  Miss  Howard  of  Castle 
Rising  and  assumed  nameof  Howard; 
M.P.;  died  184.6. 


Earl  Clan-  Richard  Meade,  third  Earl  of  Clan- 

william.  william,   born  1795 ;  succeeded  his 

father,  iSo? ;  Under-Secretary  for 
Foreign  Affairs ;  Ambassador  at 
Berlin;  died  1879. 


Marquess  of        Richard  Plantagenet  Temple  Ntj- 
Chandos.  gent  Brydges  Chandos  Grenville, 

Marquess  of  Chandos,  born  175)7; 
M.P. ;  succeeded  his  father  as  second 
Duke  of  Buckingham,  18^9;  K.G., 
G.C.B. ;  amateur  and  collector  at 
Stowe ;  Lord  Privy  Seal ;  died  1861. 

Duke  of 


Mr.  James 


James  Christie  the 
1773 ;  auctioneer, 
author;  died  183 1. 




Mr.  Wood.  Robert  Henry  Wood. 

Mr.  Peel.  Robert  Peel,  born  1788  ;  the  eminent 

statesman;  succeeded  as  second  baro- 
net, 1830;  Prime  Minister;  died 

Sir  Benjamin       Sir  Benjamin    Hobhotjse,  Bart.,  born 
Hobhouse.  J757j    M.P. ;    created    a    baronet, 

1812;  F.R.S.,  F.S.A.  ;  died  183 1. 

Sir  Robert  Peel, 


List  of  Members  of 



Lord  Dudley. 

Right  Hon. 

Sir  Archibald 

1826  {continued). 

George  Villiers,  born  1800;  grand- 
son of  first  Earl  of"  Clarendon;  suc- 
ceeded his  uncle  as  fourth  earl 
1838  ^  Ambassador  to  Madrid ;  Sec- 
retary for  Foreign  Affairs;  Lord- 
Lieutenant  of  Ireland  ;  K.G. ;  died 

John  William  Ward,  fourth  Viscount 
Dudley  and  Ward,  born  1 781;  M.P.; 
succeeded  his  father,  1815  ;  Secretary 
for  Foreign  Affairs ;  created  Earl  of 
Dudley,  1827  ;  died  1833. 

Frederick  Robinson,  born  1782; 
second  son  of  second  Baron  Grant- 
ham ;  M.P. ;  President  of  the  Board 
of  Trade ;  Chancellor  of  the  Ex- 
chequer; created  Viscount  Goderich, 
18 1 7  ;  Prime  Minister;  Lord  Privy 
Seal ;  created  Earl  of  Ripon,  1833  ; 
died  1859. 

Sir  Archibald  Edmonstone,  Bart., 
born  1795;  succeeded  his  father  as 
third  baronet,  1821  ;  died  18  71. 

Earl  of 

Earl  of  Dudley. 

Earl  of  Ripon. 

Capt.  Fitz- 

Mr.  Philip 


George  Augustus  Fitzclarence,  born 
1794.;  eldest  son  of  William  IV  and 
Mrs.  Jordan ;  Captain  and  afterwards 
Colonel inthe  Army;  F.R.S.,F.S.A.; 
created  Earl  of  Munster,  1 8  3 1 ;  died 

Philip  PusEY,born  1795);  M.P.,  F.R.S. ; 
died  1855". 

Earl  of  Munster. 

Sir  George 


Sir  George  Henry  Staunton,  Bart., 
born  1 781;  succeeded  his  father  as 
second  baronet,  18 10;  Commissioner 
to  China;  M.P., F.R.S. ;  died  18^. 

the  Society  of  "Dilettanti 



Mr.  Davies         Davies   Giddy   Gilbert,  bom    1767; 
Gilbert.  chemical  philosopher  and  President 

of  the  Royal  Society  ;  assumed  name 
of  Gilbert  j  M.P. ;  died  1839. 

Mr.  Deering.  John  Peter  Gandy,  born  175-7 
architect  and  Royal  Academician 
travelled  with  Sir  William  Gell 
assumed  name  of  Deering,  1817 
M.P.;  died  1850. 

Sir  Richard         Sir  Richard  Rawlinson  Vyvyan,  Bart., 

Vyvyan.  born  1800;  succeeded  his  father  as 

eighth  baronet,  1 8ao ;  M.P.;  died  1 879. 

Mr.  Terrick        Terrick     Hamilton,      born      1781 ; 
Hamilton.  younger  son  of  Archdeacon  of  Col- 

chester, and  brother  of  W.  R. 
Hamilton;  diplomatist;  residedsome 
time  in  Greece;  died  1876. 

Mr.  M.  A.  Martin  Archer  Shee,  born  1769 ;  por- 

Shee.  trait  painter  and  Royal  Academician; 

President  of  the  Royal  Academy,  and 

knighted,    1830;    Painter    to    the 

Society;  died  1850. 

Sir  Henry  Sir  Henry  Bunbury,  born  1778 ;  son  of 

Bunbury.  Henry  E.  Bunbury,  artist;  succeeded 

his  uncle  as  baronet,  18x0;  General 
intheArmy;M.P.,F.S.A.;  died  i860. 

Sir  Martin 
Archer  Shee, 


Earl  of  Du  Pre  Alexander,  second  Earl  of 

Caledon.  Caledon,  born  1777;  succeeded  his 

father,  1 802 ;  first  Governor  of  Cape 
Colony;  died  1835?. 

Mr.  Mount-         Mountstuart  Elphinstone,  born  1779; 
stuart  El-  fourth  son  of  eleventh  Baron  Elphin- 

phinstone.  stone ;  Indian  Civil  Service  ;  Envoy 

to  Afghanistan  ;  Governor  of  Bom- 
bay ;  died  1859. 

u  z 



Mr.  Barthole- 
mew  Frere. 

Mr.  C.  R. 


Earl  of 

Lord  Burg- 

Sir  Robert 

Mr.  Charles 

Marquess  of 

List  of  Members  of 

1831  (continued}, 

Ernest  Augustus  Edgcumbe,  Viscount 
Valletort,  born  1797  ;  eldest  son  of 
second  Earl  of  Mount-Edgcumbe ; 
Officer  in  the  Guards;  M.P.;  suc- 
ceeded his  father  as  third  earl,  1 839  ; 
died  \M6. 

Bartholomew  Frere,  born  176^ ;  Am- 
bassador to  Madrid ;  died  \%<^i. 


Charles  Robert  Vaughan,  born  1775"; 
Minister  to  the  United  States; 
G.C.B.;  died  1849. 

George  Percy,  second  Earl  of  Beverley, 
born  1778;  M.P. ;  succeeded  his 
father,  1830;  Lord  of  the  Bed- 
chamber; succeeded  his  cousin  as 
fifth  Duke  of  Northumberland, 
1  %6% ;  Captain  of  the  Yeomen  of  the 
Guard;  died  1867. 

John  Fane,  Viscount  Burghersh,  born 
1784;  General  in  the  Army;  Am- 
bassador to  Berlin  and  Vienna ;  suc- 
ceeded as  eleventh  Earl  of  West- 
morland ;  G.CB. ;  wrote  several 
operas;  died  1859. 

Sir  Robert  Gordon,  born  1791; 
younger  brother  of  fourth  Earl  of 
Aberdeen;  Ambassador  to  Vienna, 
Brazil,  and  Constantinople;  G.C.B., 
G.C.H.;  died  184.7. 

Charles  Brinsley  Sheridan,  born 
1796;  son  of  Richard  Brinsley 
Sheridan  by  his  second  wife;  travelled 
in  Greece  and  translated  Songs  of 
Greece ;  died  184.3. 

Spencer  John  Alwyne  Compton, 
second  Marquess  of  Northampton, 
born  1790;  M.P. ;  resided  some 
years  in  Italy ;  succeeded  his  father, 
1828;  President  of  the  Royal  Society 
and  of  the  Royal  Society  of  Anti- 
quaries ;  died  185:1. 

Earl  of  Mount- 

Sir  Charles 
R.  Vaughan, 

Duke  of  North- 

Earl  of  West- 

Marquess  of 

Mr.  George 

Duke  of 

Sir  Stratford 

Capt.  Charles 

Mr.  Henry 

Mr.  Alex- 


Mr.  John 

Sir  Charles 

the  Society  of  'Dilettanti 

William  Alexander  Hamilton,  Mar- 
quess of  Douglas,  born  1 8 1 1  ;  suc- 
ceeded his  father  as  Duke  of  Hamilton 
and  Brandon,  185-2;  died  1862. 

George  Aylmer,  of  Petersfield,  Hants. 


Walter  Francis  Scott,  fifth  Duke  of 
Buccleuch  and  seventh  Duke  of 
Queensberry,  born  1806;  succeeded 
his  father,  1819;  Lord  President  of 
the  Council;  K.G. ;  President  of  the 
Society  of  Antiquaries  and  of  the 
British  Association,  1867;  died  1884. 

Sir  Stratford  Canning,  born  1786"; 
Ambassador  tothe  Ottoman  Porte 
and  the  United  States ;  G.C.B., 
M.P. ;  created  Viscount  Stratford  de 
Redcliffe,  1852;  K.G.;  died  i860. 

Charles  Sotheby  ;  Captain  R.N.  and 
Rear- Admiral ;  died  1854. 

Henry  Thomas  Hope,  of  Deepdene,  born 
1 808  ;  M.P.  ;  collector  of  pictures, 
marbles,  vases,  etc.;  died  186a. 

Alexander  Baring, born  1774;  second 
son  of  Sir  Francis  Baring,  Bart. ; 
M.P. ;  President  of  the  Board  of 
Trade  ;  Minister  to  the  United 
States  ;  created  Baron  Ashburton, 
183 ? ;  amateur  and  collector;  died 

Algernon  Percy,  born  1792;  brother 
of  third  Duke  of  Northumberland; 
Admiral  R.N. ;  created  Baron  Prud- 
hoe,  1 8 16;  succeeded  his  brother  as 
fourth  duke,  1847  ;  K.G.;  died  1865. 

John  Fuller,  of  Chesham. 

Sir  Charles  Bagot,  born  1 78 1 ;  second 
son  of  first  Baron  Bagot ;  Minister  to 
the  Netherlands;  Governor-General 
of  Canada;  G.C.B.;  died  1843. 


Duke  of 

Lord  Stratford 
de  Rcdclifre. 



Duke  of  North- 


List  of  Members  of 

Lord  Heytes- 

1834  {continued). 

William  A'Court,  first  Baron  Heytes- 
bury,  born  1779;  Ambassador  to 
Naples,  Madrid,  Lisbon,  St.  Peters- 
burg, etc.;  created  Baron Heytesbury, 
1 8  28  ;  Lord-Lieutenant  of  Ireland ; 
G.C.B.;  died  i860. 

Mr.  John 

Mr.  George 

Mr.  David 

Mr.  Philip 
Da  vies 

Mr.  Edward 

Lord  Fitz- 
gerald and 

Colonel  Fox. 

Mr.  George 


John  Mansfield,  of  Diggeswell  House, 
Herts. ;  son  of  Lord  Chief  Justice 
Mansfield;  died  184.1. 

George  Robert  Smith,  of  Selsdon, 
born  1793  ;  M.P.;  died  1869. 

David  Baillie,  F.R.S. 

Philip  Davies  Cooke,  of  Owston  and 
Gwysaney,  born  1793  ;  amateur  and 
antiquary;  died  185:3. 


Edward  James  Dawkins,  born  1 79a ; 
Minister  at  Athens;  died  1865-. 


William  Vesey-Fitzgerald,  born 
1783;  M.P. ;  Chancellor  of  the 
Exchequer  and  First  Lord  of  the 
Treasury  in  Ireland ;  Minister  to 
Stockholm  ;  succeeded  his  mother  as 
Baron  Fitzgerald  and  Vesey,  1831; 
F.R.S. ;  died  1843. 

Charles  Richard  Fox,  born  1796; 
son  of  third  Baron  Holland ;  Colonel 
and  Major-General  in  the  Army ; 
M.P. ;  collector  of  Greek  coins ; 
Surveyor-General  of  the  Ordnance  ; 
died  1873. 

George  Vivian  ;  amateur  and  collector 
of  pictures. 

General  Fox. 

the  Society  of  Dilettanti 


Marquess  of 

1837  {continued). 

James  Hamilton,  second  Marquess  of 
Abercorn,  born  1 8 1 1 ;  succeeded 
his  grandfather,  18 18;  Lord-Lieu- 
tenant of  Ireland ;  created  Duke  of 
Abercorn,  1868  •  K.G.;  died  1885. 

Duke  of 
Abercorn,  K.G. 

Lord  Wharn- 

Mr.  Walter 


James  Archibald  Stuart-Wortley, 
first  Baron  Wharncliffe,  born  1776; 
M.P.j  Lord  Privy  Seal,  Lord  Pre- 
sident of  the  Council ;  created  Baron 
Wharncliffe,  i8atf;  died  184.7. 

Walter  Campbell,  of  Islay,  born  1 798  j 
M.P.-  died  1855. 

Sir  John  Cam 


Sir  John  Cam  Hobhouse,  Bart.,  born 
i"T)6 ;  succeeded  as  second  baronet, 
1831;  M.P.,  F.R.S.j  created  Baron 
BroughtonofGiffbrd,  1 85 1 ;  died  i%6y. 



Sir  John 


Sir  John  Stuart  Hippisley,  Bart.,  born 
1 791  j  died  1867. 

Mr.  Charles 

Sir  Augustus 

Mr.  Robert 


Charles  Towneley,  of  Towneley,  born 
1803  ;  F.R.S.,  F.S.A.;  died  1876. 

Sir  Augustus  Foster,  Bart.,  born  1780 ; 
younger  son  of  Mr.  J.  T.  Foster,  of 
Dunleer,  and  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster  • 
Minister  to  the  United  States, 
Sweden,  Denmark,  etc.;  created  a 
baronet,  1831  •  G.C.H.;  died  184.8. 

Robert  Stayner  Holford,  of  Weston- 
birt  and  Dorchester  House,  born  1808; 
M.P.;  a  well-known  amateur  and 
collector  of  works  of  art ;  died  1892. 



List  of  Members  of 

Sir  Thomas 

Mr.  Horsman 

Mr.  Beriah 

Mr.  Keith 

Mr.  Edward 

Sir  Edward 

Mr.  Charles 
L.  Eastlake. 


Mr.  Quintin 


SirThomas  Edward  Colebrooke,  Bart., 
of  Crawford,  born  181 3;  succeeded 
his  uncle  as  fourth  baronet,  1838  • 
M.P.;  died  1890. 


Richard  Horsman  Solly,  born  1778  ^ 
F.R.S.  ;  died  1858. 

Beriah  Botfield,  born  1807;  M.P., 
F.R.S. ;  eminent  book-collector  and 
antiquary;  died  1863. 


Keith  Stuart  Mackenzie,  of  Seaforth, 
born  1818;  died  1881. 


Edward  Rose  Tunno,  of  Llangennech, 
born  1796  (?);  M.P.  ;  died  1874. 


Sir  Edward  Ryan,  born  1793  ;  Chief 
Justice  of  Bengal ;  Assistant  Comp- 
troller of  the  Exchequer,  185-1-62; 
Civil  Service  Commissioner,  1862; 
F.R.S.;  Acting-Secretary  of  the 
Society,  185-9-63;  Secretary,  1863- 
5-7;  P.C.;  died  1875-. 

Charles  Lock  Eastlake,  born  1793; 
painter  and  Royal  Academician;  Pre- 
sident of  the  Royal  Academy,  and 
knighted,  185-0;  Director  of  the 
National  Gallery;  F.R.S. ;  died  1865. 

Thomas  Kenah,  born  1782;  Major- 
General  in  the  Army;  K.C.B. ; 
died  1868. 

Quintin    Dick, 
died  1858. 

born    1777;    M.P. ; 

Sir  Charles  Lock 

Sir  Thomas 

the  Society  of  "Dilettanti 


Mr.  Hugh  A. 
J.  Munro. 

Mr.  Walter 

Mr.  James 

Marquess  of 

1  Mr.  F.  C. 


Lord  Cran- 

Mr.  William 

Mr.  G.  Dodd. 

Mr.  Danby 


Hugh  Andrew  Johnstone  Munro,  of 

Novar,    born 


son  of  Sir 
a  well-known 
died  1864. 

Alexander   Munro; 
collector  of  pictures ; 


Walter  Ewer,  F.R.S. 

William  John  Broderip,  born  1785?; 
eminent  naturalist  and  bencher  of 
Gray's  Inn  •  F.L.S.,  F.R.S.,  F.G.S.  • 
died  iftjy. 

Charles  Douglas  Compton,  third 
Marquess  of  Northampton,  born 
1816 ;  succeeded  his  father,  185-1  j 
died  1877. 


Francis  Cranmer  Penrose,  born 
1817;  architect  and  author ;  F.R.S., 
F.R.I. B.A.j  'Bather  of  the  Society, 

Richard  Monckton  Milnes,  born 
1 8 19  ;  poet,  wit,  and  politician: 
M.P. ;  created  Baron  Houghton, 
1863;  F.R.S. ;  died  188  J. 

Charles  Frederick,  eleventh  Baron 
Cranstoun,  born  18x9-  died  1869. 


William  Stirling,  of  Keir,  born  1 8 1 8 ; 
succeeded  his  uncle  as  ninth  baronet, 
1865;  assumed  name  of  Maxwell; 
M.P.;  amateur  and  historian  of  art; 
K.T.;  died  1878. 

George  Dodd,  M.P. 

Henry  Danby  Seymour,  of  Knoyle, 
born  1820;  Secretary  to  the  Board 
of  Control;  died  1877. 

1  Member  of  the  Society,  1 898. 



Sir  William 
Maxwell,  Bart. 


Mr.  Van  de 

Mr.  William 

Mr.  George 

Hon.  Francis 

Hon.  Charles 

Lord  Ward. 

Sir  Francis 

Mr.  J.  Leslie. 
Lord  Foley. 

List  of  Members  of 

1853  {continued). 

Sylvain  Van  de  Weyer,  of  New 
Lodge,  Windsor,  born  180a; 
Belgian  Minister  to  England ;  died 

William  Wells,  of  Holmewood,  Hunt- 
ingdonshire,born  18 17;  M.P. ;  son  of 
the  well-known  amateur  and  collector 
of  works  of  art ;  married  daughter  of 
Earl  of  Wemyss ;  died  1889. 

George  Tomline,  of  Orwell  Park, 
Suffolk, born  i8iz;  M.P.;  died  1889. 

Francis  Charteris,  born  181 8;  eldest 
son  of  eighth  Earl  of  Wemyss ;  for 
many  years  known  as  Viscount  Elcho, 
M.P. ;  a  well-known  amateur  and 
collector;  succeeded  as  ninth  Earl 
of  Wemyss,  1883. 

Charles  Stewart  Hardinge,  born 
1 8-12 ;  succeeded  his  father  as  second 
viscount,  1856;  M.P.;  Trustee  of  the 
National  Gallery  and  National  Por- 
trait Gallery;  F.S.A. ;  died  1894.. 


William,  Baron  Ward,  elder  son  of 
tenth  Baron  Ward;  born  181 7;  an 
eminent  patron  and  collector  of 
works  of  art;  created  Earl  of  Dudley, 
1860;  died  1885. 

Sir  Francis  Edward  Scott,  Bart.,  born 
1824. ;  succeeded  his  father  as  baronet, 
1871,  and  his  grandfather  in  the 
Bateman  baronetcy,  1814;  assumed 
name  of  Bateman-Scott ;  died  1863. 

born  i8zz;  M.P. ;  amateur  artist; 
created  a  baronet,  1876". 

Thomas  Henry,  sixth  Baron  Foley, 
born  1 808  ;  M.P. ;  Captain  of  the 
Corps  of  Gentlemen  at  Arms;  died 

Earl  of  Wemyss. 


Earl  of  Dudley. 

Sir  John  Leslie, 

the  Society  of  Dilettanti 


Sir  Erskine 

Mr.  R.  H. 



Mr.  Watkiss 

Sir  John 

Karl  of 

Mr.  Beresford- 

Mr.  John 

Mr.  J.  L. 

1854  {continued}. 

Sin  Thomas  Erskine  Perry,  born  1 806 ; 
Judge  of  Supreme  Court  of  Bombay ; 
M.P.;  died  1882. 

Robert  Henry  Cheney,  of  Badger,  co. 
Salop;  born  1801 ;  died  1886. 

Frederick  Temple-Blackwood,  fifth 
Baron  Dufferin  and  Clandeboye, 
born  1 8  26;  succeeded  his  father,  1 84.1 ; 
created  Earl  of  Dufferin,  1 8  7 1 ;  Gover- 
nor-General of  Canada,  Viceroy  of 
India;  Ambassador  to  St.  Peters- 
burg, Constantinople,  and  Paris; 
M.P.,  G.C.B.,G.C.S.I.,6cc. ;  created 
Marquess  of  Dufferin  and  Ava,  1888 ; 

William  Watkiss  Lloyd,  born  181 3  ; 
an  eminent  writer  on  art ;  Acting 
Secretary  to  the  Society,  1888-9; 
died  1893. 

Sir  John  William  Ramsden,  Bart., 
born  185 1 ;  succeeded  his  grandfather 
as  fifth  baronet,  1839  ;  M.P. 


George  Hay,  Earl  of  Gifford,  born 
1 822 ;  eldest  son  of  eighth  Marquess 
of  Tweeddale;  M.P. ;  died  1862. 

Alexander  James  Beresford-Hope, 
born  1820 ;  son  of  Thomas  Hope,  of 
Deepdene ;  M.P. ;  a  well-known 
amateur  of  art  and  literature ; 
Trustee  of  the  British  Museum  and 
the  National  Portrait  Gallery ;  P.C. ; 
died  1887. 

John  Benjamin  Heath,  born  175)0; 
Consul-General  for  kingdom  of 
Italy;  director  of  the  Bank  of 
England;  created  a  Baron  of  the 
Italian  kingdom ;  F.R.S.;  died  1879. 

John  Lodge  Ellerton,  born  1801  ; 
musical  composer ;  assumed  name 
of  Ellerton,  1845;  died  1873. 

Marquess  of 

Right  Hon. 
A.J.  Bercs- 

Baron  Heath. 


Earl  Somers. 

Mr.  Ponsonby 

1  Sir  William 

Baron  Maro- 

Lord  Ernest 

Mr.  A. 

Mr.  Ralph 

1  Mr.  Corn- 

Mr.  C.  R. 


Hon.  Robert 

List  of  Members  of 

1855  {continued), 

Charles  Somers-Cocks,  third  Earl 
Somers,  born  1 81c?  •  M.P. ;  succeeded 
his  father,  i8^zj  Trustee  of  the 
British  Museum  and  National  Por- 
trait Gallery ;  died  1883. 


William  Ponsonby  Barker,  of  Kil- 
cooley,  born  17^5  ^  died  1877. 

Sir  William  Augustus  Fraser,  Bart., 
born  1  %z6  ;  succeeded  his  father  as 
fourth  baronet,  1834.  '■>  M.P. ;  author. 

Carlo  Marochetti,  born  181  ? ; 
sculptor  and  Royal  Academician ; 
Baron  of  the  Italian  kingdom ;  died 

Ernest  Bruce,  born  1 8 1 1 ;  second  son 
of  first  Marquis  of  Ailesbury  ;  Vice- 
Chamberlain  of  the  Household ; 
succeeded  his  brother  as  third  mar- 
quess, 1878  j  P.C.;  died  1886. 

Antonio  Panizzi,  born  1 797;  principal 
librarian  of  the  British  Museum  ^ 
knighted,  1869;  died  1879. 



born  1 817;  eldest  son  of  Dean  of 
Windsor-  M.P.-  died  i88<>. 

William  Cornwallis  Cartwright, 
of  Aynhoe,  born  18x5-;  M.P. 

Charles  Robert  Cockerell,  born 
1788-  architect,  author,  and  Royal 
Academician-  died  1863. 


Robert  Windsor-Clive,  born  1814.; 
eldest  son  of  Baroness  Windsor  j 
died  1859. 

Marquess  of 

Sir  Anthony 

1  Member  of  the  Society,  1898. 

Lord  Ravens- 


Mr.  Thomas 


Mr.  C.  T. 


Mr.  Cyril 

Mr.  Peter 

Sir  Matthew 

Mr.  Thomas 

the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

1859  {continued). 

Henry  Thomas  Liddell,  third  Baron 
Ravensworth,  born  1797;  M.P. ; 
succeeded  his  father,  185:5-;  created 
Earl  of  Ravensworth,  1874;  died 


Hugh  Cholmondeley,  second  Baron 
Delamere,  born  1811;  M.P. ;  suc- 
ceeded his  father,  185-5-  '■>  died  1887. 


Thomas   Baring,  born 


,,  ....   1799;   ....... 

Director  of  the  Bank  of  England ; 
F.R.S.-  died  1873. 

Massimo  Tapparelli,  Marchese  di 
Azeglio,  born  1800;  Italian  novelist, 
patriot,  and  statesman ;  died  1866. 


Charles  Thomas  Newton,  born  1816"; 
Vice-Consul  at  Mitylene ;  archae- 
ologist, explorer,  and  Keeper  of  the 
Department  of  Classical  Antiquities 
at  the  British  Museum;  K.C.B., 
1887;  died  1894. 

Cyril  Clerke  Graham,  born  1834; 
third  son  of  second  baronet  of 
Kirkstall;  succeeded  his  brother  as 
fifth  baronet,  1890;  Governor  of 
Grenada,  187 5-77;   C.M.G. ;   died 

Peter  Dickson. 

Sir  Matthew  White  Ridley,  Bart., 
born  1807  ;  succeeded  his  father  as 
fourth  baronet,  1836;    M.P.;    died 



Thomas  Gaisford,  of  Offington,  born 
1 8 16;  son  of  the  Dean  of  Christ 
Church;  Captain  in  the  Army. 

Earl  of  Ravens- 


Sir  Charles 

Sir  Cyril 

Graham,  Bart. 


List  of  Members  of 

1864  (continued}. 

Mr.  Charles        Charles  Buxton, of  Foxwarren,  Surrey, 
Buxton.  born    1812;     younger    son    of  Sir 

Thomas  Fowell  Buxton,  Bart. ;  M.P.- 
died  1 8  71. 

Lord  Somers.      Charles     Somers-Cocks,    third     Earl 
Somers.     (Re-elected.) 

Mr.  Arthur         Arthur  Russell,  born  182?;  second 
Russell.  son   of  Lord    George    Russell  and 

brother  of  seventh  Duke  of  Bedford  j 
M.P.;  died  1892. 

Mr.  Christo-       Christopher  Sykes,  of  Brantingham- 
pher  Sykes.  thorpe,  born  1831;  younger  son  of 

Sir  Tatton  Sykes,  Bart.  •  M.P. 


Hon.  E.  Edward  TwisLETON,born  1809;  younger 

Twisleton.  son  of  Baron  Saye  and  Sele;  Com- 

missioner for  Public  Schools  and  Civil 
Service  j  died  1874-. 

Mr.  Frederic       Frederic  Leighton,  born  1830 ;  painter 

Leighton.  and  Royal  Academician;  President 

of  the    Royal    Academy;     created 

a  baronet,  1886,  and  Baron  Leighton 

of  Stretton,  i8cjd;  died  1896. 

Mr.  Charles        Charles   Brinsley   Marlay,  of  Bel- 
B.  Marlay.  vedere,  co.  Westmcath,  born  1825). 

Mr.  Baillie  Alexander  DundasCochrane-Baillie 

Cochrane.  (afterwards  Baillie  Cochrane),  born 

1816;  M.P. ;  created  Baron  Laming- 
ton,  1880;  P.C;  died  1890. 


Mr.  Wode-         George    Wodehouse     Currie,    born 
house  1826;  banker;  died  1887. 


Sir  Coutts  Sir  Coutts  Lindsay,  Bart.,  of   Bal- 

Lindsay.  carres,    born   1824.;    succeeded   his 

maternal     grandfather     as    second 
baronet,  1837. 

Lord  Arthur 

Baron  Leighton 
of  Stretton, 

Baron  Laming- 

the  Society  of  Dilettanti 




Mr.  Edmond 

Mr.  Reginald 

Earl  of 



Mr.  Butler 

Col.  George 

Sir  Henry 

Mr.  Charles 

1866  {continued}. 

Alan  Frederick,  Earl  Cathcart,  born 
1828;  succeeded  his  father  as  third 
earl,  185-9. 

Edmund  Waterton,  of  Walton  Hall, 
Yorkshire,  born  1830;  Chamberlain 
to  Pope  Pius  IX;  F.S.A.j  died  1887. 

Reginald  Cholmondeley,  of  Condover 
Hall;  born  1826;  died  185)6. 

George  Grey  Greville,  Earl  of 
Warwick  and  Brooke,  born  1828  ; 
succeeded  his  father  as  fourth  earl, 
1873 ;  died  185)3. 

Beilby  Richard  Lawley,  Baron 
Wenlock,  born  181 8;  succeeded 
his  father  as  second  baron,  1852; 
died  1880. 


Henry  Alexander  Butler-Johnstone, 
born  1837;  grandson  of  twenty- 
second  Baron  Dunboyne;  assumed 
name  of  Johnstone ;  M.P. 

George  Wentworth  Higginson,  born 
1826;  Colonel  of  the  Grenadier 
Guards,  and  General ;  Lieutenant- 
Governor  of  the  Tower  of  London  ; 
K.C.B.  and  Knight  of  the  Legion  of 


William  Henry  LYTTON-BuLWER,born 
1 80 1  ;  younger  brother  of  first  Baron 
Lytton  -,  M.P. ;  Minister  to  United 
States,  and  Ambassador  to  Madrid 
and  Constantinople ;  created  Baron 
Dalling  and  Bulwer,  1871 ;  K.C.B., 
P.C.;  died  185.2. 

Charles  Wynne-Finch,  of  Voelas, 
born  181?;  M.P. ;  died  1874-. 

General  Sir 

Baron  Dalling 
and  Bulwer. 


List  of  Members  of 

Mr.  George 

Mr.  Edward 

Sir  John 

1  Mr.  Richard 
H.  Paget. 

1  Earl  of 

1  Mr.  Edward 
J.  Stanley. 

Mr.  Frederick 

1  Lord  Col- 

Col.  Dudley 

1  Mr.  Charles 

1869   (continued}. 

George  Macleay,  born  1809  ;  Member 
of  Legislature  of  New  South  Wales ; 
K.C.M.G.  1875*  ^  died  1891. 

Edward  John  Sartoris,  born  1 8 1 7 ; 
M.P. ;  lived  many  years  in  Rome  • 
married  Miss  Adelaide  Kemble^ 

Sir  John  Gage  Saunders-Sebright, 
Bart.,  born  1 84.3 ;  succeeded  his 
father  as  ninth  baronet,  1 864  j  died 


Richard  Horner  Paget,  born  183a; 
M.P. ;  created  a  baronet,  1880'  j 
P.C.  185)?. 

Archibald  Philip  Primrose,  Earl  of 
Rosebery,  born  1 847  •  succeeded 
his  grandfather  as  fifth  earl,  1 868 ; 
Lord  Privy  Seal ;  Secretary  for 
Foreign  Affairs  j  Prime  Minister  j 
K.G.,  P.C. 

Edward  James  Stanley,  of  Quantock, 
born  1  %z6  j  M.P. 

William  Frederick  Pollock,  born 
1 81 J  ;  succeeded  his  father  as  second 
baronet,  1870;  Queen's  Remem- 
brancer ;  Secretary  to  the  Society, 
1877-88;  died  1888. 


Reginald  Charles  Abbot,  Baron 
Colchester,  born  1 84a  ;  succeeded 
his  father  as  third  baron,  1869. 

Dudley  Wilmot  Carleton,  born  1 822 ; 
succeeded  his  cousin  as  fourth  Baron 
Dorchester,  1875;  died  1897. 

Charles  Milnes-Gaskell,  born  1 842 ; 

Sir  George 

Rt.  Hon.  Sir  Ri- 
chard Horner 
Paget,  Bart. 

Sir  William 
Pollock,  Bart. 


1  Member  of  the  Society,  1898. 

the  Society  of  Dilettanti 


1871  [continued), 

Mr.  Knight         Christopher       Knight        Watson; 
Watson.  Secretary   of  the   Society  of   Anti- 


1  Mr.  Sidney       Sidney    Colvin,    born    1845";     Slade 
Colvin.  Professor  of  Fine  Art  at  Cambridge  j 

Keeper  of  the  Department  of 
Prints  and  Drawings  at  the  British 
Museum  ;  Secretary  to  the  Society, 

Mr.  George         George  James   Howard,  born    1 843  ; 
Howard.  grandson  of  the  sixth  Earl  of  Car- 

lisle; M.P. ;  succeeded  his  uncle  as 
ninth  earl,  1889;  Trustee  of  the 
National  Gallery. 

Mr.  Charles        Charles    Watkin   Williams- Wynn, 
Watkin  of  Coed-y-Maen,  born  i8ax;  M.P.; 

Williams-  Recorder  of  Oswestry. 


Lord  Acton.  John  Emerich  Edward  Dalberg 
Acton,  first  Baron  Acton,  born 
1837;  succeeded  his  father  as 
eighth  baronet;  M.P. ;  created 
Baron  Acton,  1869;  Regius  Pro- 
fessor of  History  at  Cambridge. 

1  Mr.  M..  E.       Mountstuart    Elphinstone    Grant- 
Grant-DufK         Duff,  born  1 8a 9  ;  M.P.;  Governor 
of  Madras;  K.C.S.I. ;  P.C. 


1  Sir  Robert       Sir  Robert  Alfred  Cunliffe,  Bart., 
Cunlifle.  born    1839;    succeeded  his   grand- 

father as  fifth  baronet,  1859;  M.P. 

Hon.  H.  F.         Henry  Frederick  Cowper,  born  1836"; 
Cowper.  second  son  of  sixth  Earl  Cowper; 

M.P.;  died  1887. 

Mr.  W.  H.         William  Halliday-Halliday, of Glen- 
Halliday.  thorne,  born  1 8a8  ;    assumed  name 

of  Halliday  instead  of  that  of  Cos- 

1  Member  of  the  Society,  1898. 

Earl  of  Carlisle. 

Sir  Mountstuart 


List  of  Members  of 


Marquess  of 


Hon.  Everard 

Mr.  Paul 

Sir  Henry 

Mr.  James 

Mr.  Thomas 


Mr.  Stewart 

1873  {continued). 

Henry  Charles  Keith  Petty-Fitz- 
maurice,  Marquess  of  Lansdowne, 
born  184.5";  succeeded  his  father  as 
fifth  marquess,  1866;  Governor- 
General  of  Canada,  and  Viceroy  of 
India  j  K.G.,  G.C.B.,  G.C.S.I.,  &c. ; 
Secretary  of  State  for  War ;  Trustee 
of  the  National  Gallery;  P.C. 

Francis  Charles  Needham,  Viscount 
Newry,  born  1841;  M.P.;  succeeded 
his  grandfather  as  third  Earl  of  Kil- 
morey,  1880;  K.P. 

Everard  Henry  Primrose,  born  184.8 ; 
younger  brother  of  Earl  of  Rosebery; 
Colonel  Grenadier  Guards;  Military 
Attache  at  Vienna;  died  1885:. 


Paul  Butler,  of  Wyck  Hill,  Glouces- 
tershire; died  1875". 

Sir  Henry  Thompson,  born  1820;  the 
eminent  surgeon ;  also  distinguished 
as  an  artist;  knighted,  1867. 

James  Fergusson,  born  1808 ;  architect 
and  writer  on  Classical  Architecture ; 
died  1886. 


Thomas  Brassey,  born  1836";  Lord 
of  the  Admiralty;  created  Baron 
Brassey,  1886;  Governor  of  Victoria. 


Mervyn  E.  Wingfield,  Viscount 
Powerscourt,  born  1836;  succeeded 
his  father  as  seventh  viscount,  1 844 ; 
K.P.;  P.C. 

James  Stewart  Hodgson,  of  Lyth  Hill, 
Haslemere,  born  1827. 

Earl  of 

Baron  Brassey. 

Mr.  G.  S. 


Mr.  Algernon 

Mr.  Edward 

Mr.  A.  G. 


1  Mr.  William 
J.  Farrer. 

Mr.  John 


1  Mr.  Pember. 

Mr.  F.  W. 

the  Society  of  'Dilettanti 

1877  (continued). 
George  Stovin  Venables,  born  18 10; 
son  of  Archdeacon  of  Carmarthen  • 
QXZ.;  died  1888. 

Algernon  Bertram  Mitford,  born 
1837-  Secretary  to  the  Office  of 
Works;  assumed  name  of  Free- 
man-Mitford,  18  86. 


Edward  Herries,  born  18 15  •  in  the 
diplomatic  service ;  C.B. 

Albert  George  Dew-Smith,  of  Trinity 
College,  Cambridge;  amateur  and 

William  James  Farrer,  born  i8ax; 
High  Bailiff  to  the  City  of  Westmin- 
ster and  Solicitor  to  the  Grenadier 
Guards;  collector  of  pictures; 
knighted  1887. 

John  Ball,  born  1 8 1 8 ;  son  of  Right 
Hon.  Nicholas  Ball;  editor  of  The 
Alpine  Guide ;  M.P. ;  Under  Secretary 
of  State  for  the  Colonies ;  died  1889. 


George  Henry  Charles  Byng,  Viscount 
Enfield,  born  1830;  M.P.;  Under- 
Secretary  for  Foreign  Affairs  and  for 
India ;  called  to  House  of  Lords  as 
Baron  Strafford;  succeeded  his  father 
as  third  Earl  of  Strafford,  1886; 
Secretary  to  the  Society,  1889-91; 
died  1898. 

Edward  Henry  Pember,  born  1833; 
QXH.  1874;  Secretary  to  the  Society, 

Frederick  William  Burton,  born 
18 16;  painter  and  member  of  the 
Royal  Hibernian  Academy;  Director 
of  the  National  Gallery;  knighted 
1 8  84 ;  Painter  to  the  Society. 

1  Member  of  the  Society,  1898. 
X   X 


Sir  William 
James  Farrer. 

Earl  of  Strafford. 

Sir  Frederick 


List  of  Members  of 


1  Professor  Richard  Claverhouse  Jebb,  born  1 84.1 ; 

Jebb.  Regius  Professor  of  Greek  at  Cam- 

bridge- M.P. 


Sir  Charles  Sir  Charles  Synge  Bowen,  born  1836; 

S.  Bowen.  distinguished  as  a  lawyer  and  scholar ; 

Lord  Justice  and  Lord  of  Appeal ; 

created  Baron  Bowen ;   P.C. ;  died 

1 894. 

Earl  Lytton.  Edward  Robert  Bulwer-Lytton,  Earl 
of  Lytton,  born  1831;  only  son  of 
first  Baron  Lytton;  succeeded  his 
father  as  second  baron,  1873  ^ 
created  Earl  of  Lytton,  1880; 
Minister  to  Lisbon;  Viceroy  of 
India  and  Ambassador  to  Paris; 
G.C.B.,  G.C.S.I. ;  author  of  various 
poems;  P.C;  died  1891. 
Mervin  Henry  Nevil  Story-Maske- 
lyne,  born  1813 ;  Professor  of 
Mineralogy  at  Oxford ;  F.R.S. ;  M.P. 


Charles  Isaac  Elton,  born  1839; 
C^C.;  M.P. ;  author  of  numerous 
learned  works  on  law,  antiquities, 

George  William,  Viscount  Barrington, 
born  1824;  succeeded  his  father  as 
seventh  viscount,  1867 ;  Vice  Cham- 
berlain of  the  Household;  M.P.; 
P.C;  died  1886. 

Horace  Davey,  born  1833;  Q^C; 
M.P. ;  Attorney-General;  knighted 
1886;  Lord  of  Appeal;  created 
Baron  Davey,  1894;  P.C. 


Sir  Watkin  Williams-Wynn,  Bart., 
of  Wynnstay,  born  i8ao;  M.P.; 
died  1885. 

1  Member  of  the  Society,  1898. 

Mr.  Nevill 

Mr.  Charles 


1  Mr.  Horace 

Sir  Watkin 

Baron  Bowen. 

Baron  Davey. 

the  Society  of  "Dilettanti 

1883  {continued), 
Mr.  R.  M.  Robert  Milnes  Newton,  born  18 11 ; 

Newton.  son  of  William  Newton,  of  Elveden; 

Magistrate  at  Marlborough  Street, 
London,  1866-97. 

Earl  of  William  Hillier   Onslow,   Earl   of 

Onslow.  Onslow,  born  1853 ;   succeeded  his 

cousin  as  fourthearl,  1870 ;  Governor 
of  New  Zealand;  G.C.M.G. 

Sir  Robert  Sir  Robert  Porrett  Collier,  born 

Collier.  1817  •  M.P.;   Solicitor-General  and 

Attorney-General ;  Judge  of  Judicial 
Committee  of  Privy  Council;  created 
Baron Monkswell,  1885- ;  P.C. ;  died 


1  Sir  Reginald     Sir    Reginald  Proctor  Beauchamp, 
Beauchamp.  Bart.,    born    1853;    succeeded    his 

father  as  fifth  baronet,  1874. 

Mr.  H.  Hubert  Edward  Henry  Jerningham, 

Jerningham.  born  1 842  ;  M.P. ;  Consul  General 

at  Belgrade ;  Governor  of  Mauritius 
and  of  Trinidad  ;  knighted  1893. 

Mr.  J.  Russell     James   Russell  Lowell,   born  18 19; 
Lowell.  poet  and  man  of  letters ;   Minister 

for  the  United  States  to  England; 
died  1 85)  1. 

1  Mr.  Arbuth-     Foster  Fitzgerald  Arbuthnot,  born 
not.  1 8  3  3  ;  second  son  of  second  baronet ; 

Bombay  Civil  Service. 


Mr.  Cyril  Cyril   Flower,    born    1843;    M.P. ; 

Flower.  Lord  of  the  Treasury;  created  Baron 

Battersea,  1892. 

1  Lord  Robert     Robert  Brudenell-Bruce,  fourth  son 
Bruce.  of   third    Marquess    of    Ailesbury, 

born  1845;  R.N. 

Mr.  Alexan-        Alexander  Dennistoun,  born  1828  ; 
der  Den-  died  1893. 



Baron  Monks- 

Sir  Hubert 

Baron  Battersea. 

1  Member  of  the  Society,  1  i 


List  of  Members  of 

1  Sir  Reginald 

Mr.  Robert 
H.  Meade. 

1  Lord 


Mr.  H.  B. 


Mr.  Phelps. 

1  LordHylton. 

1  Mr.  W. 


1  Sir  George 

1  Mr.  Justice 

Col.  Duncan. 


Sir  Reginald  Earle  Welby,  born 
183a;  Permanent  Secretary  to  the 
Treasury;  G.C.B. ;  created  Baron 
Welby,  18514;  Secretary  to  the 
Society,  1896. 

Robert  Henry  Meade,  born  1835"; 
second  son  of  third  Earl  of  Clanwil- 
liam ;  Permanent  Under  Secretary  of 
State  for  the  Colonies;  G.C.B.; 
died  1898. 

Robert  Offley  Ashburton  Milnes, 
Baron  Houghton,  born  i8?8;  suc- 
ceeded his  father  as  second  baron, 
1885:;  Viceroy  of  Ireland ;  created 
Earl  of  Crewe,  1895;  P.C. 

Henry  Bingham  Mildmay,  of  Shore- 
ham,  born  i8z8. 

William  Walter  Phelps,  born  1839  ; 
Minister  for  the  United  States  to 
Great  Britain. 


Hedworth  Hylton-Jolliffe,  Baron 
Hylton,  born  1 829 ;  officer  in  the 
army ;  M.P. ;  succeeded  his  father 
as  second  baron,  1876. 

William  Amhurst  Tyssen-  Amherst,  of 
Didlington,  born  1835;  M.P.  ; 
created  Baron  Amherst  of  Hackney, 


Sir  George  Errington,  born  1839; 
M.P. ;  created  a  baronet,  1885-. 

Sir  Joseph  William  Chitty,  born 
1818;  eminent  lawyer;  Judge  of  the 
High  Court  of  Justice ;  P.C. 

Francis  Duncan,  born  183d;  Colonel 
Royal  Artillery;  M.P.;  C.B.;  died 

1  Member  of  the  Society,  1898. 

Baron  Welby. 

Sir  Robert 
Henry  Meade, 

Earl  of  Crewe. 

Baron  Amherst 
of  Hackney. 

the  Society  of  Dilettanti 

7,  n 


M.  Wad- 

Lord  Savile. 

1  Mr.  Arthur 

1  Mr.  Spencer 


1   Earl  of 

1  Sir  Ralph 

Mr.  Walter 

1  Sir  Stafford 

1  Mr.  Edward 

1  Mr.  Mitchell 


Francis  George,  Viscount  Baring, 
born  185:0;  eldest  son  of  first  Earl 
of  Northbrook. 

William  Henry  Waddington,  born 
i8ztf  ;  Ambassador  for  France  to 
Great  Britain;  died  1854. 

John  Savile-Lumley,  Baron  Savile, 
born  181 8;  Minister  to  Dresden, 
Berne,  Brussels,  and  Ambassador  at 
Rome;  G.C.B.;  created  Baron  Savile 
of  Ruffbrd,  1888 ;  Trustee  of  the 
National  Gallery;  P.C. ;  died  185)6". 

Arthur  Lucas,  born  184.5. 

Spencer  Walpole,  born  1859;  Lieut.- 
Governor  of  the  Isle  of  Man ;  Secre- 
tary to  the  Post  Office;  K.C.B., 

Francis  George  Granville  Egerton, 
Earl  of  Ellesmere,  born  184,7;  suc- 
ceeded his  father  as  third  earl,  186a. 


Sir  Ralph  Wood  Thompson,  born  1830; 
P.C. ;  Permanent  Under  Secretary 
to  War  Office;  K.C.B. 

Walter  Leaf,  Fellow  of  Trinity 
College,  Cambridge;  Treasurer  of 
British  School  at  Athens. 

Sir  Stafford  Henry  Northcote,  born 
184.6;  second  son  of  first  Earl  of 
Iddesleigh;  M.P.;  C.B.;  Surveyor- 
General  of  the  Ordnance. 


Edward  Maunde  Thompson,  born 
1840;  Principal  Librarian  of  the 
British  Museum;   K.C.B. 

Mitchell  Henry,  of  Kylemore,  born 
1826;  M.P, 

1  Member  of  the  Society,  1898. 

Baron  Savile. 

Sir  Spencer 

Sir  Edward 

3  ix 

1  Mr.  £.  M. 

1  Sir  Nigel 

Prof.  Middle- 

List  of  Members  of 

Emanuel  Maguire  Underdown,  born 

1830-  qx:. 

Sir  Robert  Nigel  Kingscote,  born 
1830";  Commissioner  of  Woods  and 
Forests-  K.C.B. 

John  Henry  Middleton,  born  1846; 
Slade  Professor  of  Fine  Art  at  Cam- 
bridge ;  Director  of  the  South  Ken- 
sington Museum ;  died  1896. 

1  Mr.  Caven- 

1  Mr.  W.  M. 

1  Mr.  J.  P. 

1  Sir  Francis 

1  Sir  Francis 

Mr.  W. 

Sir  Colin 







William  Martin  Conway,  born  185-6; 
Roscoe  Professor  of  Fine  Art  at 
Liverpool;  author  and  traveller; 
President  of  the  Society  of  Authors ; 
knighted  185)5-. 

John  Postle  Heseltine,  born  1843; 
amateur,  collector,  and  Trustee  of 
the  National  Gallery. 

Sir  Francis  Jeune,  born  1843;  Presi- 
dent of  the  Probate  Division  of  the 
High  Court ;  P.C. ;  Judge  Advocate- 
General,  1891 ;  K.C.B.  1897. 

Sir  Francis  Wallace  Grenfell,  born 
1841 ;  K.C.B.;  Sirdar  of  the  Egyptian 
Army;  Inspector-General  of  Auxi- 
liary Forces. 

William  Wickham,  born  1 83 1 ;  M.P. ; 
died  185)7. 


Sir  Colin  Scott  Moncrieff,  born 
1836;  Under  Secretary  of  Public 
Works  at  Cairo;  K.C.B. 

Sir  William 

1  Member  of  the  Society,  1898. 

the  Society  of  Dilettanti 


1  Sir  Anthony 

1  Mr.  EJ. 

1  Sir  Barring- 
ton  Simeon. 

1  Mr.  Charles 

1  Dr.  Aber- 

1  Sir  Charles 

1  Lord  Loch. 

1  Sir  George 

1  Mr.  Douglas 

1895  {continued). 

Sir  Anthony  Hoskins,  born  1828; 
R.N.;  Rear  Admiral;  K.C.B. ; 
Lord  of  the  Admiralty. 

Edward  John  Poynter,  born  1836; 
painter  and  Royal  Academician; 
President  of  the  Royal  Academy, 
and  knighted  1896;  Director  of  the 
National  Gallery;  Painter  to  the 


Sir  John  Barrington  Simeon,  Bart., 
born  1850;  succeeded  his  father  as 
fifth  baronet,  1870  ;  M.P. 

Charles  John  Darling,  born  184.9; 
Q^C ;  M.P. ;  created  a  Judge  and 
knighted,  1897. 

John  Abercromby,  M.D. 

Sir  Charles  William  Fremantle, 
born  1834.;  third  son  of  first  Baron 
Cottesloe;  K.C.B.;Master  of  the  Mint. 

Henry  Brougham,  Baron  Loch,  born 
1817;  served  in  India  and  on 
special  mission  to  China ;  Governor 
of  the  Isle  of  Man  and  of  Victoria ; 
High  Commissioner  in  South  Africa; 
G.C.B.,  G.C.M.G. ;  created  Baron 
Loch;  P.C. 


Sir  George  Scott  Robertson,  K.C.S.I., 
born  185a;  British  agent  at  Gilgit; 
author  of  The  Kdfirs  of  the  Hindu  Rush. 

Douglas  William  Freshfield,  born 
1845;  former  Piesident  of  the 
Alpine  Club,  and  Hon.  President  of 
the  Geographical  Society ;  author  of 
Travels  in  the  Central  Caucasus ,  &c. 

Sir  Edward  John 

Mr.  Justice 

1  Member  of  the  Society,  i? 


List  of  Members 

1  Mr.  Lyulph 

1  Mr.  G.  H. 


1  Mr.  Murray 

1897  (continued^. 

Edward  Lyulph  Stanley,  born  1859; 
second  son  of  second  Lord  Stanley 
of  Alderley  2  M.P. ;  Vice-Chairman 
of  London  School  Board. 

George  Herbert  Murray,  C.B.,  born 
184.9;  formerly  private  secretary  to 
Mr.  Gladstone  and  to  Lord  Rosebery  ; 
Chairman  of  the  Board  of  Inland 

John  Murray  Scott,  born  184.7  '■> 
secretary  to  the  late  Sir  Richard 
Wallace,  1871-5)0;  Trustee  of  the 
National  Gallery  and  of  the  Wallace 

Hon.  Edward 

1  Member  of  the  Society,  1898. 

of  the  Society  of  'Dilettanti  31$ 



1  Mr.  George 


Col.  John 

1  Hon. 

1  Mr.  Alfred 

1  Mr.  Joseph 

1  Hon.Vicary 

1  Mr.  Cecil 





Robert  George  Windsor  -  Clive, 
fourteenth  Baron  Windsor,  born 
185-7;  Paymaster-General,  189 1-2; 
Commissioner  of  Works,  1902-5:  ; 
created  Earl  of  Plymouth,  ipoy. 

George  Augustin  Macmillan,  born 
185:5';  Hon.  Sec.  Society  for  Pro- 
motion of  Hellenic  Studies;  Chair- 
man Committee  British  School  at 
Athens;  Secretary  to  the  Society, 

John  Hay,  born  1838;  Ambassador 
for  the  United  States  to  England, 
1897-8  ;  Secretary  of  State,  U.S.A., 
1898-1905:;  died  1905:. 


William  Robert  Wellesley  Peel, born 
1866;  eldest  son  of  first  Viscount 
Peel;  M.P. ;  succeeded  to  peerage 
on  the  death  of  his  father,  191 3. 

Alfred  Farquhar,  born  185:2; 

Joseph  H.  Choate,  born  1832;  Am- 
bassador for  the  United  States  to 
England,  1899-1905-.  Honorary 
Member,  1912. 


Vicary  Gibbs,  born  185:3 ;  third  son  of 
first  Baron  Aldenham;  formerly  M.P. 

Cecil  Harcourt  Smith,  born  1859; 
formerly  Keeper  of  Greek  and  Roman 
Antiquities  at  the  British  Museum ; 
Director  of  Victoria  and  Albert 
Museum;  knighted  1909. 

George  William  Spencer  Lyttelton, 
born  1 84.7;  fourth  son  of  fourth  Baron 
Lyttelton;  C.B.;  formerly  private  Sec- 
retary to  Mr.  Gladstone.    Died  1913. 

1  Member  of  the  Society,  1913. 

Earl  of  Plymouth. 


Viscount  Peel. 

Sir  Cecil  Har- 
court Smith. 


List  of  Members  of 

i  Mr.  E.  P. 


i  Mr.  C.  H. 

Mr.  Andrew 

General  E.  H. 

i  Mr. 




1  Sir  Robert 


Edward  Priatjlx  Tennant,  born  185-9; 
eldest  son  of  Sir  Charles  Tennant, 
Bart. ;  succeeded  his  father  as  baronet; 
created  Baron  Glenconner,  ipn. 

Charles  Hercules  Read,  born  1857; 
Keeper  of  British  and  Mediaeval 
Antiquities,  British  Museum;  Pre- 
sident of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries ; 
knighted  ipiz. 

Andrew  Kinsman  Hichens,  born  1833; 
died  1906. 

Edward  Henry  Clive,  born  1837; 
formerly  Col.  commanding  Grenadier 
Guards ;  Commandant  Staff"  Col- 
lege, 1885—8;  Commandant  Royal 
Military  College,  Sandhurst,  1888- 
1893  ;  General,  1898. 

Alexander  D.  O.  Wedderburn,  born 
1854.;  K.C. 

Sir  Robert  Gray  Cornish  Mowbray, 
Bart.,  born  1850;  succeeded  his 
father  as  second  baronet,  1899; 
formerly  M.P. ;  Fellow  of  All  Souls 
College,  Oxford. 

Baron  Glen- 

Sir  Hercules 


1  Mr.  W.  E.       William    Edward    Davidson,    born 

Davidson.  1853;    C.B.,  K.C;   Legal  Adviser 

to  Foreign  Office;  K.C.M.G.  1907. 

1  Sir  Henry        Henry   Maxwell  Lyte,  born   184.8; 
Maxwell  Deputy  Keeper  of  Public  Records; 

Lyte.  K.C.B. 

1  Sir  John  Sir    John    Dickson-Poynder,    Bart., 

Dickson-  born  i8drj  ;  formerly  M.P. ;  D.S.O., 

Poynder.  K.C.M.G. ;  created  Baron  Islington, 

1910 ;  Governor  of  New  Zealand. 

Sir  Edward 

Baron  Islington. 

1  Member  of  the  Society,  1913. 

the   Society  of  Dilettanti  317' 

Mr.  R.  p. 


1  Sir 


1  Mr.  Justice 


Lord  Justice 

1  Mr.  Thomas 

1  Mr.  T.  G. 


Mr.  Richard 


Charles  W. 

1  Lord  Desart. 

igo3  {continued^. 

Rowland  Ponsonby  Blennerhassett, 
born  185-0  ;  formerly  M.P. ;  K.C. ; 
died  19 1 3. 

Sir  Alexander  Henderson,  Bart., 
born  1850;  Chairman  Railway  Com- 
panies' Association  •  M.P. 


John  Charles  Bigham,  born  1 840 ; 
Q.C. ;  M.P. ;  created  a  Judge  and 
knighted,  1897;  President  of  Divorce 
and  Admiralty  Division,  1909  ; 
P.C.  ;  created  Baron  Mersey,  19 10. 


Lieut.-Col.  Arthur  Collins,  born 
184.5:  ;  C.B. ;  died  191 1. 

Richard  Henn  Collins,  born  184a; 
Q.C. ;  created  a  Judge  and  knighted, 
1 89 1  ;  Lord  Justice  of  Appeal,  1897- 
190 1  ;  Master  of  the  Rolls,  1901  ; 
P.C;  created  Baron  Collins  and 
Lord  of  Appeal,  1907  ;  died  191 1. 

Thomas  Brock,  born  184.7  ?  R«A. ; 
K.C.B.  191 1  ;  sculptor. 

Thomas  Graham  Jackson,  born  1835"; 
R.A. ;  architect ;  author  of  various 
works  on  architecture  ;  created  a 
baronet  191 3. 

Richard  Bagot,  born  i860;  novelist. 


Willie    Matthews,    born 

knighted,     1907 ;     K.C.B., 

Director  of  Public  Prosecu- 



Hamilton  John  Agmondesham  Cuffe, 
fifth  Earl  of  Desart,  born  1848  ; 
K.C.B.;  Solicitor  to  the  Treasury; 
Member  of  International  Court  of 
Arbitration  at  the  Hague;  Director 
of  Public  Prosecutions. 

1  Member  of  the  Society,  1913. 

Baron  Mersey. 

Baron  Collins. 

Sir  Thomas 

Sir  Thomas 

Sir  Charles 


List  of  Members  of 

Mr.  White- 
law  Reid. 

Lord  Sand- 

1  Sir  Foster 

1  Lord  Burgh- 

1  Sir  Kenneth 


1  Sir  George 


1  Mr.  W. 

1  Mr.  F.  W. 

1  Lord 
St.  Levan. 

1  Mr.  Justice 
Lord  New- 


Whitelaw  Reid,  born  1837  ;  Ambas- 
sador for  the  United  States  to 
England,  1905. 

William  Mansfield,  second  Baron 
G.C.S.I.  ;  formerly  Governor  of 
Bombay ;  Lord  Chamberlain. 

Sir  Foster  Hugh  Egerton  Cunliffe, 
Bart.,  born  1875-;  succeeded  his 
father  as  sixth  baronet,  1905  ;  Fellow 
of  All  Souls  College,  Oxford. 

Herbert  Coulston  Gardner,  first 
Baron  Burghclere,  born  1864.; 
formerly  M.P.;  President  Board  of 
Agriculture,  1891;  Warden  of  Win- 
chester ;  P.C.j  created  Baron  Burgh- 
clere, 1895-. 

Kenneth  A.  Muir-Mackenzie,  born 
184.6;  K.C.,  G.C.B.;  Secretary  to 
the  Lord  Chancellor. 

Sir  George  John  Armytage,  Bart., 
born  184.2;  succeeded  his  father  as 
sixth  baronet,  18pp. 


William  Chauncy  Cartwright,  born 
1855  -  Chief  Clerk  in  Foreign  Office; 
K.C.M.G.,  ipio. 

Francis  William  Pember,  born  1862; 
son  of  the  late  E.  H.  Pember,  K.C. ; 
Fellow  of  All  Souls  College,  Oxford. 

Sir  John  Townshend  St.  Aubyn,  Bart., 
Baron  St.  Levan,  born  1857;  C.V.O., 
C.B. ;    formerly  Colonel  Grenadier 



William  Pickford,  born  1848;  Q.C.; 
created  a  Judge  and  knighted,  1907. 

Sir  James  Hozier,  Bart.,  Baron  New- 
lands,  born  1 8  5"  1 ;  formerly  in  diplo- 
matic service  and  M.P. ;  succeeded 
his  father  as  second  Baron  Newlands, 

1  Member  of  the  Society,  1913. 

Sir  W.  Chauncy 

the   Society   of  Dilettanti 


Sir  Walter 


1  Hon. 


1  Mr.  F.  G. 


Hon.  Walter  Hely-Hutchinson,  born 
1 84.9 ;  son  of  Earl  of  Donoughmore  ; 
formerly  Governor  of  Natal  and 
Governor  of  Cape  of  Good  Hope 
and  High  Commissioner  in  South 
Africa-  P.C.,G.C.M.G  •  died  1913. 

Adolphus  George  Charles  Liddell, 
born  1846;  son  of  Sir  Adolphus 
Liddell ;  Assistant-Secretary  to  the 
Lord  Chancellor ;  C.B. 

Frederic  George  Kenyon,  born  1863; 
Director  and  Principal  Librarian, 
British  Museum ;  K.C.B.  1912. 

Sir  Frederic 

1  Lord  Justice 


1  Lord 

Lord  Hylton. 

1  Hon.  Hugh 
J.  Godley. 

1  Hon.  Arthur 

1  Mr.  T.  B. 



John  Fletcher  Moulton,  born  1844.; 
formerly  M.P. ;  Q.C. ;  created  Lord 
Justice  of  Appeal  and  knighted,  1 905 ; 
P.C. ;  created  Baron  Moulton,  1912. 

George  Joachim  Goschen,  second 
Viscount  Goschen,  born  i%66 ; 
formerly  M.P.  and  Private  Secretary 
to  Governor  of  New  South  Wales ; 
succeeded  his  father  as  second 
Viscount  Goschen,  1907.  Chairman 
of  London  County  and  Westminster 

Hylton  George  Hylton  Jolliffe, 
third  Baron  Hylton,  born  1862; 
formerly  M.P.  5  succeeded  his  father 
as  third  Baron  Hylton,  1899. 

Hugh  John  Godley,  born  1877-  eldest 
son  of  first  Baron  Kilbracken. 

Arthur  Lyulph  Stanley,  born  1875"; 
eldest  son  of  fourth  Baron  Sheffield  ; 
formerly  M.P.j  Governor  of  Victoria, 

T.  Bryan  Clarke-Thornhill,  born 
185-75  formerly  in  Diplomatic  Ser- 


Baron  Moulton. 

1  Member  of  che  Society,  1913. 


List  of  Members 

1  Mr.  Cecil 

1  Mr.  Dougal 
Orme  Mal- 

»  Sir  H.  Bab. 



Cecil  Lubbock,  born  i8yz  :  Director 
of  the  Bank  of  England. 

Dougal  Orme  Malcolm,  born  18775 
Colonial  Office ;  Secretary  to  Lord 
Selborne  in  S.  Africa  and  to  Lord  Grey 
in  Canada  5  Director  of  British  S. 
Africa  Co.;  Fellow  of  All  Souls 
College,  Oxford. 

Henry  Babington  Smith,  born  1863 ; 
formerly  in  the  Treasury ;  President 
of  Council  of  Administration  of 
Ottoman  Public  Debt,  1901 ;  Secre- 
tary to  the  Post  Office,  1 903-9 ; 
President  of  National  Bankof  Turkey 
since  1909;  K.C.B.  1908. 

1  Member  of  the  Society,  1913. 



Antiquities  of  lonta^  244*,  24c,*- 
x?}*;  discovery  of  unpublished 
plates,  24.5*,  246'*. 

Archaeological  research,  the  So- 
ciety's contributions  to,  242*- 
244*,  248*-2^4*. 

Architectural  Association,  244*. 

Armytage,  Sir  George,  240*. 

Art,  ancient,  the  Society's  contri- 
butions for  the  promotion  of 
a  knowledge  of,  248*-2?4*. 


Belhaven,  Lord,  242*. 

British  School  at   Athens,  241*, 

British  School  at  Rome,  244*. 
Brock,  Sir  Thomas,  239*. 
Burghclere,  Lord,  240*. 


Cartwright,  Sir  Chauncy,  240*. 
Choate,  Mr.  Joseph,  240*. 
Clive,  General,  241*. 
Collier,  Hon.  John,  portrait  by, 

Collins,   Lord,  240*;  death  of, 

Colvin,  Sir  Sidney,  241*. 
Cust,  Mr.  Lionel,  245*,  246*. 


Davey,  Lord,  death  of,  241*. 
Davidson,  Sir  Edward,  240*. 
Desart,  Lord,  240*,  241*. 

Dilettanti  Society :  revision  of  the 
Rules  and  Regulations,  242* ; 
its  contributions  towards  the 
study  of  archaeological  research 
and  ancient  art,  242*-244*, 
248*-25"4* ;  plates  found  in  the 
Archives,  244*. 


Evans,  Sir  Arthur,  excavations  at 
Knossos  by,  243*. 


Farquhar,  Mr.  Alfred,  240*. 
Farrer,   Sir    William,    death  of, 

240*;  his  gift  of  photogravures 

to  the  Society,  241*. 
Fraser,   Sir   William,   death   of, 

24  r 


Gibbs,  Mr.  Vicary,  24c*. 
Goschen,  Lord,  240*. 


Hamilton,  Mr.  W.  R.,  portrait  of, 

by  Phillips,  242*. 
Hardy,  Mr.  Dorofield,  portrait  by, 

Hay,  Col.  John,  240*. 
Hellenic  Society,  241*. 
Henderson,  Sir  Alexander,  240*. 
Hichens,    Mr.    Andrew,    240*; 

death  of,  241*. 
Hutchinson,  Sir    Walter    Hely, 

240*  -,  death  of,  241*. 

3  ix*  Index  to  Supplementary  Chapter 


Islington,  Lord,  240*. 

Jackson,  Sir  Thomas,  2 39*,  14.5*. 


Kenyon,  Sir  Frederick,  239*. 
Kingscote,  Sir  NigeJ,  242* ;  death 
of,  24.1*. 


Lethaby,  Prof.  W.  R.,  discovery 
of  plates  by,  24.5*,  246*. 

Liddell,  Mr.  Adolphus,  24c*. 

Lyte,  Sir  H.  Maxwel],  24c*. 

Lyttelton,  Spencer,  240*'  death 
of,  241*. 


Mackenzie,   Sir  Kenneth  Muir, 

Macmillan,  Mr.  George  A.,  243*, 

246* ;  elected  Joint  Secretary, 

Mersey,  Lord,  240*. 
Moncrieff,  Sir  Colin  Scott,  241*. 
Moulton,  Lord,  240*. 
Mowbray,  Sir  Robert,  240*. 

Newlands,  Lord,  240*. 


Paget,  Sir  Richard,  death  of,  241*. 

Pember,  Mr.  £.  H.,  K.C.,  242*; 
death  of,  241*;  portrait  of,  by 
Sir  E.  J.  Poynter,  241*. 

Pember,  Francis,  240*. 

Penrose,  Mr.  F.  C,  243  *j  death 
of,  240*. 

Pickford,  Mr.  Justice,  240*. 

Poynter,  Sir  Edward,  242* ;  por- 
trait by,  241*. 

Plymouth,  Lord,  240*,  241*. 

Principles  of  Athenian  Architecture, 
240*,  244*,  2^2*,  25-4*. 

Pullan,  Mr.  R.  P.,  245*. 


Read,  Sir  Hercules,  235)*. 
Reid,  Mr.  Whitelaw,  240*. 
Rosebery,  Lord,  241*. 
Royal  Academy  of  Arts,  244*. 
Royal  Institute  of  British  Archi- 
tects, 244*,  246*. 


Sandhurst,  Lord,  240*,  241*. 
Scott,  Sir  John  Murray,  death  of, 

Select  Specimens  of  Ancient  Sculpture^ 

244*,  2^o*-252*. 
Simeon,  Sir  Barrington,  death  of, 

Smith,  Sir  Cecil  Harcourt,  239*, 

Smith,  Sir  H.  Babington,  240*. 


Underdown,  Mr.  E.  M.,  K.C., 

242*;  death  of,  241*. 


Victoria  and  Albert  Museum, 


Walpole,  Sir  Spencer,  242*. 

Wedderburn,  Mr.  Alexander 
D.  O.,  K.C.,  240*. 

Welby,  Lord,  241*,  243*;  por- 
trait of,  by  the  Hon.  John  Collier, 

Wilkins,  Mr.  William,  R.A., 



Abdication^  resignation,  39-41. 
Aberdeen,  Earl  of.   See  Hamilton- 
Academy  of  Arts,  schemes  for  an, 

Academy  of  Painters,  &c,  letters 
from,  74,  ??• 

Acton,  Lord,  197. 

Admission  of  members,  form  of 
instrument  for,  39. 

Adye,  Mr.  Thomas,  31,  32. 

Aegina  Marbles,  i^f,  i<;6. 

Ainslie,  Sir  Robert,  144 ;  ambassa- 
dor to  the  Ottoman  Porte,  145:  ; 
his  collection  of  Oriental  coins, 

Almack's,  Society's  removal  to, 23. 

Anson,  Mr.  Thomas,  8,  21. 

Antiquities  of  Athens,  The,  79, 
80,  101,  103  n. 

Apollo  Didymaeus,  temple  of,  87, 
1?  ?. 

Apollo  Smintheus,  temple  of,  200. 

Arch-Master  of  the  ceremonies, 
the,  29,  39 ;  appointment  of 
Earl  of  Sandwich,  29 ;  com- 
mittee on  apparelling,  29 ;  robe, 
cap,  and  sword,  29 ;  suspension 
of  Earl  of  Sandwich,  30;  Sir 
Francis  Dashwood  appointed, 
30;  appointment  of  Mr.  Savage, 
30;  modes  of  election,  30. 

Archaeological  Institute  of  Rome, 
211,  212,  214. 

Archaeological  study, changed  con- 
ditions of,  209-211;  revival 
of,  212-214;  Society's  attitude 
towards,  214,  217. 

Archaeology,  classical,  58,  69 ; 
stimulated  by  Earl  of  Arundel, 
70,  71  ;  other  collectors,  71, 
72;  explorations  in  situ :  Noin- 
tel  and  Carrey,  72,  73  ;  Spon 
and  Wheler,  73  ;  Chishull,  74; 
Brettingham  and  Gavin  Hamil- 
ton, 74, 7?  ;  Stuart  and  Revett, 
75*— 77  ,  Dawkins  and  Wood, 
78, 79  ;  Le  Roy  and  Dalton,  79. 

Archaeology,  General,  Chair  of, 
founded  at  Cambridge,  211. 

Archer,  Mr.  Thomas  (afterwards 
Lord  Archer),  8,  13,  14,  219; 
President  of  first  recorded 
meeting  of  Society,  23. 

Arundel  Marbles,  70,  71. 

Arundel  Society,  190,  191. 

Ascough,  Mr.,  62. 

Ash,  Dr.,  109. 

Ashburnham,  Earl  of,  77. 

Ashburton,  Lord.     See  Baring. 

Asia  Minor  and  Greece,  expedi- 
tion to,  81 ,  choice  of  Chandler, 
Revett,  and  Pars,  83,  84;  in- 
structions, 84-87;  their  work 
in  the  Troad  and  Ionia,  87,88  ; 
approval  of  the  Society,  88,  89 ; 



work  in  Attica  and  the  Morea, 
89  ;  return  and  reception,  90. 

Astle,  Mr.  Thomas,  118,  113. 

Athens,  expedition  of  Stuart  and 
Revett  to,  77;  bombardment 
of,  73,  131;  British  School  of 
Archaeology  at,  207  ;  Mr. 
Penrose's  investigations  at,  208 ; 
foreign  schools  at,  212. 

Attica,  The  Unedited  Antiquities  of, 
publication  of,  163,  164. 

Avignon  declared  to  be  in  Italy, 

Azeglio,  Massimo  d',  194. 


Bacchus's  Tomb,  31-33. 
Ball,  Mr.  John,  F.R.S.,  15)8. 
Ballot,the,for  election  of  members, 

138,  139. 
Balloting  balls  and  bag,  presented 

by  Mr.  Ponsonby,  3a. 
Bailoting-box,  31. 
Bank  of  England,  foundation  of,  3. 
Bankes,  Mr.  William  John,  1 70. 
Banks,     Mr.     (afterwards      Sir) 

Joseph,  P.R. A.,  appointed  Very 

High  Steward,  28  ;  mentioned, 

33,  35",  5>8>  IOT,  *©fc  111,221; 
accompanied  Captain  Cook  in 
the  Endeavour,  1 1 3  ;  Treasurer 
and  Secretary  of  the  Society, 
114;  portrait  of,  by  Sir  J. 
Reynolds,  223  ;  resolutions  re- 
specting a  second  portrait,  225'. 

c  Bard  '  of  the  Society,  appoint- 
ment of  Dick  Edgcumbe  as, 
21,  67. 

Baring,  Sir  Alexander  (afterwards 
Lord  Ashburton),  184. 

Baring,  Mr.  Thomas,  198. 

Barrington,  Viscount.  See  Wild- 

Battersea,  Lord.     See  Flower. 

Baudrier,  Arch-Master's,  pre- 
sented by  Earl  of  Sandwich,  30. 

Bavaria,  Crown  Prince  of,  desires 
to  purchase  the  Elgin  Marbles, 
135;  purchased  the  Aegina 
Marbles,  i<^6. 

Beauclerk,  Mr.  Topham,  108. 

Beaumont,  Sir  George  Howland, 
Bart.,  109,  112,  117. 

Bedford,  Mr.  F.,  181. 

Bedford,  Duke  of.     See  Russell. 

Bedford  Head  Tavern,  Covent 
Garden,  5  ;  first  recorded  meet- 
ing of  the  Society  held  at,  22. 

Bentinck,  Mr.  George  Cavendish, 

Beresford-Hope,  Mr.  Alexander 
J.  B.,  145. 

Berkeley,  Mr.  Norborne,  20,  21, 
45,  52,  83,  219. 

Bessborough,  Earl  of.  See  Pon- 

Birch's  British  Worthies,  217. 

Blessington,  Earl  of,  46  ;  portrait 
of,  by  Knapton,  219. 

Bockh,  210. 

Boone,  Mr.  Daniel,  M.P.,  8,  46, 
1 1  o,  2 1 9  •  m  ember  of  East  India 
Company,  14  •  confidential 
friend  of  Frederick,  Prince  of 
Wales,  14. 

Botfield,  Mr.  Beriah,  M.P.,  18?. 

Bouverie,  Mr.  John,  78. 

Bowen,  Sir  Charles  (afterwards 
Lord  Bowen),  196 -,  his  remark- 
able personality,  15)7. 

Boxall,  Sir  William,  letter  from, 

Boyle,  Mr.,  i^n.,  46,  215). 

Boyne,  Viscount,  8,  17,  36. 

Bracciolini,  Poggio,  69. 

Brand,  Mr.  Thomas,  19,  46,  5-1, 
67,  83,  104,  105- •  portrait  of, 
by  Knapton,  219. 

Brettingham,  Matthew,  75:,  76. 



Bristow,  Mr.  Robert,  8,  219. 

Bristow,  Mr.  William,  34. 

British  Museum,  foundation  of, 
3,  4;  Society  present  marbles 
and  drawings  to,  106 -,  copy  of 
Pennant's  History  of  London  be- 
queathed to,  113;  bequest  of 
Sir  Joseph  Banks'  library,  1 14  ; 
Sir  W.  Hamilton's  collection 
purchased  by,  115-;  and  the 
Townley  collection  of  marbles, 
118;  bequest  of  Payne  Knight's 
collection,  1  zo  ;  bequest  by  Sir 
R.  C.Hoareto,  144;  fragments 
of  frieze,  &c,  from  Teos,  and 
marbles,  &c,  from  Priene  pre- 
sented to,  ipp,  201. 

British  Museum  Marbles,  issue  of, 

British  School  of  Archaeology  at 
Athens,  Society's  interest  in 
establishment  of,  205,  zo6 -, 
successful  appeal  for  State  assis- 
tance, 208. 

Brondsted,  Chevalier  Philip  Oluf, 
student  of  ancient  Greek  archi- 
tecture, 177 ;  gifts  by,  177, 178  3 
death  of,  1803  mentioned,  209. 

Brook,  Mr.,  51. 

Broughton,  Lord.     See  Hobhouse. 

Buccleuch,  Duke  of,  108. 

Building  committees,46,47,  ?9,62. 

Building  schemes,  45-47,  ?<M^3' 

Bunsen,  176,  109,  an. 

Burghersh,  Lord  (afterwards  Earl 
of  Westmorland),  184. 

Burlington,  Earl  of,  71. 

Burney,  Mr.  E.,  226. 

Burton,  Mr.  (afterwards  Sir)  F.  W., 
15)5",  208  ;  elected  Painter  to 
Society,236;  resigned  member- 
ship, 236. 

Bute,  Earl  of,  9,  1 1 . 

Byng,  Admiral,  10. 

Byres,  12?. 

Byron,  Lord,  and  the  Curse  of 
Minerva,  134;  his  satire  on 
the  Earl  of  Aberdeen,  147. 


Calthorpe,  Sir  A.,  46. 
Calthorpe,  Sir  Henry,  2157. 
Calves'  Head  Club,  story  of  the, 

Camelford,  Lord,  proposal  to  sell 

Camelford    House  to  Society, 

Canova,  the  Italian  sculptor,  125. 
Carlisle,  Earl  of.     See  Howard. 
Carlisle,  fourth  Earl  of,  72. 
Carmarthen,  Marquess  of,  portrait 

of,  by  Sir  J.  Reynolds,  221,  223. 
Carrey,  Jacques,  his  drawings  of 

the  Parthenon  pediments,  73  #., 

Carteret,  first   Baron,  collection 

of,  71. 
Cartwright,  Mr.  W.  Cornwallis, 

M.P.,  187. 
Casts  from  the  antique,  proposal 

to  form  a  gallery  of,  58,  5:9. 
Cavendish   Square  site,  46,  47  • 

sale  of,  48,  49. 
Chair,  the   President's,  25,  27  ; 

bills  preserved    in    connexion 

with  it,  27. 
Chandler,  Richard,  had  charge  of 

the    Society's     expedition     to 

Athens,   843    mentioned,    90, 

1 05  ;   took  degree  of  D.D.  at 

Oxford,  9 5:  ;  his  Inscriptions  and 

Travels,  y<$,  y6. 
Chantrey,  Sir  Francis,  R.A.,  136  • 

his  repeated  rejection  as  mem- 
ber, 171. 
Charlemont,  Lord,  60, 61,  74,  j6, 

79,  80,  81,  83,  108,  221. 
Charles  I,  71. 
Charlotte,  Princess,  n. 



Charteris,  Hon.  Francis  (after- 
wards Lord  Elcho,  now  Earl  of 
Wemyss),  186. 

Chatham,  Earl  of,  10,  13. 

Chevignard,  Chevalier,  203,  204.. 

Chishull,  Edmund,  74. 

Chitty,  Sir  Joseph,  196. 

Cholmondeley,  Mr.  Reginald,  197. 

Christie,  Mr.  James,  essay  by,  166. 

Chudleigh,  Elizabeth,  20. 

Churchill,  18. 

Cipriani,  G.  B.,  58. 

Ciriaco  of  Ancona,  69. 

Clanbrassil,  Lord,  62,  105",  108. 

Clarendon,  Earl  of.     See  Villiers. 

Clarke,  Mr.  E.,  17. 

Clarke,  Mr.,  of  Sokoi,  report  on 
temple  of  Athene  Polias,  201  ^ 
presented  coin  of  Orofernes, 

Classical  enthusiasm,  decline  of, 
in  England,  211. 

£  Club/  the,  14,2. 

for  purchasing  his  rooms,  60. 

Cockerell,  Mr.  Charles  Robert, 
R.A.,  i<$6,  nS?,  188,  198,  205); 
dedications  of  his  volumes,  191. 

Coke,  Mr.  Thomas  (afterwards 
Earl  of  Leicester),  20,  74.. 

Colebrooke,  Mr.,  219. 

Collier,  Sir  Robert  (afterwards 
Lord  Monkswell),  196. 

Colman,  Mr.  George,  10?,  108. 

Colvin,  Mr.  Sidney,  195 ;  ap- 
pointed Secretary  and  Treasurer, 
206;  his  resignation,  237; 
portrait  of, by  Sir  E.J.  Poynter, 
P.R.A.,  237. 

Combe,  Dr.,  123. 

Combe,  Mr.  Taylor,  165,  171. 

Commercial  enterprise,  extension 
of  British,  3. 

Committee  of  Painters,  Hay- 
man's,  l)^-')6. 

Committees  and  quorums,  4.1. 

Convivial  excesses,  36,  37. 

Conway,  Harry,  21. 

Conway,  Lord,  yi. 

Conway,  Sir  Martin,  Jfi,  zo8. 

Cook,  Captain,  18,  113. 

Cooke,  Rev.  J.,  tutor  to  Earl  of 

Sandwich,  18. 
Corbould,  H.,  165,  180. 
Cork,  Earl  of,  127. 
Courten,  Sir  William,  collection 

of,  72. 
Cowper,     William,     2nd     Earl, 

F.R.S.,  20,  14.3,  226. 
Cracherode,  Rev.  C.  M.,  109, 1 10. 
Crowle,  Mr.  John  Charles,  62,  97, 

109  -j  Secretary  of  the  Society, 

112,   113  •   portrait  of,  by  Sir 

J.  Reynolds,  223. 
Cumberland,  Duke  of,  14. 
Cunliffe,  Sir  Robert,  196. 


Dahomel,  Jacob,  jeweller,  his  bill 
for  the  c  Medusa  3  seal,  34. 

Dallaway,  Rev.  James,  145-. 

Dalling,  Lord,  196. 

Dalton,  Richard,  79. 

Darner,  Mr.,  ji. 

Dance,  Mr.  Nathaniel  (afterwards 
Sir  N.  Dance-Holland,  Bart.), 
109 ;  minutes  respecting  his 
portrait,  224. 

Darcy,  Robert,  Earl  of  Holder- 
nesse,  19,  77;  ambassador  to 
Venice,  19 ;  lord  of  the  bed- 
chamber to  George  II,  and 
Secretary  of  State,  19,  20* 
Horace  Walpole's  description 
of,  20  •  his  death,  20,  1 10. 

Darling,  Mr.,  QXH.  (now  Judge), 

Dashwood,  Sir  Francis,  8,  28, 43, 

4*j  +7>  +8>  4-9*  Tz>  58>  59,  6h 



80,  83,  99  ;  principal  founder 
of  Society,  9 ;  M.P.  and  Chan- 
cellor of  Exchequer,  9 ;  Baron 
le  Despencer,  9;  his  death,  10, 
1 10  j  appointed  Arch-Master, 
30  ;  his  device  for  great  seal  of 
Society,  34;  presented  petitions 
from  Society  to  the  king,  60,61 ; 
and  a  copy  of  Ionian  Antiquities, 
94 ;  portrait  of,  by  Knapton,  117. 

Davey,  Sir  Horace  (now  Lord 
Davey),  196. 

Dawkins,  Mr.  Edward,  British 
Minister  at  Athens,  minute  re- 
specting him,  176 ;  mentioned, 
185,  226. 

Dawkins,  Mr.  Henry,  81,  82; 
neglect  of  Mr.  Stuart  to  paint 
his  portrait,  220,  221. 

Dawkins,  Mr.  James,  his  legacy 
to  the  Society,  66,  81,  82; 
mentioned,  78,  79,  80  ;  neglect 
of  Mr.  Stuart  to  copy  his  por- 
trait, 220,  221. 

Dawkins  and  Wood,  their  re- 
searches in  classical  antiquities, 
78,  79.  See  also  Dawkins,  J., 
and  Wood,  R. 

Day,  Mr.  Alexander,  136". 

Deering,  Mr.,  181. 

Degge,  Mr.  William,  8,  17. 

Delm£,  Mr.  Peter,  8. 

Demeter,  temple  of,  at  Eleusis, 

Denny,  Colonel  William,  8,  14, 
36,  79,  61,  83  ;  portrait  of,  by 
Knapton,  218. 

De  Quincey,  124. 

Deskfoord,  Lord,  21. 

Despencer,  Lord  le.  See  Dash- 

Devonshire,  Duke  of.  See  Hart- 

Devonshire,  first  Duke  of,  72. 

D'Hancarville,  otherwise   Pierre 

Francois  Hugues,  116,  118, 
121,  122,  123,  147. 

Dickenson,  Mr.,  142,  1^6. 

Dilettanti,Society  of,its  antiquity, 
1 ;  state  of  England  at  its 
foundation,  2-4;  date  of  founda- 
tion, 4;  originally  a  dining 
society,  4 ;  date  of  first  records, 
5: ;  first  meeting,  5-  ;  character 
of  original  members,  5  ;  choice 
of  name,  6 ;  earliest  meetings, 
7  ;  first  probably  held  in  Italy, 
7;  members  in  1736",  7-2.0; 
other  members  before  1750,  20, 
21 ;  practices  and  regulations, 
22;  places  of  meeting,  &c, 
22-24  ;  officers,  25-3 1 ;  its  re- 
galia, 31-34;  dining  practices, 
34-36";  convivial  excesses,  36, 
37;  Horace  Walpole's  sneer  re- 
specting, 36;  election  practices, 
3  8-41 ;  committeesand  quorums, 
41 ;  miscellaneous  activities — 
the  Westminst  er  Bridge  Lottery, 
42-45;  finances  in  1740  and 
1 741, 45;  foundation  of  General 
Fund — building  schemes,  45, 
46 ;  the  Cavendish  Square  site, 
46,  47  ;  its  abandonment  and 
the  financial  result,  48,  49 ; 
promotion  of  the  Italian  opera, 
49, 50 ;  schemes  for  an  Academy 
of  Arts,  5 1- 5 5;  the  Society's 
plan,  5  5,  5-6 ;  collapse  of  ne- 
gotiations, 56 ;  relations  of  the 
Royal  Academy  to  the  Society, 
T7?  5" ^ ;  proposal  to  form  a 
gallery  of  castsfrom  the  antique, 
58,  59 ;  revival  of  building 
scheme,  59 ;  suggested  sites — 
the  Green  Park,  59-61;  the 
Star  and  Garter,  61-63  ;  Camel- 
ford  House,  63  ;  final  abandon- 
ment of  building  scheme,  63, 
64 ;    increasing  riches  of  the 



Society,  64  ;  face-money,  64, 
141,218,219,229;  Rule-^z?#..Sw. 
Vndec,  6<\.-66  ;  various  sources 
of  income,  66 -,  incidental  re- 
cords, 66,  6j  ;  the  Dilettanti 
and  classical  archaeology,  68, 
69  ;  Sir  James  Gray  and  the 
Society,  76,  77 -,  election  of 
Stuart  and  Revett  and  others 
as  members,  77,  79;  send  an 
expedition  to  Asia  Minor,  8i- 
83  j  appoint  Messrs.  Chandler, 
Revett,  and  Pars,  84 ;  their  in- 
structions, 84-87 ;  their  work 
in  the  Troad  and  Ionia,  and 
the  Society's  approval  thereof, 
87-89  ;  publish  Ionian  An- 
tiquities, 91-94-  present  copies 
to  the  king,  &o,  94,  9?  ;  pro- 
pose to  continue  the  publication 
of  the  work,  96,  97 ;  grant 
leave  to  Sandby  and  Stuart 
to  use  Pars's  and  Revett's 
drawings,  97-100  ;  appoint- 
ment of  a  committee,  100, 101  • 
publish  vol.  ii  of  Ionian  An- 
tiquities, 103,  104;  custody  of 
their  marbles,  104, 105" ;  present 
marbles  and  drawings  to  British 
Museum,  1 06  •  personal  changes 
in  the  Society,  107,  108;  new 
members,  108-110;  deaths  of 
founders,  no,  in  •  new  spirit 
among  their  successors,  in, 
112;  issue  the  Priapeia,  122- 
124;  work  in  Italy,  124,  125- ; 
in  Greece  and  Asia  Minor, 
125,  126;  further  enterprises, 
126;  publish  Specimens  of  Antient 
Sculpture,  126-128  ;  lost  oppor- 
tunities, 129,  130,  132  ;  action 
of  the  Society  during  the  con- 
troversy respecting  the  Elgin 
Marbles,  132-134,  136 ;  in- 
ternal   changes  in,    137;    the 

ballot,  138,  139;  abolition  of 
forfeitures,  139;  removal  to 
Parslow's,  and  afterwards  to 
the  Thatched  House,  St.  James's 
Street,  141-143  ;  zeal  of  new 
members,  143 ;  new  Ionian 
Committee  appointed,  149  ;  its 
report  on  Gell's  expedition, 
I49~i5'2;  Sir  H.  EnglefiekTs 
appeal  to  the  Society  in  respect 
totheGell  expedition,  160-16  2; 
its  results,  162,  163  ;  issue  of 
new  edition  of  Ionian  Antiquities, 
164;  further  activities:  second 
volume  of  the  Specimens,  164, 
1 65 ;  difficulties  and  delays, 
165,  166;  mode  of  providing 
for  publishing  expenses,  166- 
168 ;  a  German  scholar's  tribute 
to  the  work  of,  169,  1 70 ; 
number  of  members  limited  to 
seventy,  167,  171;  tardy  re- 
paration to  the  Earl  of  Elgin, 
173,  174 ;  set  on  foot  a  sub- 
scription for  the  purchase  of 
the  Bronzes  of  Siris,  179,  180  -, 
supported  Mr.  Penrose's  ap- 
plication to  Government  in 
respect  to  his  investigation 
of  the  Parthenon,  181;  issue 
of  Investigations  of  Athenian 
Architecture,  182, 183  -,  members 
elected  during  W.R.  Hamilton's 
secretaryship,  184-188;  ap- 
pointment of  Mr.  C.  T.  Newton 
as  correspondent,  188;  his 
correspondence  from  Syra  and 
Mitylene,  188,  189;  on  the 
Mausoleum  of  Halicarnassus, 
189,  190  j  removals:  new 
Thatched  House  Tavern  and 
Willis's  Rooms,  192,  193 ; 
state  of  the  Society,  193,  194 ; 
accessions  to  its  ranks,  194- 
198  -,   new  antiquarian   enter- 



prise :  Mr.  Pullan  and  the 
temple  of  Teos,  198-200 ; 
the  Smintheum,  200  ;  temple 
of  Priene,  20 1,  202 ;  appeals 
from  various  quarters,  205  • 
changes  and  removals  since 
1888, 206 ,  207;  new  members, 
207,  208  ;  discussions  and 
resolutions,  208  ;  retrospect, 
208-214.;  conclusion,  215'; 
portraits  of  members,  216-237. 

Dingley,  Mr.  Robert,  8,  47,  52, 
83  ;  collected  works  of  art,  15. 

Dining  practices,  34-36. 

Dinner  money,  141. 

Dinners,  resolutions  and  regu- 
lations respecting,  24,  3  ?. 

Dodington,  Bubb,  a  patron  of  art 
and  poetry,  21. 

Dodwell,  Mr.,  175-. 

Donaldson,  210. 

Dorset,  Duke  of.     See  Middlesex. 

Douglas,  Marquess  of,  134. 

Drummond,  Sir  William,  1 34, 1 64. 

Duncannon,  Lord,  46",  52. 

Dundas,  Sir  Lawrence,  171. 

Dundas,  Lord,  the  venerable 
father  of  the  Society,  97,  139, 
176,  167,  171,  222,  226,  225; 
portraits  of,  by  Sir  J.  Reynolds 
and  Lawrence,  223,  230. 

Dundas,  Sir  R.,  230. 

Dundas,  Mr.  Thomas  (afterwards 
Earl  of  Zetland),  171,  216. 


Eastlake,  Sir  Charles  Lock, 
P.R.  A.,  Painter  to  Society,  185, 
233  ;  death  of,  234. 

Edgcumbe,  Hon.  Captain  G., 
quaint  resolution  to  enable 
him  to  become  a  member,  38. 

Edgcumbe,  Hon.  Richard,  wit, 
versifier,  and  draughtsman,  21  j 

appointed c Bard'  to  the  Society, 
21,  67. 

Egremont,  Earl  of.  See  Wyndham. 

Elcho,  Lord.     See  Charteris. 

Election  practices  of  the  Society, 

Elgin,  Earl  of,letters  from,  minutes 
respecting,  130;  appointed  to 
the  embassy  at  Constantinople, 
1 3 1 ;  Harrison's  suggestion  re- 
specting casts,  &c,  of  ancient 
Greek  sculptures,  131;  action 
taken,  132-  mentioned,  158; 
reparation  to,  173,  174;  death 
of,  174. 

Elgin  Marbles,  131-136". 

Ellis,  Mr.  Welbore  (afterwards 
Lord  Mendip),  21,  83,  219. 

Elphinston,  Hon.  Mountstuart, 

Elton,  Mr.,  QX2.,  i96. 

Englefield,  Sir  Henry  C,  Bart., 
105),  112,  126,  128,  133, 
149,  1^2,  160,  226;  ap- 
pointed Secretary  of  Society, 
120  j  minute  respecting  him 
and  the  Gell  expedition,  156, 
157  ;  his  appeal  to  the  Society 
in  respect  to  publication  of 
drawings,  &c,  collected  by  the 
expedition,  160-162;  its  re- 
sults, 162,  i6"3  ;  his  death, 
168,  169  ;  portrait  of,  by  Law- 



Ephesus,  temple  of  Diana  at, 
Mr.  J.  T.  Wood's  excavations 
at,  208. 

Esterhazy,  Prince,  171. 


Face-money,  64, 141,229;  institu- 
tion of,  218,  219. 
Falkener,  Mr.,  architect,  204. 
Farnborough,  Lord.     See  Long. 

3  xx 


Farrer,  Sir  W.  J.,  196,  Z07. 

Fauquier,  Mr.  William,  8,  3Z, 
46,  51,  61,  66,  83,  88,  no, 
nz;  Registrar  and  Secretary 
of  Order  of  the  Bath,  1 5 ; 
Secretary  and  Treasurer  of 
Society,  1^ ;  death  of,  15, 
1 10  ;  resignation  of  office, 
1  ix;  portrait  of,  by  Knapton, 

Fazakerly,  Mr.  John  Nicholas, 

Fielding,  Mr.  Charles,  8. 

Fergusson,  Mr.  James,  195:,  203. 

Fines  for  non-attendance  at 
dinners,  &c,  3  ?. 

First  rule  of  the  Society,  -2.3. 

Fitzgerald,  Mr.  Edward,  196. 

Fitzgerald,  Mr.  Robert,  108. 

Flaxman,  Mr.,  minute  granting 
him  permission  to  model  a 
bas  relief,  107  ;  mentioned, 

Flower,  Mr.  Cyril  (now  Lord 
Battersea),  19?. 

Forfeitures,  abolition  of,  1 39-141. 

Foster,  Mr.  F.,  iz8. 

Founders  of  the  Society,  deaths 
of,  no,  in. 

Fountain,  the,  in  the  Strand, 
removal  to,  23. 

Fountaine,  Sir  Andrew,  7-1. 

Fox,  Mr.  Charles  J.,  108,  123. 

France,  its  share  in  the  classic 
revival  of  the  eighteenth  cen- 
tury, 1  a?. 

Fraser,  Sir  William  Augustus, 
M.P.,  187. 

Frederick,  Prince  of  Wales,  9, 
10,  16  n. 

Frederick  II  of  Prussia,  16. 

Fremantle,  Sir  Charles,  Z07. 

Frere,  Mr.  John  Hookham,  170. 

Freshfield,  Mr.  Douglas,  208. 

Fuseli,  134. 


Gage,  Mr.,  minute  respecting, 

Galway,  Viscount,  8,  17;  por- 
trait of,  by  Knapton,  zi8. 

Gandy  and  Bedford,  Messrs., 
draughtsmen  to  Society,  thanks 
and  rewards  to  them  in  con- 
nexion with  Gell  expedition, 
157,  i?8. 

Gandy,  Mr.  J.  M.,  158. 

Gandy,  Mr.  J.  P.,  15-8,  175-. 

Garrick,  David,  109. 

Gaskell,  Mr.  Milnes,  196. 

Gell,  Sir  William,  ^z,  144,  15-8  ; 
Byron's  satire  on  him,  148  ; 
sent  on  diplomatic  mission  to 
Ionian  Islands,  148 ;  his  knight- 
hood, 148  «. ;  his  proposed  ex- 
pedition to  Greece  and  Asia 
Minor,  149— 1  yz ;  Mr.  Lawrence 
directed  to  paint  his  portrait, 
15-7,  Z30  ;  settled  in  Italy,  174  ; 
devoted  himself  to  Pompeian 
antiquities,  175";  appointed 
Resident  Plenipotentiary  of 
Society  in  Italy,  175-  ^  his  corre- 
spondence, 175-;  assisted  by 
Society  in  publication  of  his 
Topography  of  Rome,  175-,  176; 
death  of,  17*. 

General  Archaeology,  Chair  of, 
at  Cambridge,  foundation  of, 

General  Fund,  foundation  of,  45-, 
4.6;  resolution  against  its 
alienation,  49. 

George  II,  his  accession  a  land- 
mark in  English  history,  z ; 
mentioned,  11. 

George  III,  1 1,  79. 

Gerhard,  zio,  zn. 

Gibbon,  1Z3. 

Goderich,  Lord.     See  Robinson. 



Goethe,  translated  Payne  Knight's 
Sicilian  diary,  up. 

Gore,  Mr.  Charles,  artist  and  anti- 
quary, ioo,  i op;  his  tour  in 
Sicily,  1 1 8,  up;  his  drawings, 


Goupy,  the  fan-painter,  77. 

Grafton  Galleries,  removal  to,  207. 

Granby,  21. 

Grand  Hotel,  removal  to,  206". 

Grand  Tour,  the, considered  indis- 
pensable, 4 ;  young  English- 
men on,  6,  74. 

Grant-DufF,  Sir  Mountstuart,  ip8. 

Graves,  Hon.  Henry,  his  portrait 
of  Lord  Broughton,  234.. 

Gray,  Mr.  (afterwards  Sir)  George, 

8>  31,  +5,  48,  7*>  5f,  ?%6°, 
61,  66,  8a,  p3,  p4,  p6,  no; 
major-general  and  colonel  of 
37th  Foot,  12;  Secretary  and 
Treasurer  of  Society,  13,  27; 
death  of,  13,  no;  portrait  of, 
by  Knapton,  218. 

Gray,  Sir  James,  Bart.,  11 ;  Horace 
Walpole's  description  of,  12. 

Gray,  Sir  James  (eldest  son  of 
the  above),  8,  16,  36,  46,  61, 

6*,  7*>  Hi  835  9l'->  appoint- 
ments held  by,  12 ;  death  of, 

12,  no;  reprimanded  by 
Society,  16 ;  directed  construc- 
tion of  Bacchus' s  Tomb,  3 1 ; 
portrait  of,  by  Knapton,  217. 

1  Grecian  Gusto/  a  fashionable 
craze,  81. 

Greece  and  Asia  Minor,  Mr. 
Gell's  expedition  to,  14.9- 164.. 

Green  Park,  attempt  to  secure  a 
site  in,  60,  61. 

Grenfell,  Sir  Francis,  208. 

Grenville,  Hon.  Richard  (after- 
wards Earl  Temple),  8  ;  public 
appointments  of,  13;  death  of, 

13,  no. 

Greville,  Hon.  Charles  (younger 
son  of  Earl  of  Warwick),  35", 
108,  112,  118;  Very  High 
Steward  of  Society,  113,114.;  his 
connexion  with  Emma  Lyon, 
115;  portraits  of,  11  ?,  223. 

Greville,  Mr.  Henry,  offer  of  use 
of  his  rooms  in  Argyle  Street, 

Grimston,  Mr.  Thomas,  8. 


Hackert,  Johann  Philipp,  tour  in 
Sicily  with  Knight  and  Gore, 
118,  up. 

Haddock,  Elka,  bill  for  Presi- 
dent's chair,  27. 

Halifax,  Earl  of.  See  Montagu, 

Hallam,  Henry,  the  historian,  170. 

Haller,  i<$6,  20p. 

Hamilton,  Gavin,  the  painter,  75, 
j6,  117,  12?. 

Hamilton,  Sir  William,  K.B., 
1  op,  112,  123;  his  collections 
of  Greek  antiquities,  11 7,  116"; 
his  discovery  of  the  Isernian 
ritual,  120,  121 ;  his  notes  and 
drawings,  I2p,  130 ;  death  of, 
130;  portrait  of,  by  Sir  J. 
Reynolds,  223. 

Hamilton,  Mr.  W.  R.,  secretary 
to  Lord  Elgin,  133  ;  twice  re- 
jected as  member  of  Society, 
133  ;  mentioned,  135*,  iftf, 
ipi,ip2;  succeeded  Sir  Thomas 
Lawrence  as  Secretary,  172 ; 
latter  years  of  his  secretaryship, 
183  ;  compiled  list  of  members 
of  Society  from  its  foundation, 
183,  184;  members  elected 
under  his  regime,  184-18P ; 
secretary    of   English    section 

Y    2 



of  Archaeological  Institute  of 
Rome,  214. 
Hamilton-Gordon,  George,  fourth 
Earl  of  Aberdeen,    127,    128, 

*33)  n6>  Hh  x44,  *?*j  ^o; 
took  both  sides  in  Elgin  Marbles 

controversy,  133,  134.,  136; 
founded  the  Athenian  Society, 
147 ;  satirized  by  Byron,  147  ; 
his  portrait,  147 ;  drew  up  in- 
structions to  the  Gell  expedi- 
tion, 152. 

Handel  and  Italian  opera,  70. 

Harcourt,  Mr.  Simon  (afterwards 
Viscount  Harcourt),  8,  3d,  43  • 
public  appointments  held  by, 
II  j  sent  to  Germany  to  marry  by 
proxy  the  Princess  Charlotte, 
11 ;  death  of,  11,  no;  Horace 
Walpole's  description  of,  II. 

Hardinge,  Hon.  Charles  (after- 
wards Viscount  Hardinge),  i8<5". 

Hardwicke,  Earl  of,  iyy,  iytf. 

Harley,  Edward,  second  Earl  of 
Oxford,  72. 

Harper,  Rev.  J.,  letter  from,  106. 

Harris,  Mr.  Henry,  8,  43,  44, 
46;  High  Steward  of  Society, 
1 5, 28 ,  Commissioner  of  Wine 
Licences,  15 ;  death  of,  iy,i  10 ; 
firstTreasurer  of  Society,  27  j  de- 
nominated Very  High  Steward, 
28;  portraitof,byKnapton,2i8. 

Harris,  Mr.  James,  letter  of,  95. 

Harrison,  Thomas,  130  ;  his  sug- 
gestion to  Earl  of  Elgin,  131. 

<  Harry  the  Fifth/  the,  or  £  The 
Gang/  a  dining  society,  1 5-  n. 

Hartington,  William,  Marquess  of 
(afterwards  Duke  of  Devon- 
shire), 21 ;  Prime  Minister,  21. 

Hawkins,  Mr.  E.,  165. 

Hawkins,  Mr.  John,  F.R.S.,  the 
naturalist,  144;  collected  ob- 
jects of  Greek  art,  145-. 

Hay,  Hon.  Robert  (afterwards 
Archbishop),  8,  16;  his  death, 

Haydon,  Benjamin   Robert,    the 

painter,  his  campaign  in  favour 

of  the  Elgin  Marbles,  134,  135. 

Haymarket,  the,  Italian  opera  at 
the  King's  Theatre  in,  50,  yi. 

Health  drinking,  resolution 
against,  35-;  rescinded,  37. 

Heber,  Mr.  Richard,  170. 

Heidegger  and  Italian  opera,  5:0. 

Hervey,  Mr.  Augustus,  108. 

Hervey,  Lord,  duel  with  Mr. 
Crowle,  113. 

Heseltine,  Mr.,  208. 

Heytesbury,  Lord,  18?. 

Higginson,  Colonel  (now  General 
Sir  George),  196. 

High  Steward,  the,  28,  46;  a 
dress  suggested,  28  ;  his  staff' 
or  baton  of  office,  28. 

Hippisley,  Sir  John,  M.P.,  185, 226. 

Hoare,  Sir  Richard  Colt,  Bart, 
made  tours  in  Italy  and  Sicily, 
144;  presented  books  and 
drawings  to  British  Museum, 

Hobart,  Lord,  77. 

Hobhouse,  Sir  John  Cam  (after- 
wards Lord  Broughton  of  Gyf- 
ford),  his  Radical  opinions, 
185  ;  Secretary  of  War  and 
President  of  Board  of  Control, 
18?;  mentioned,  198,  233; 
portrait  of,  by  Graves,  23?. 

Hochberg  (or  Hohberg),  Baron, 
portrait  of,  by  Knapton,  215). 

Hodgson,  Mr.  Stewart,  195. 

Hogarth,  William,  4 ;  his  carica- 
ture of  c  The  Five  Orders  of 
Perriwigs/  80  n. 

Holdernesse,  Earl  of,  12,  46,  yi, 
52,  77,  no;  portrait  of,  by 
Knapton,  215;.     See  also  Darcy. 



Holford,  Mr.  R.  S.,  i%6. 

Holroyd,  Mr.  Charles,  copied  for 
the  Society  Lord  Leighton's 
picture  of  himself,  237. 

Hope,  Mr.  Henry  Philip,  146, 226. 

Hope,  Mr.  Henry  Thomas,  14.6. 

Hope,  Mr.  Thomas,  of  Deepdene, 
116,  127,  144,  226,  2,2.7;  his 
collection  of  marbles,  146  ;  his 
taste  for  furniture,  14.6 ;  works 
written  by  him,  14.6. 

Horner,  Mr.  Francis,  inscription 
on  his  presentation  copy  of 
The  Unedited  Antiquities  of  Attica, 
1 64.;  mentioned,  170. 

Hoskins,  Sir  Anthony,  201. 

Houghton,  Lord.     See  Milnes. 

Howard,  George,  Lord  Morpeth 
(afterwards  sixth  Earl  of  Car- 
lisle), 6  2, 143, 144, 14.6, 1 5-6,  zi6. 

Howard,  Mr.  George  (present  Earl 
of  Carlisle),  195:. 

Howe,  Mr.  John,  of  Hanslope,  8, 
i<;n.,  4.6,  4.7,  61,  83  ;  an  active 
member  of  the  Society  in  its 
early  days,  13  ;  death  of,  no  j 
portrait  of,  by  Knapton,  217. 

Hyde,  Lord.     See  Villiers. 

Humboldt,  Wilhelm  von,  209. 

Hume,  Sir  Abraham,  a  leading 
authority  on  the  fine  arts,  144. 


Inkstand,  silver,  34;  presented 
to  Sir  H.  Englefield  on  resig- 
nation of  secretaryship,  34.  • 
presentation  of  a,  to  Mr. 
Wilkins,  R.A.,  169. 

Investigations  of  Athenian  Architec- 
ture, issue  of,  by  Society,  182, 

l83-        .    .. 

Ionian  Antiquities,  quoted,  4.,    7, 

82,    82,    91,    92;    choice    of 
materials  for,  91  ;    preparation 

and  publication  of  volume,  92- 
94;  presentation  copies,  94, 
95  j  proposed  continuation  of, 
96,  97  ;  appointment  of  a  com- 
mittee, 100,  10 1  ;  publication 
of  vol.  ii,  103,  104 ;  new 
edition  of,  164 ;  proposed  con- 
tinuation of,  180;  fourth 
volume  proposed,  201,  202 ; 
time  and  mode  of  publication, 
202-204 ;  Mr.  Ruskin's  gift  in 
aid  of  expenses,  202. 

Ionian  Committee,  new,  149 ; 
report  on  GelFs  proposed  ex- 
pedition, 149-152;  publish 
The  Unedited  Antiquities  of 
Attica,  164. 

Isernia,  the  ritual  of,  Sir  William 
Hamilton  and,  120,  iai. 

Italian  opera,  promotion  of,  49, 

Italy,  leave  to  propose  members 
by  members  residing  in,  38. 


Jebb,  Professor,  197,  214. 

Jeffries  and  Pars,  Academy  stu- 
dents sent  to  Italy  by  Society, 

c  Jemmy  Twitcher,'  nickname  of 
Earl  of  Sandwich,  18. 

Jenkins,  117,  125-. 

Jeune,  Sir  Francis,  207. 


Kestner,  156,  209,  211. 

King's  Arms,  Pall  Mall,  a  meet- 
ing-place of  the  Society,  23  ; 
regalia  removed  from,  23. 

Kingscote,  Sir  Nigel,  207. 

Kingston,  Duchess  of,  108. 

Kingston,  Duke  of,  83 ;  paid 
face-money,  219. 



Knapton,  Mr.  George,  Painter  to 
Society,  8 ;  designed  balloting 
box,  3 1  ;  directed  ornamenta- 
tion, &c,  of  lid  of  Bacchus's 
Tomb,  32 ;  mentioned,  46,  64, 
77  •  death  of,  no;  portraits 
painted  by,  216 -219  ;  resig- 
nation of  office,  219. 

Knight,  Mr.,  227,  226". 

Knight,  Mr.  Henry  Gaily,  170. 

Knight,  Mr.  Richard  Payne,  100, 
102,  109,  112,  123,  126, 
127,  129,  130,  1 77,  164,  itfo; 
tour  in  Sicily  with  Gore  and 
Hackert,  118,  119;  his  Sici- 
lian diary  translated  by  Goethe, 
119;  wrote  essays  on  ancient 
art,  120;  his  collection  of 
antiquities  and  drawings  by  old 
masters,  120;  compiled  the 
Vriapeia,  1 22 ;  his  influence  in 
discrediting  the  Elgin  Marbles, 
133;  death  of,  167,  169;  his 
essay  on  An  Inquiry  into  the 
Symbolical  Language  of  Ancient 
Arts  and  Mythology,  167,  166  ; 
portrait  of,  by  Lawrence,  228. 

Kruse,  Dr.  F.  C.  H.,  tribute  to  the 
Society's  work,  169;  correspon- 
dence with  Mr.  Gell,  1 70  ». 


Landor,  quoted,  198. 

Langlois,  Mr.,  3?. 

Langton,  Mr.  Bennet,  108. 

Lansdowne,  Marquis  of,  127,  198. 

Lawrence,  Sir  Thomas,  P.R.A., 
109,  136",  177,226,227;  Secre- 
tary to  Society,  169,  231 ;  ap- 
pointed Painter  to  Society,  227; 
portraits  painted  by  him,  228, 
229,  230  ;  letter  on  question  of 
portrait-groups,  228,  229 ;  un- 
fulfilled orders  to,  230 ;  or- 
dered to  paint  his  own  portrait, 

230,  231  ;  succeeded  Mr.  West 
as  P.R.A.,  231. 

Layard,  Sir  Henry,  211. 

Leake,  Captain  (afterwards  Lieut.- 
Colonel)  William  Martin, 
144;  assisted  in  conveying 
Elgin  Marbles  to  England,  148  ; 
his  collections  of  marbles  and 
bronzes,  141 ;  his  share  in  super- 
intending issue  of  The  Unedited 
Antiquities  of  Attic a,  168. 

Legge,  Mr.  H.  Bilson  (afterwards 
Chancellor  of  Exchequer),  21. 

Leicester,  Earl  of.     See  Colce. 

Leighton,  Mr.  Frederic  (after- 
wards Sir  F.  and  Lord),  P.R.A., 
his  accomplishments,  197  ;  his 
compliment  to  Sir  C.  T. 
Newton,  K.C.B.,  197  ;  men- 
tioned, 202,  203  ;  succeeded 
Sir  Charles  Eastlake  as  Painter 
to  Society,  234 ;  his  portrait  of 
Sir  Edward  Ryan,  237  ;  granted 
leave  to  become  Sculptor  to 
Society,  236";  death  of,  236". 

Le  Roy,  79. 

Lessing,  indebted  to  Spence's 
Poly  metis,  1 1 9. 

Liddell,  Sir  Henry  (afterwards 
Baron  Wentworth),  8,  46, 219, 
224;  father  of  the  Countess  of 
Upper  Ossory,  17. 

Ligonier,  Lord,  108. 

Limmers*  Hotel,  removal  to,  zo6. 

Linckh,  176. 

Lincoln,  Earl  of,  17. 

Lindsay,  Sir  Coutts,  197. 

Lloyd,  Mr.  William  Watkiss,  an 
enthusiastic  student  of  and 
writer  on  ancient  art,  &c,  187; 
mentioned,  198, 199,  203, 204; 
temporarily  officiated  as  Secre- 
tary and  Treasurer,  206  ;  por- 
trait of,  by  Miss  Bush,  presented 
to  Society,  236. 



Loch,  Lord,  207. 

Long,     Sir    Charles    (afterwards 

Lord  Farnborough),  a   leading 

authority  on  the  fine  arts,  144. 
Long,  Sir  Robert,  8. 
Louis  XVIII,  173. 
Lowell,  Mr.  J.  Russell,  American 

ambassador,  ic>8. 
Lucas,  Mr.  Arthur,  208. 
Lusieri,  Neapolitan  painter,  made 

drawings   of  Greek  sculptures 

for  Earl  of  Elgin,  132. 
Luttrell,  Mr.  Simon,  8. 
Lyon,  Emma,  mistress  of  Hon. 

Charles  Greville,  115". 
Lytton,  Lord,  196. 


MACHiAVELLi,his  dress  to  be  model 

for  that  of  Secretary,  28. 
Mackenzie,  Kenneth,  de  jure  Earl 

of  Seaforth,  21. 
Mackye,  Mr.  John  Ross,  21,  46 ; 

paid  face-money,  219. 
Malone,  Mr.,  123. 
Malton,    Earl   of.     See   Watson- 

Marbles,  the  Society's,  custody  of, 

104,  105:  •  presented  to  British 

Museum,  106. 
Marlay,  Mr.  Brinsley,  195". 
Marlborough,  Duke  of,  108. 
Marochetti,  Baron,  187. 
Mathias,    the    satirist,    attacked 

Payne  Knight  for  writing  the 

Priapeia,  124. 
Mayer  (otherwise  Myers), L.,  104. 
Mazarin,  Cardinal,  71. 
Mead,    Dr.,   collection    of,   71 ; 

mentioned,  74. 
Meade,  Hon.  R.  H.,  15*8. 
Medmenham  Abbey,  orgies  at,  9, 

Mendip,  Lord.     See  Ellis. 

Metcalfe,  Mr.  Philip,  109,  226"; 
Treasurer  to  Society,  1 14. 

Michaelis,  Professor,  his  Ancient 
Marbles  In  Great  Britain,  215". 

Middlesex,  Charles  Sackville,  Earl 
of  (afterwards  Duke  of  Dorset), 
8,  36,  46,  5-1,  61,  66,  83  ;  tour 
in  France  and  Italy,  10;  a  great 
supporter  of  the  Italian  opera, 
10,  5:0*  death  of,  10,  no; 
Horace  Walpole's  description 
of,  11;  his  company  of  Italian 
artists,  ^o;  failure  of  the  scheme, 
fi ;  portrait  of,by Knapton,2i7. 

Midleton,  Viscount,  1 5  n. 

Milnes,  Mr.  Richard  Monckton 
(afterwards  Lord  Houghton), 
112,  188,  201;  his  article  on 
Hamilton's  Historical  Notices  of 
Society,  186. 

Minute-book,  first  entries  in,  f ; 
Latin  style  adopted  for  dates, 
f ;  commencement  of  present 
series  of  red-morocco   books, 

Minutes  of  committees,  separate 
book  provided  for,  31. 

Mitchell,  Sir  Andrew,  8  ;  envoy 
to  Court  of  Prussia,  16. 

Mitford,  Mr.,  226". 

Moira,  Earl  of.     See  Rawdon. 

Moncrieff,  Sir  Colin  Scott,  207. 

Monkswell,  Lord.     See  Collier. 

Montagu,  George,  Lord  Sunbury 
(afterwards  Earl  of  Halifax),  20. 

Montagu,  John,  fourth  Earl  of 
Sandwich,  his  birth  and  edu- 
cation, 17;  his  tour  in  the 
Mediterranean,  &c,  18;  British 
plenipotentiary  at  the  Peace  of 
Aix-la-Chapelle,  18 ;  a  supporter 
of  Captain  Cook  in  his  expedi- 
tions, 1 8 ;  Sandwich  Islands  and 
sandwiches  named  after  him,  18; 
nicknamed  'Jemmy  Twitcher,' 



1 8  •  his  great  capacity  for  work, 
ip;  the  Society  greatly  indebted 
to  him,  19;  mentioned,  29,  35, 
36,  38,  jrj,  <tf,  7+,  83;  sus- 
pended from  office  of  Arch- 
Master  for  contempt,  30;  death 
of,  no;  his  character,  in* 
portrait  of,  by  Knapton,  219. 

Montagu,  Lady  Mary  Wortley, 
quoted,  6,  12. 

Montagu,  Lord  Robert  (afterwards 
Duke  of  Manchester),  8. 

Montague  House,  unsuccessful 
attempt  to  secure  a  room  in,  49. 

Morpeth,  Lord.     See  Howard. 

Morritt,  Mr.  J.  Bacon  Sawrey,  of 
Rokeby,  supported  Earl  of  Elgin 
in  controversy  respecting  Elgin 
Marbles,  136",  14.7;  mentioned, 
144, 226  -j  a  friend  of  Sir  Walter 
Scott,  145- ;  his  travels  in  Greece 
and  Asia  Minor,  14.5 ;  a 
leading  member  of  the  Society, 
14.6;  one  of  the  founders  of 
the  Travellers'  Club,  146" ; 
essay  by,  166  $  portrait  of,  by 
Shee,  232. 

Mottoes,  two  traditional,  of  the 
Society,  215'. 

Mulgrave,  Lord.     See  Phipps. 

Miiller,  Carl  Otfried,  210. 

Munro,  Mr.  H.  A.  Johnstone,  of 
Novar,  186. 

Museum  of  Classical  Archaeology 
at  Cambridge,  opening  of,  213. 

Museum  Worsleyanum^  \\6. 


New  Committee  of  Publication, 

appointment  of,  116. 
New  members,  108-1 10 ;  zeal  of, 

143,  144. 
New  Thatched  House   Tavern, 

removal  to,  192,  193. 

Newton,  Mr.  (afterwards  Sir) 
C.T.,  87,212,213 ;  Vice-Consul 
at  Mitylene,  188 ;  appointed 
correspondent  to  Society,  188  ; 
his  correspondence  from  Syra 
and  Mitylene,  188,  185*;  on  the 
Mausoleum  of  Halicarnassus, 
189,  190 ;  the  Society's  pro- 
posals, 189;  elected  a  member 
of  Society,  15)4 ;  his  character, 
194 ;  made  K.C.B.,  15)5- ;  Sir 
F.  Leighton's  compliment  on 
the  occasion,  19? ;  offered  use  of 
his  house  to  Society,  206". 

Newton,  Mr.  James,  101,  103. 

Newton,  Mr.  William,  101,  102. 

Nicholson,  Sir  Charles,  201. 

Niebuhr,  209. 

Noel,  Mr.  James,  8. 

Nollekens,  136". 

Norfolk,  Duke  of,  lent  his  robes 
for  use  of  President,  16 ;  sus- 
pected, with  others,  of  secreting 
the  old  toga,  26;  mentioned, 
142,  171,  224,  22?,  230. 

Northampton,  Marquess  of,  184. 

Northcote,  Sir  Stafford,  208. 

Northwick,  Lord.     See  Rushout. 


Original  members,  their  char- 
acter, 5". 

Oxford,  Earl  of.     See  Harley. 

Oxford,  University  of,  part  of 
Arundel  collection  presented 
to,  71. 


Paget,  Mr.  (now  Right  Hon.  Sir) 
Richard,  196. 

Painters  to  the  Society — George 
Knapton,  8,  216-219  •  James 
Stuart,  219-221 ;  Sir  Joshua 
Reynolds,       221-22?;       Sir 



Thomas  Lawrence,  aa^-a^i; 
Sir  Martin  Archer  Shee,  231- 
233  j  Sir  Charles  Lock  East- 
lake,  233  •  Sir  Frederic  Leigh- 
ton,  234-236";  Sir  F.  W. 
Burton,  2 36 ;  Sir  E.  J.  Poynter, 

Palmerston,  Viscount,  108,  181. 

Panizzi,  Principal  Librarian  of 
the  British  Museum,  187,  198. 

Panofka,  210. 

Pars,  William,  58,  83,  84,  90,  94, 
100,1 16";  associatedwithChand- 
ler  and  Revett  in  Society's  ex- 
pedition to  Athens,  84- ;  Sandby 
granted  leave  to  publish  his 
drawings  of  Athens,  97. 

Parslow's,  removal  to,  141. 

Parthenon,  Mr.  Penrose's  proposal 
to  investigate  alleged  anomalies 
in  the  construction  of  the,  180, 
181 ;  supported  by  Society, 
1 8 1  •  publication  of  results,  1 8a, 

Parthenon  Marbles,  the,  Carrey's 
drawings  of,  7a,  73,  and  note  j 
their  condition  at  a  later  date, 
130,  131. 

Payne  and  White,  publishers  of 
Specimens  of  Antient  Sculpture, 
127,  128. 

Payne-Gallwey,  Mr.  Stephen,  por- 
trait of,  by  Sir  J.  Reynolds, 

Peachey,  Hon.  John  (afterwards 
Lord  Selsey),  100,  106,  109, 
112, 116, 1 26, 226",  227;  formed 
collection  of  marbles,  117. 

Peel,  Sir  Robert,  Prime  Minister, 

Pember,  Mr.  E.  H.,  QX}.,  i96 ; 
joint  Secretary  and  Treasurer, 

Pembroke,  Earl  of,  collection  of, 
at  Wilton  House,  71. 

Pennant's  History  of  London,  copy 
of,  bequeathed  to  British  Mu- 
seum by  Crowle,  113. 

Penrose,  Mr.  F.  C,  publication  of 
his  Principles  of  Athenian  Archi- 
tecture;  185-  ^  the  present  father 
of  Society,  186 ;  adopted  Wat- 
kiss  Lloyd's  Theory  of  Propor- 
tion, 187,104;  mentioned,  190, 
198,  203  j  further  investigations 
at  Athens,  208  ;  Director  of 
British  school  at  Athens,  214. 

Petitions  to  the  king  for  leave  to 
build  in  the  Green  Park,  do, 

Petty,  William,  70. 

Phelps,  Mr.,  American  ambassa- 
dor, 198. 

Philae,  scheme  for  barrage  of  the 
Nile  at,  opposed  by  Society, 

Phipps,  Mr.  Constantine  (after- 
wards Lord  Mulgrave),  35-,  97, 
105-,  108  ;  portrait  of,  by  Sir 
J.  Reynolds,  223. 

Pierrepoint,  Evelyn,  Duke  of 
Kingston,  20. 

Pilkington,  Sir  Lionel,  8,  17. 

Pitt,  Mr.  G.,  221. 

Planta,  Mr.,  123. 

Pola,  temple  at,  chosen  as  model 
for  Society's  proposed  new 
building,  47,  y6. 

Pollock,  Sir  W.  F.,  Secretary  to 
Society,  193,  197 ;  his  friends, 
196 ;  a  Dante  scholar,  1  y6  ; 
mentioned,  203  ;  death  of,  206". 

Pomfret,  Earl  of,  71. 

Pompeiana,  Sir  William  Gell's,  177. 

Ponsonby,  Mr.  William  (after- 
wards Viscount  Duncannon 
and  Earl  of  Bessborough),  8, 
74,  83,  105-,  no,  123;  Lord 
of  Treasury  and  Postmaster- 
General,  13  ;  a  most  active  art 



collector,  13 ;  death  of,  13, 
in  ;  presented  Society  with 
balloting  balls  and  bag,  32  • 
portrait  of,  by  Knapton,  218. 

Portland,  Duke  of,  12,3. 

P  rtrait-gr  ups.     See  Reynolds. 

Portraits  of  members,  t\6-i7)']  ; 
various  resolutions  and  orders 
as  to,  224,  227,  229,  230 ; 
proposed  series  of  engravings  of, 
233  ;  applications  from  Man- 
chester, South  Kensington,  &c, 
for  loan  of  pictures,  233,  234  ; 
letter  of  thanks  from  Sir  W. 
Boxall,  234. 

Potter,  Mr.  Justice,  99,  100. 

Powerscourt,  Lord,  197. 

Poynter,  Mr.  (afterwards  Sir) 
E.  J.,  Painter  to  the  Society, 
208,  236;  P.R.A.,  236;  his 
portrait  of  Mr.  Sidney  Colvin, 

President,  the,  first  chosen  in 
rotation,  2?  ;  office  compulsory, 
25 ;  power  to  decline  upon 
paying  fine,  2? ;  a  scarlet 
Roman  dress  decided  on,  25  • 
this  form  of  dress  still  used, 
26 ;  duty  of  Painter  to  arrange 
its  folds,  16 ;  suspicious  dis- 
appearance of  old  toga,  16  j 
new  one  provided,  27  ;  special 
chair,  the  £  Sella  Curulis/  27  ; 
bills  in  connexion  therewith,  27. 

Priapeia,  the,  122,  123  •  reception 
of  the  volume,  123,  124. 

Priene,  excavations  by  Mr.  Pullan 
at  the  temple  of  Athene 
Polias  at,  201 ;  marbles  and 
inscriptions  from  thence  pre- 
sented by  Society  to  British 
Museum,  201. 

Principles  of  Athenian  Architecture, 
publication  of,  185^  new 
edition,  204. 

Publishing  expenses,  mode  of 
providing  for,  166-16%. 

Pugin,  an. 

Pullan,  Mr.  R.  P.,  appointed  by 
Government  to  assist  Mr. 
Newton  at  Halicarnassus,  190  ; 
andatBudrum,  198 ;  his  proposal 
to  Society  to  examine  sites  of 
Teos,  &c,  198  ',  authorized  to 
explore  temple  of  Bacchus  at 
Teos,  199;  minute  upon  his 
report,  199  •  Mr.  Lloyd's 
opinion  on  result  of  exploration, 
199 ;  supported  by  Society  in 
candidature  for  post  of  Vice 
Consul,  200  ;  again  employed 
by  Society  in  the  Troad,  200  j 
mentioned,  201. 


Qualification  for  membership  of 
society,  38. 


Ravens  worth,  Baron.  te*Liddell. 
Rawdon,    Sir    John    (afterwards 

Earl  of  Moira),  32  •  portrait  of, 

by  Knapton,  219. 
Ray,  Miss,  mistress   of  Earl  of 

Sandwich,    murder   of  by   the 

Rev.  J.  Hackman,  18. 
Redcliffe,  Lord  Stratford  de,  189. 
Revett,  Mr.,  prepared  design  for 

further  adornment  of  Bacchus's 

Tomb,  33  •  mentioned,  47,  53, 

83?  H,  93,  94?  96>  91  y  99->  iooj 
105-,  116;  Stuart  allowed  to  use 

his  drawings  of  Athens,  97. 

Reynolds,  Sir  Joshua,  Painter  to 

Society,  received  a  reprimand, 

2.6  ;    first  President  of  Royal 

Academy,  57 ;  mentioned,  62, 

105? ;  his  appointment  as  Painter 

to  Society,  221 ;   his  portrait, 



221  5  his  two  great  portrait- 
groups,  221-223 ;  death  of,  115"  • 
loan  of  his  portrait  to  the  Gr  s- 
venor  Gallery,  236. 

Reynolds  portrait-groups,  the, 
107,  221-223  ;  bill  for  fram- 
ing, 222  n.  •  committees  ap- 
pointed to  report  on  condition 
of,  14.9,  226",  227  ;  members 
represented  in,  223 ;  steps  taken 
for  their  preservation,  227, 
227 ;  engraved  in  mezzotint 
by  Messrs.  Turner  and  Say, 
227,  228  •  inquiries  into  state 
of  pictures,  232,  233;  loan 
of,  to  Grosvenor  Gallery  and 
National  Gallery,  236". 

Richmond,  Charles  Lennox,  third 
Duke  of,  ?8, 108 ;  his  collection 
of  paintings,  &c,  y8. 

Ridley,  Sir  Matthew  White,  M.P., 

Robinson,  Hon.  Frederick  (after- 
wards Lord  Goderich  and  Earl 
ofRipon),  170. 

Robinson,  Sir  T.  (afterwards  Lord 
Grantham),  f$>,  83,  108,  145-. 

Rockingham,  Earls  of.  See  Wat- 

Rodney,  21. 

Roe,  Sir  Thomas,  70. 

Rolle,  Margaret,  Countess  of 
Orfbrd,  14. 

Rome,  British  artists  in,  74,  j<j. 

Romney,  the  painter,  11?. 

Rose,  210. 

Rosebery,  Lord,  198. 

Roxburghe,  Duke  of,  108,  123. 

Royal  Academy,  foundation  of,  4, 
57;  its  relations  with  Society,?7. 

Royal  Society,  older  than  Society 
of  Dilettanti,  2 ;  fostered  science 
and  research,  3. 

Rule  Ann.  Soc.  Undec,  64.-66. 

Rushout,    Sir   John    (afterwards 

Lord  Northwick),  127,  144, 
149,  227  •  his  collection  of 
Greek  coins  and  paintings  by 
old  masters,  147. 

Ruskin,  Mr.,  gift  from,  towards 
publishing  vol.  iv  of  Ionian 
Antiquities ,  203  j  mentioned, 
204,  211. 

Russell,  John,  fourth  Duke  of  Bed- 
ford, Lord-Lieutenant  of  Ire- 
land and  ambassador  to  France, 
19  ;  Horace  Walpole's  descrip- 
tion of,  19;  his  characteristics, 
19;  mentioned,  38,  46,  5*3, 
66,80,83,171;  his  death,  no  3 
portrait  of,  by  Knapton,  219. 

Russell,  John,  R.A.,  well-known 
painter,  first  appearance  in 
public,  6 j. 

Ryan,  Sir  Edward,  Secretary  to 
Society,  184,  153  ;  mentioned, 
185",  15*7;  death  of,  196;  portrait 
of,  by  Leighton,  235". 


St.  George,  Mr.,  77. 

St.  John,  Colonel  Henry,  108. 

St.  Martin's  Lane  Academy,  4,  5 1 . 

Salamis,  proposed  fund  to  aid 
archaeological  research  at,  208. 

Sandby,  Paul,  artist,  granted  leave 
to  publish  engravings  from 
Pars's  drawings  of  Athens,  97; 
presented  a  set  to  Society,  98. 

Sandwich,  Earl  of.  See  Montagu, 

Savage,  Mr.,  appointed  Arch- 
Master,  30 ;  portrait  of,  by 
Knapton,  218. 

Savile,  Lord,  207. 

Scott,  Sir  Walter,  145. 

Sc  afton,  Mr.  Luke,  108. 

Seaforth,  Earl  of,  221 ;  portrait 
of,  by  Sir  J.  Reynolds,  223. 



Seal  of  the  Society,  3  3  ;  proposed 
device  and  motto,  33  ;  aban- 
doned in  favour  of  the 'Medusa,' 
34 ;  bill  in  connexion  with  the 
latter,  34. 

Sebright,  Sir  Thomas,  77. 

Secretaries  of  the  Society  :  Col. 
George  Gray,  13,  27,  4?; 
Mr.  William  Fauquier,  1  y,  1 12  • 
Mr.  Crowle,  112;  Sir  Joseph 
Banks,  113,  114;  Sir  T.  Law- 
rence, 169,  231;  Mr.  W.  R. 
Hamilton,  1 7  2, 2 1 4 ;  Sir  Edward 
Ryan,  184,  193;  Sir  W.  F. 
Pollock,  193,  197 ;  Mr.  W. 
Watkiss  Lloyd,  206 ;  Earl  of 
Strafford,  206;  Mr.  Sidney  Col- 
vin,2o6,237;  Mr. Pember,  joint, 
206  •  Lord  Welby,  joint,  106. 

Secretary,  the,  27  •  special  dress,  28. 

Selden,  John,  70. 

Select  Committee  of  the  House 
of  Commons  on  the  purchase 
of  the  Elgin  Marbles,  135-. 

'Sella  Curulis,'  or  President's 
chair,  27. 

Selsey,  Lord.     See  Peachey. 

Selwyn,  George,  67,  108. 

Sestini,  the  Abbate  Domenico, 
published  a  description  of  Sir 
Robert  Ainslie's  collection  of 
Oriental  coins,  145-. 

Seymour,  Mr.  Henry  Danby, 
M.P.,  i%6. 

Shee,  Sir  Martin  Archer,  P.R.A., 
171  j  Painter  to  Society,  184, 
23 1 ;  his  portrait  of  Mr.  Morritt, 

Sherard,  Sir  Brownlow,  8,  17- 
portrait  of,  by  Knapton,  218. 

Shergold,  Richard,  lottery-office 
keeper,  34. 

Shirley,  Hon.  Sewallis,  8,  36",  46", 
83 ;  younger  son  of  Earl  Ferrers, 
14 ;  had  relations  with  the  cele- 

brated Lady  Vane,  14  ;  and  with 
Margaret  Rolle,  Countess  of 
Orfbrd,  14 ;  M.P.  and  comp- 
troller of  the  household  to 
Queen  Charlotte,  14;  his  death, 
14,  no;  portrait  of,  by  Knap- 
ton, 218. 

Siris,  the  Bronzes  of,  177,  178; 
subscription  for  their  purchase, 
175),  180. 

Sloane,  Sir  Hans,  3,  114. 

Smith,  Rev.  Arthur  (afterwards 
Archbishop  of  Dublin  and 
Primate  of  Ireland),  8-  travelled 
abroad  with  Earl  of  Middlesex, 
1 6 ;  Dean  of  Raphoe  and  of 
Derry,  and  Bishop  of  Clonfert, 
of  Down,  and  of  Meath,  16  • 
death  of,  16. 

Smith,  Sidney,  quoted,  146". 

Smithson,  Sir  Hugh  (afterwards 
Duke  of  Northumberland),  8, 
1  y».-  married  heiress  of  duchy  of 
Northumberland,  1 5  ;  father  of 
founder  of  Smithsonian  Institu- 
tion, 1 5". 

Smithsonian  Institution  at  Boston, 
U.S.A.,  if. 

Smollett's  Peregrine  Pickle^  Lady 
Vane  original  of  c  Lady  of 
Quality '  in,  14. 

Smyth,  Mr.  John,  portrait  of,  by 
Sir  J.  Reynolds,  223. 

Society  of  Antiquaries,  founded 
before  Dilettanti  Society,  2  ; 
fostered  science  and  research,  3. 

Solander,Dr.,  accompanied  Banks 
and  Cook  in  first  voyage  of  En- 
deavour^ 113. 

Somers,  the  late  Earl,  19  5*,  202. 

Somerset,  Duke  of,  161,  164,  227. 

Somerset  House,  attempt  to  secure 
a  room  in,  45). 

Sotheby,  William, his  panegyricon 
Sir  Henry  Englefield,  168,  169. 



Specimens  of  Antient  Sculpture,  i  26, 
i  27  ;  mode  of  publication,  1 27 ; 
proposed  second  volume,  129, 
164,  165 ;  difficulties  and  de- 
lays in  publication,  16?,  166. 

Spedding,  James,  196. 

Spence,  Rev.  Joseph,  8 ;  author 
of  Polymetis,  10  •  tutor  to  Earl 
of  Middlesex,  10,  17  j  governor 
to  Earl  of  Lincoln,  17;  Pro- 
fessor of  Poetry  and  Regius 
Professor  of  Modern  History 
at  Oxford,  17  ;  friend  of  Pope, 
17-  his  death,  17;  his  Polymetis 
stimulated  Lessing  in  com- 
posing the  Laocoon,  119. 

Spencer,  Earl,  108. 

Spencer,  Percival, Prime  Minister, 

Spencer,  Hon.  William  Robert, 
157;  his  poems,  174.  •  minute 
respecting  him,  174. 

Spencer-Stanhope,  Mr.  W.,  por- 
trait of,  by  Sir  J.  Reynolds, 

Spon  and  Wheler,  their  expedi- 
tion to  Greece  and  the  Levant, 

£  Squire  Gawky,  nickname  of 
Hon.  Richard  Grenville,  13. 

Stackelberg,  Baron,  186,  209. 

Star  and  Garter,  Pall  Mall,  meet- 
ing-place of  Society,  23,  49; 
abortive  attempt  to  purchase, 

Steavens,  Mr.,  77. 

Stirling,  Mr.  William  (afterwards 
Sir  William  Stirling-Maxwell), 
1 86. 

Strafford,  Earl  of,  appointment  as 
Secretary  and  Treasurer,  206". 

Strange,  Sir  Robert,  56,  5-7. 

Strode,  General  William,  8,  36 ; 
friend  and  ally  of  Duke  of 
Cumberland,  14 ;  donor  of  the 

duke's  statue  in  Cavendish 
Square,  14. 

Stuart,  Mr.  James,  33,  47,  53,  61, 
j60  83,  97,  99,  116  ;  appointed 
Painter  to  the  Society,  101, 220 ; 
death  of,  101,  no;  did  not 
comply  with  Society's  demands, 
220,  221 ;  superseded  by  Sir 
Joshua  Reynolds,  221  •  minute 
respecting  his  portrait,  221. 

Stuart  and  Revett,  their  early 
history,  75, 76;  elected  members 
of  the  Society,  77,  79  :  expedi- 
tion to  Athens,  77;  join  with 
Dawkins  and  Wood,  78  ;  visit 
Smyrna,  78 ;  Stuart  nearly 
murdered,  78  ;  return  to  Eng- 
land, 79 ,  publish  first  volume 
of  Antiquities  of  Athens,  80  •  its 
success,  80;  a  continuation 
contemplated  by  Stuart,  97  • 
difficulties  between,  98-100 ; 
posthumous  publication  of  vols, 
ii-iv  of  the  Antiquities,  101- 
103 ;  supplementary  volume, 
103  n.     See  also  under  each  name. 

Sunday,  meetings  held  on  the  first 
in  every  month  from  December 
to  May,  23  ;  postponed  in 
December,  1757,  to  the  second 
Sunday  in  January,  24 ;  altered 
to  twice  a  month  in  May,  178 1, 
24 ;  again  altered,  24  j  season 
of  holding  meetings  changed  to 
February  to  July,  the  present 
arrangement,  24. 

Sutherland,  Duke  of,  171. 

Symmons,  Mr.,  167. 


Tanner,  Ridley,  bill  for  supplying 

Arch-Master's  robe,  &c,  29. 
Tavistock,  Marquess  of,  83. 
Taylor,  Sir  John,  Bart.,  presented 



an  ivory  bas  relievo  of  Perseus 
and  Andromeda  to  the  Society, 
33;    mentioned,    98 ;    portrait 
of,  by  Sir  J.  Reynolds,  223. 
Tea  and  coffee  debarred  at  dinners, 

Temple,  Earl.     See  Grenville. 

Tennyson,  Lord,  iy6. 

Teos,  temple  of,  committee  on 
its  exploration,  i<?8 ;  Mr. 
Pullan's  proposition,  198  ;  ac- 
cepted by  Society,  199 ;  results 
of  exploration,  199  ;  fragments 
of  a  frieze  and  an  inscribed  stele 
presented  to  British  Museum, 

Thatched  House,  St.  James's 
Street,  removal  to,  142,  143. 

Thompson,  Sir  E.  Maunde,  207. 

Thompson,  Sir  Ralph,  207. 

Thompson,  Mr.  Richard,  portrait 
of,  by  Sir  J.  Reynolds,  223. 

Thompson,  W.  H.,  late  Master  of 
Trinity  College,  Cambridge, 

Thorwaldsen,  178. 

Thurlow,  Lord,  123. 

Toast,  ancient,  of  the  Society, 

Toasts,  37,  38,  215-. 

Toga,  the  President's,  z6 ;  sus- 
picious disappearance  of,  26", 

Tomline,  Mr.  George,  M.P.,  i8tf. 

Tournefort,  Pitton  de,  botanist, 

Townley,  Mr.  Charles,  iop,  no, 

112, 122,126",  130, 225",  235;  an 
intimate  friend  of  Sir  William 
Hamilton,  117;  collected  anti- 
quities, 117-  removed  to  London 
andformed  a  gallery,  117;  made 
a  trustee  of  British  Museum,  to 
which  he  bequeathed  his  collec- 
tion of  marbles,  118. 

Travellers'  Club,  the,  Mr.  Morritt 
one  of  the  founders  of,  146". 

Treasurers  (or  High  Stewards)  of 
Society  :  Mr.  H.  Harris,  1 5, 
27  -,  Mr.  Philip  Metcalfe,  1 14. 

Trench,  Mr.,  77. 

Trevor,  Hon.  Mr.,  164.. 

Troad,  the,  visited  by  Chandler, 
Revett,  and  Pars,  87 ;  Mr. 
Pullan  employed  in,  200. 

Twistleton,  Hon.  Edward,  198. 


Underdown,  Mr.,  QXD.,  207. 
Unedited  Antiquities  of  Attica,  The, 

publication  of,  16"  3,  164. 
Upper     Ossory,     Countess     of^ 

Horace  Walpole's  friend,  iy. 
Upper  Ossory,  Duke  of,  108. 


Vane,  Lady,  14. 

Vanneschi  and  Italian  opera,  50, 


Venables,  Mr.  George,  Q\C.,  196 ; 
friend  of  Thackeray  and  reputed 
original  of  '  Stunning  War- 
rington '  of  Pendennis,  iyj  ;  his 
remarkable  literary  powers,  197. 

Very  High  Steward,  Mr.  H.  Har- 
ris denominated,  28  ;  lapse  of 
this  office,  28 ;  revived,  and 
accepted  by  Mr.  Banks,  28  ; 
a  special  dress  suggested,  29 ; 
Mr.  Greville,  114. 

Villiers,  George,  Duke  of  Bucking- 
ham, 70. 

Villiers,  Thomas  (afterwards Baron 
Hyde  and  Earl  of  Clarendon), 
8,  46,  83,  170;  his  long  and 
remarkable  career  in  diplomacy, 
16 ;  death  of,  16 ;  portrait  of, 
by  Knapton,  217. 



Virtuosi,  Society  of,  7. 
Visconti,Ennio  Quirino,  135,  209. 


Waddington,  M.,  French  ambas- 
sador, 104,,  107. 

Walpole,  Horace,  on  Charles 
Sackville,  Earl  of  Middlesex, 
1 1 ;  on  the  brothers  Gray,  1 1 ; 
mentioned,  14,  1?,  67,  123; 
on  John  Russell,  Duke  of  Bed- 
ford, 19  ;  on  Lord  Deskfoord, 
21 ;  on  the  Dilettanti,  36,  fi ; 
on  Italian  opera,  ^o,  51  •  on 
Duke  of  Richmond's  school  of 
statuary,  58. 

Walpole,  Sir  Robert,  2,  14; 
initiated  the  Westminster 
Bridge  Lottery,  42,  4.3. 

Walpole,  Mr.  Spencer,  207. 

Wark worth,  Lord,  83. 

Warwick,  the  late  Earl,  195. 

Watson,  Mr.  Knight,  203. 

Watson,  Lewis,  second  Earl  of 
Rockingham,  20. 

Watson,  Thomas,  third  Earl  of 
Rockingham,  20. 

Watson-Wentworth,  Charles,  Earl 
of  Malton  (afterwards  Marquess 
of  Rockingham),  76,  79,  80, 
81,  108. 

Watson-Taylor,  Mr.  George,  170. 

Welby,  Sir  Reginald  (now  Lord 
Welby),  198 ;  joint  Secretary 
and  Treasurer  to  Society,  106. 

Welcker,  210. 

Wells,  Mr.,  of  Redleaf,  186. 

Wemyss,  Earl  of.     See  Charteris. 

West,  Mr.  Benjamin,  P.R.A., 
1  op,  136",  227  ;  consulted  on 
state  of  the  Reynolds  groups, 
225,  226 ;  presentation  of  his 
portrait,  and  letter  therewith, 

Westmacott,  Sir  Richard,  136, 
170,  171. 

Westminster  Bridge  Lottery,  the 
earliest  recorded  transaction  of 
Society,  42 ;  a  scheme  initiated 
by  Sir  Robert  Walpole,  4.2,  4.3  ; 
Act  of  Parliament  passed  in 
1736",  42;  minutes  of  Society 
respecting  first  lottery,  43  • 
prizes  won,  44 ;  resolutions  in 
connexion  with  second  lottery, 
44;  resultedinlosstoSociety,4? . 

Westmorland,  Earl  of.  See 

Whitefoord,  Caleb,  123. 

Whitmore,  Mr.  Thomas,  8. 

Wilbraham,  Mr.,  Deputy  Arch- 
Master,  123,  157. 

Wildman,  William,  second  Vis- 
count Barrington,  20;  Secretary 
of  War  and  Chancellor  of  Ex- 
chequer, 20 ;  portrait  of,  by 
Knapton,  21  p. 

Wilkes,  15,  18,  123. 

Wilkins,  Mr.  William,  R.A.,  the 
architect,  128,  136,  143,  144, 
147,  158,  160,  163,  171,  227; 
sixth  wrangler  at  Cambridge, 
147 ;  studied  architecture  in 
Italy  and  Greece,  147  •  writer 
on  classical  architecture,  147  j 
edited  The  Unedited  Antiquities 
of  Attica,  163  ;  death  of,  168, 
180  j  presentation  to,  169. 

Williams,  Sir  Charles  Hanbury, 
8,  226 ;  famous  wit  and  satirist, 
16;  lived  abroad  as  envoy,  16 ; 
retained  his  interest  in  Society, 
1 6";  his  poems  offered  to 
Society  by  Mr.  Johnnes,  67 ; 
verses  on  Crowle's  duel  with 
Lord  Hervey,  113. 

Williams,  Gilly,  67. 

Williams- Wynn,  Sir  Watkin, 
portrait  of,  by  Sir  J.  Reynolds, 



223  ;  leave  granted  to  Mr.  T. 
Grenville  to  copy  it,  223. 

Willis's  Rooms,  formerly  c  Al- 
mack's/  removal  of  Society  to, 
193  •  closing  of,  206". 

Winchilsea,  third  Earl  of,  collec- 
tion of,  71. 

Winckelmann,  iz^,  209. 

Windham,  Mr.J.,c>8, 100, 102, 103, 
104.3  io6T,  1  op,  122,  12.6,  14.2. 

Wolcot,  Dr.,  124. 

Wood,  Mr.  J.  T.,  excavations  by, 
at  the  temple  of  Diana  at 
Ephesus,  205:. 

Wood,  Robert,  first  director  of 
Society's  archaeological  ven- 
tures, 60,  61,  78,  79,  80,  81, 
81,83,  8fi  88,  85);  death  of,  no. 

Worsley,  Sir  Richard,    35,    109, 

112;      British 

Resident  at 
Venice,  ikS";  his  tour  through 
Greece,  &c,  1 16 ;  his  collection 
of  antiquities,  116. 

Wrey,  Sir  Bourchier,  portrait  of, 
by  Knapton,  a  18. 

Wyndham,  Charles  (afterwards 
second  Earl  of  Egremont),  20, 

Y.     . 

Yarborough,  Earl  of,  owner  of 
Worsley  collection  of  antiqui- 
ties, 116  and  note^  127. 


Zetland,  Earl  of.     See  Dundas. 

Zoega,  209. 

Zoffany,  the  painter,  1 1 5,  118. 


DO  2^%?